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: S0782 - Teknik Lingkungan
: 2009
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• Ozone Depletion
• Global Warming and Global Climate Change
• Acid Rain
• Biological Magnification
• Human Impacts on Water, Air, Fisheries
• What we can do
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Ozone Depletion
• Ozone layer (20-50km up) protects
the Earth from UV radiation
• Gases (CFCs) used in aerosols break
down ozone causing the “holes” over the
Arctic and Antarctica
• Montreal Protocol stopped production
of CFC’s on January 1, 1996
• Holes are not growing but will not recover until . .
. . . . . 2065!
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Excess UV radiation:
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Skin cancer
Immune System Problems
Other unknown effects on plant/animal life
Global Warming
• Caused by gases (mostly CO2) that trap heat
• Burning of fossil fuels, cutting/burning of forests
releases CO2 faster than Carbon cycle can remove
• Temperatures have risen 0.6oC. since industrial
• Since 1980, average temp risen 0.3OC.
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Global Warming
Global Climate Change
 Melting of permafrost, increasing release of
greenhouse gases
 Melting of poles
Rising sea level
Flooding, Drought
Loss of habitat, species extinction
Loss of coral reef ecosystems (fisheries, tourist
revenue, natural storm barriers)
 All the above have economic impacts
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Acid Rain
Burning of fossil fuels release nitrogen and sulfur
Combined with H2O vapor = nitric and sulfuric acids
Fall as acid rain
Plants damaged
Soil chemistry altered, potentially hazardous
compounds released and flow into water system
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Eastern U.S:
average pH
of 3.6,
with some
as low as pH
pH of fog
at 2.0
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Pesticides and heavy
metals work their way
into rivers or lakes and
move up the food chain
becoming more
concentrated at each level
“Silent Spring” by Rachel
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If in one day a small fish eats 1,000 plankton and a larger fish
eats 1,000 small fish, the human who catches the larger fish
is ingesting all the toxins that were in a 1,000,000 plankton!
(1,000 x 1,000 = 1,000,000)
Add that up over a lifetime and you’re in trouble!
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Clean Water
Renewable but not unlimited!
 same water is recycled (the water cycle!)
BUT if contaminated during that cycle, may not be
Two issues: Pollution and loss of water filtration!
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Some water pollutant sources:
 Sewage
 Runoff: agricultural fertilizers, factory farms
 Factory outfall
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Some Effects of Water Pollution
•Contaminated drinking water
• Contaminated food animals (biological magnification
of toxins from the environment over their life spans)
•Unbalanced river and lake ecosystems that can no
longer support full biological diversity
• Deforestation from acid rain
•Loss of natural beauty
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For water use to be sustainable we need to protect the natural
systems of the water cycle.
Preserve wetland areas = water filtration
Think before you pave it = less filtration
Think before you cut it = less transpiration
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Overfishing - harvesting fish
faster than they reproduce
An example of “tragedy of the
•Everyone uses the resource but no one
maintains it
• If properly managed, can be a renewable
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Air Quality Issues (caused by burning of
fossil fuels):
•Particulates - microscopic particles of ash and dust
•Acid Rain
Their Effects:
Human health
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Things we can do
Don’t litter
Turn off lights, all electronic equipment
Recycle - don’t fill up our landfills
Conservative or little use of fertilizers
Walk or bike when possible
Drive more fuel efficient vehicles
Support wetlands preservation
Develop sustainable energy sources: Wind, solar, fuel cells
Think before you pave it
Use sustainable building practices - green space and gravel,
porous paving
Design pedestrian friendly cities
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