Download Head of Civil Engineering Candidate`s Presentation

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

IPCC Fourth Assessment Report wikipedia, lookup

Public opinion on global warming wikipedia, lookup

Climate change feedback wikipedia, lookup

Solar radiation management wikipedia, lookup

Physical impacts of climate change wikipedia, lookup

Global warming wikipedia, lookup

Politics of global warming wikipedia, lookup

Effects of global warming on human health wikipedia, lookup

Years of Living Dangerously wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Matakuliah
Tahun
: S0782 - Teknik Lingkungan
: 2009
GLOBAL WARMING
CHAPTER 4
www.duke.edu/~eac23/NonHTMLDocs/EcologyWaterAir.ppt
Bina Nusantara
Objectives:
• Ozone Depletion
• Global Warming and Global Climate Change
• Acid Rain
• Biological Magnification
• Human Impacts on Water, Air, Fisheries
• What we can do
Bina Nusantara
Bina Nusantara
Ozone Depletion
• Ozone layer (20-50km up) protects
the Earth from UV radiation
• Gases (CFCs) used in aerosols break
down ozone causing the “holes” over the
Arctic and Antarctica
• Montreal Protocol stopped production
of CFC’s on January 1, 1996
• Holes are not growing but will not recover until . .
. . . . . 2065!
Bina Nusantara
Excess UV radiation:
•
•
•
•
Bina Nusantara
Skin cancer
Cataracts
Immune System Problems
Other unknown effects on plant/animal life
Global Warming
• Caused by gases (mostly CO2) that trap heat
• Burning of fossil fuels, cutting/burning of forests
releases CO2 faster than Carbon cycle can remove
it
• Temperatures have risen 0.6oC. since industrial
age
• Since 1980, average temp risen 0.3OC.
Bina Nusantara
Global Warming
Global Climate Change
 Melting of permafrost, increasing release of
greenhouse gases
 Melting of poles
Rising sea level
Flooding, Drought
Loss of habitat, species extinction
Loss of coral reef ecosystems (fisheries, tourist
revenue, natural storm barriers)
 All the above have economic impacts




Bina Nusantara
Acid Rain
Burning of fossil fuels release nitrogen and sulfur
gases
Combined with H2O vapor = nitric and sulfuric acids
Fall as acid rain
Plants damaged
Soil chemistry altered, potentially hazardous
compounds released and flow into water system
BIOMAGNIFICATION
(mercury)
Bina Nusantara
Eastern U.S:
average pH
of 3.6,
with some
values
as low as pH
2.6
Los
Angeles:
pH of fog
has
been
measured
at 2.0
Bina Nusantara
Biomagnification
Pesticides and heavy
metals work their way
into rivers or lakes and
move up the food chain
becoming more
concentrated at each level
“Silent Spring” by Rachel
Carson
Bina Nusantara
FOR EXAMPLE:
If in one day a small fish eats 1,000 plankton and a larger fish
eats 1,000 small fish, the human who catches the larger fish
is ingesting all the toxins that were in a 1,000,000 plankton!
(1,000 x 1,000 = 1,000,000)
Add that up over a lifetime and you’re in trouble!
Bina Nusantara
Clean Water
•
Renewable but not unlimited!
 same water is recycled (the water cycle!)
BUT if contaminated during that cycle, may not be
reusable
Two issues: Pollution and loss of water filtration!
Bina Nusantara
Some water pollutant sources:
 Sewage
 Runoff: agricultural fertilizers, factory farms
 Factory outfall
Bina Nusantara
Some Effects of Water Pollution
•Contaminated drinking water
• Contaminated food animals (biological magnification
of toxins from the environment over their life spans)
•Unbalanced river and lake ecosystems that can no
longer support full biological diversity
• Deforestation from acid rain
•Loss of natural beauty
Bina Nusantara
For water use to be sustainable we need to protect the natural
systems of the water cycle.
Preserve wetland areas = water filtration
Think before you pave it = less filtration
Think before you cut it = less transpiration
Bina Nusantara
Fisheries
Overfishing - harvesting fish
faster than they reproduce
An example of “tragedy of the
commons”
•Everyone uses the resource but no one
maintains it
• If properly managed, can be a renewable
resource
Bina Nusantara
Air
Air Quality Issues (caused by burning of
fossil fuels):
•Smog
•Particulates - microscopic particles of ash and dust
•Acid Rain
Their Effects:
Human health
Deforestation
Bina Nusantara
Things we can do
Don’t litter
Turn off lights, all electronic equipment
Recycle - don’t fill up our landfills
Conservative or little use of fertilizers
Walk or bike when possible
Drive more fuel efficient vehicles
Support wetlands preservation
Develop sustainable energy sources: Wind, solar, fuel cells
Think before you pave it
Use sustainable building practices - green space and gravel,
porous paving
Design pedestrian friendly cities
Bina Nusantara