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Chapter 5
Building Resilience
The next coming years and decades will be affected by tremendous changes.
Low and middle income nations like the poorest regions will be the most affected.
We had already showed how changes in climates could affect the food production.
Now we are about to demonstrate how rising in temperature can also affect human
health by generating many diseases such as diarrheal illnesses,cardiorespiration
diseases and infections.
The most important thing to know is what can be done to prevent all this to happen?
Some farmers tried many approaches such as switching in certain crops production
depending on the season and the temperature.
Continued …
And local government agencies and others are being supporting those ideas.
In addition, the world population will be affected unequally.
The countries that have profited from high levels of GHG emissions are the ones that
will be least affected by climate change, while countries that have made only minimal
contributions to the problem will be among the most affected
Adaptation and resilience seem to be the best option for now.
They can reduce the risks from climate changes and also improve living conditions and meet
broader development objectives around the world.
Even though this two elements can help to solve some world issues, they still require human
acceptance of the reality.
The interactions between human and natural systems and realizing that resilient social
systems and resilient natural systems exhibit a high degree of co-dependence.
Vulnerability, Adaptation and
Vulnerability is the basic condition that makes adaptation and resilience necessary.
Adaptation is a related concept that refers specifically to the adjustments made in
natural or human systems in response to actual or expected threats.
They are unequally distributed, and it is the most vulnerable individuals and
communities who are least able to adapt.
If everything is properly done, adaptation strategies can help humans in many
It can help limit the loss of life and livelihoods from changes in mean temperature.
Vulnerability is a particular state and adaptation is a set of activities in response to
it, resilience is a less distinct concept.
It has many meanings when it is used in different contexts.
Continued …
• For example in engineering it means the ability of a material to return to its
original state after being subjected to a force, whereas in ecology it often
means the time taken for a system to return to its original state after being
subjected to a force.
• Resilience seems to be the basic concept we should all be preoccupied by.
• It is in this order of ideas that the IPCC defines it as “the ability of a social
or ecological system to absorb disturbances while retaining the same basic
structure and ways of functioning, the capacity of self-organization, and the
capacity to adapt to stress and change.”
• It takes into account the economic,social,psychological,physical and
environmental factors that are necessary for humans to survive and thrive.
Resistance and resilience are shaped by a person access to rights
resources, and assets.
Resilience has many components as we stated it earlier.
Some of them are more pertinent to human systems or to ecological systems.
Both human and natural systems require a capacity for self-organization in order to
deal with threats, and diversity is a key element for both types of systems too.
People rely on variety of assets and entitlements to support in difficult times.
A person access to rights, resources and assets are the important elements the
resistance and resilience are based on.
This can only be accomplished properly if local institutions provide the framework
they can function.
Linking Ecological and Social Resilience
• The resilience of ecosystems to climate change depends in large
part on the stresses, human and other wise that we are being faced
with today. The resilience of our ecosystem depends largely on the
extent we exploit it during times of stress. The problem occuring
today is that we depend on natural resources like the oceans as a
livelihood. The chapter gives examples of how overfishing is and has
been the reason why the resilience of nature to adapt to our needs
is being tested severely. An example of socioeconomic resilience
can be found in the Nagasaki Oil Spill of 1992. Only the lives of
those who actively were involved in the fishers’ market were
drastically affected by the resilience of the ecosystem. Others who
were not fishers, or in the fishing trade suffered little to no
consequence because of the spill.
Building Rural Livelihoods that are
more Resilient
• The percentage of rainfall in other countries, particularly poor
countries, is either diminishing, causing the problem of drought, or
is causing crops to be destroyed because of flooding. This
vulnerability is a cause for some concern because approximately 1.2
billion people who rely on the earth to produce natural functions
for their livelihood have no way of financially coping with this loss.
From 1968-1988 in Bangeldash, farmers lost about half a million
tons of rice annually as a result of flooding.
The people who this mainly affects are in desperate need of tools to
help them strengthen and adapt to the ever-changing landscape of
climate change in their communities. In other Countries, drought is
the cause of crop failure. The DNM, or the Direction Nationale de la
Meteorologie, in Mali, is an example of when a government
institution helps step up and teach rural and poorer communities
how to manage climate risks on crop yields.
Continued …
• There is a necessary link between assets, communities and
institutions in building resilience.
• This will involves small livestock distribution, organic farming, seed
and fruit distribution and sloping agricultural land technologies.
• There is also a management group which is responsible for helping
communities to achieve government goals.
• The lack of access to national financial market, lack of support for
marketing the surplus might be some issues.
Financing Resilience
Funding major issue –World Bank estimates investments in developing countries
between $10-$40 billion
Issues not taken into consideration:
•Climate-proofing existing supplies of natural and physical capital
•Financing new investments specifically to deal with climate change
•Adaptation costs faced by households and communities
With these factors considered…investment over $50 billion
Funding for Resilience only available by way of two avenues
•Various national mechanisms for official development assistance (ODA)
Financing continued
Funding for Adaptation available through four funding streams under the
LDCF (Least Developed Countries Fund)-established to help developing countries
prepare and implement NAPA (National Adaptation Programmes of Action)
•Small fund based on voluntary pledges from donors
SCCF (Special Climate Change Fund)- intended to support climate change
activities such as mitigation and technology transfer
•Small fund also based on voluntary pledges and contributions
•Both the LDCF and SCCF combined only equal about $114 million
GEF (Global Environment Facility)Trust Funds Strategic Priority for Adaptation
•co-financing criteriaPilots operational approaches to adaptation
•Contains $50 million
•Developing countries have difficulty in obtaining funds due to burdensome
reporting and
Financing continued
AF (Adaptation Fund)- According to Kyoto Protocol, intended to help
developing countries carry out adaptation activities.
•Not managed by the GEF, but by a board of independent governors with
representatives from the five U.N.regions
•Financed by a 2% levy on transactions in the CDM (Clean Development
Mechanism), the mechanism that generates greenhouse credits for projects
that offset emissions in developing countries .
•Greatest potential to generate largest amount if funds; the CDM alone is
projected between $160-$950 million
•Countries can make submissions for aid directly to the Fund without having to
go through other avenues; governments can designate own implementing
•Future talks of applying levy to international air travel will produce $4-$10
million annually
•Issue, international efforts have not facilitated significant adaptation agenda
Financing continued
Other Funding Options:
•Resilience building through ODA
•Way to improve long term issues of climate change such as:
•Improving living conditions
•Providing general education and health services
•Reducing poverty
•Not a means of plugging gap in adaptation funding, but should be used in
addition to, to optimize results.
•Premise that the “polluter pays” promotes responsibility in an industrial country,
which could cut down on use of funding
•ActionAid; Advocates that funding is owed to vulnerable countries by
industrialized nations to help with the effects of climate change.
•To avoid duplication of funding efforts, possible to implement country-owned
multi donor trust funds such as in Bangladesh (launched in 2008)-hoped to
reduce transaction costs as well
•In addition…
•Index-based insurance programs, (India) used to facilitate adaptation by
farmers, but it has not fulfilled expectations in encouraging adaptive strategies of
poor or vulnerable farmers
•Reason; high cost of the insurance product, many poor cannot afford it
Linking mitigation and adaptation:
• Mitigation is necessary to ensure long term resilience.
• Mitigation and adaptation are considered separate.
• Mitigation is the method used in industrial countries, while
adaptation is used in developing countries.
• Mitigation offsets carbon in developing countries through
• Linking mitigation and adaptation can be problematic .
• Mitigation project has clear potential for contribution to
climate change in rural areas.
• Linking mitigation at the project level is one way to achieve
integrated approach to build local and global resilience now
and for the future.
Bouncing forward to greater resilience:
• Low and middle income countries and poor people are
the frontline of climate change.
• Living standards should be improved in a way that does
not make climate change worse.
• Water supplies should be built.
• Child mortality figures should be improved.
• Resilience should be thought of as bouncing forward
where we can deal with stress in better manner.
• Commitment is required from important figures to
bounce forward