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Transcript
Remote Sensing - Lecture 1
Professor Menglin Susan Jin
San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology
www.met.sjsu.edu/~jin
Outline of today’s lecture
1. Introduction and Welcome
2. Discussion on the “Greensheet”
3. Learning Contract
4. First Glance on the Power of Remote Sensing from Space
For greensheet, class ppt notes
http://www.met.sjsu.edu/~jin/METR180.htm
About Professor
1.
A very good scholar www.met.sjsu.edu/~jin
Research projects: funded by NASA, NSF, Department of Defens
On land surface climate change, urbanization, remote sensing
20 leading author papers on top journals
2.
3.
to be an effective teacher
Goal
METO180 will help you to know the fundamentals of
Remote Sensing,
Satellite Observations for Climate Change Research,
and gain appreciation of the complexities involved with climate change issues
Homework: 20%
Midterm Exam(I and II): 30%
Class Participation 5%
Research Project: 20%
Final Exam: 25%
Scale: 90+ A, 80’s B, 70’s C, 60’s D, <60 F
Homework will be assigned in class
collected in discussions on two weeks later.
Content
The structure of the course include:
Part 1: Basic theory
Part 2: Sensors and Image Processing
Part 3. Application in Climate Research.
See the greensheet for details
Why Remote Sensing
Strictly speaking, this course is designed to give an
introduction to the topic of remote sensing on earth system and climatology
• Remote sensing systems are
• Instructors area of research
• Wide area of interest with availability of sensor data (Google
Earth)
• Examples in this course concentrate on terrestrial and atmosphere
remote sensing
• The goal is not to teach remote sensing, but to familiarize with
• Jargon/terminology from remote sensing
• underlying physics
• Methods introduced here are used in a variety of other fields
• Biomedical imaging
• Astronomical studies
• Industry and manufacturing
• Each field has its own idiosyncrasies that will drive the
Lecture Hour:
12:00 – 1:15AM, Monday and Wednesday
Place:
DH615
Office Hour: Wednesday 1:30 -2:30 PM
Place: MSJ’s Office (DH621)
•I will meet with you for extra office hour whenever you need.
•send email for appointment.
References (not a text book):
Close-to-be Textbook
Schott, J. R. 1997: Remote Sensing: The Image Chain Approach.
Oxford University Press.
Reference Book
King, M. D. et al. 2007: Our Changing Planet: The View From Space.
Cambridge; New York : Cambridge University Press,, 2007
•These two books are reserved for class reference in department library
•Useful materials will be assigned on webpage/homework/class
Learning Contract
• Instructor
– On time and prepared.
– Answers questions.
– Approachable and friendly.
– Fair with assignments and grades.
– Genuinely concerned about your learning and
intellectual development.
Learning Contract
•
Students
– Make every effort to arrive on time; and if late, enter class
quietly.
– Preserve a good classroom learning environment by
–
–
–
–
a) refraining from talking when other people are
talking
b) turning off cell phones.
Be courteous to other students and the instructor.
Aware that learning is primarily their responsibility.
Aware of universities policy on academic integrity and
pledge to abide by them at all times.
Have read and understand what plagiarism is and know
how to cite sources properly.
Academic Integrity
• Integrity of university, its courses and
degrees relies on academic standards.
• Cheating:
– Copying from another’s test, cheatsheet etc.
– Sitting an exam by, or as, a surrogate.
– Submitting work for another
• Plagiarism:
– Representing the work of another as one’s own
(without giving appropriate credit)
Plagiarism
• Judicial Affairs
http://sa.sjsu.edu/judicial_affairs/index.html
• Look at the Student Code of Conduct
• Read through SJSU library site on
Plagiarism
http://www.sjlibrary.org/services/literacy/info_comp/plagiarism
.htm
“Getting Acquainted" Quiz
Class Participation
•
•
•
•
•
•
Write three sentence about Quantum Physics
What is Electromagnetic Spectrum?
What are Transmittance, Absorptance, and
Reflectance?
Why do we need remote sensing from space?
What are the advantages of remote sensing
technique, you feel?
What are the disadvantages of remote
sensing, you feel?
Let’s see
Remote Sensing: Needs and Examples
.
1. Why do we need remote sensing from space?
2. What are the advantages of remote sensing technique?
.
3. What are the disadvantages of remote sensing?
MODIS Snow Observations
Advantages of MODIS snow
(pervious video)
• High resolution (1km)
• High Coverage (global)
• Can assess remote regions including
mountains and polar regions
• Continuous observations (2-per-day, 10
years)
Fire Observation on Mountain Etna
In July 2001 Mt Etna on the island of Sicily exploded dramatically into life.
Himalayas
Land cover,
Elevation
Surface roughness
Snow coverage
Surface temperature
Vegetation
albedo
SST
SST_Q01
Clouds and Aerosol
video: Aerosol-GRECE_1
Concept of Remote Sensing
“Remote sensing” is something we do all the time!
Several of the human senses gather their awareness of the external world almost
entirely by perceiving a variety of signals, either emitted or reflected,
actively or passively, from objects that transmit this information in waves or pulses.
One World
A formal and comprehensive
definition of applied remote sensing
• Remote Sensing in the most generally accepted meaning refers
to instrument-based techniques employed in the acquisition
and measurement of spatially organized (most commonly,
geographically distributed) data/information on some
property(ies) (spectral; spatial; physical) of an array of target
points (pixels) within the sensed scene that correspond to
features, objects, and materials, doing this by applying one or
more recording devices not in physical, intimate contact with
the item(s) under surveillance (thus at a finite distance from the
observed target, in which the spatial arrangement is
preserved); techniques involve amassing knowledge pertinent
to the sensed scene (target) by utilizing electromagnetic
radiation, force fields, or acoustic energy sensed by recording
cameras, radiometers and scanners, lasers, radio frequency
receivers, radar systems, sonar, thermal devices, sound
detectors, seismographs, magnetometers, gravimeters,
scintillometers, and other instruments.
This is a rather lengthy and all-inclusive definition
make a list of key words in it
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Acquisition/measurement;
data/information;
properties;
phenomenon,...
material;
recording device;
not in contact;
measuring field;
radiation;
instruments.
two more simplified definitions
• First:
Remote Sensing involves gathering data
and information about the physical "world"
by detecting and measuring signals
composed of radiation, particles, and fields
emanating from objects located beyond
the immediate vicinity of the sensor
device(s)
• Second:
two more simplified definitions
• Second: (more related to this course)
Remote Sensing is a technology for sampling
electromagnetic radiation to acquire and
interpret non-contiguous geospatial data from
which to extract information about features,
objects, and classes on the Earth's land surface,
oceans, and atmosphere (and, where
applicable, on the exteriors of other bodies in the
solar system, or, in the broadest framework,
celestial bodies such as stars and galaxies).
This diagram for remote sensing
Key components of Remote
Sensing
• Sensor
• Object (not contiguous to sensor)
• Radiation (shortwave, infrsred, microwave
etc)
• Things emits energy (sun, earth surface
etc)
Atmospheric Properties vs. Altitude
Atmospheric Pressure with Altitude
Pressure in the Atmosphere
•Atmospheric pressure can be imagined as
the weight of the overlying column of air.
•pressure decreases exponentially
with altitude.
•but 80 percent of the atmosphere’s
mass is contained within the 18 km
closest to the surface.
•measured in millibars (mb)
•At sea level, pressure ranges from
about 960 to 1,050 mb, with an average of 1,013 mb.
Vertical Layers of the Lower Atmosphere
The Height of Satellite Orbit
MODIS (polar-orbit): 705km
GOES (geosynchronous): 36,000km
See handout to calculate the period of orbit
At a height of 200 mi (320 km), the period of a circular orbit is 90 min;
at 500 mi (800 km), it increases to 100 min.
At a height of 22,300 mi (36,000 km), a satellite has a period of exactly 24 hr,
the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis;
such an orbit is called geosynchronous
Why need remote sensing in
climate change study?
Change in surface temperature in 20th century
Temperature is measured
by therometer
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html
Weather station
http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Image:Translational-motion.gif
The Land and Oceans have both
warmed, but…
Precipitation patterns have
changed
Earth’s Hydrological Cycle - Schematic
1.
Evaporation, transpiration
(plants)
2.
Atmospheric transport
(vapor)
3.
Condensation (liquid water,
ice)
4.
Precipitation
5.
Surface transport
(continental rivers, aquifers
and ocean currents)
PHYS 622 - Clouds, spring ‘04, lect. 1, Platnick
Why need remote sensing in
climate change study?
• Satellite Data can provide additional
information at high resolution, global
coverage and long duration to study
climate and climate change.
About Research Project
• Paper review on sensor/variable you choose:
MODIS clouds
MODIS aerosol
MODIS land skin temperature
MODIS albedo
MODIS water vapor
TRMM rainfall
OMI Ozone
. Analyze the data using online visualization tool