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Transcript
Macro Muscles
Let’s Start with a Video…
Motor Unit
Smaller # fibers – more precise movement
Larger # fibers – more powerful contraction
SR releasing Ca+2
Ca+2 bind to troponin;
Cross-bridging
TWITCH
•Quick jerk (1/10th sec) due to
brief threshold stimulus
CONTRACTIONS
•Muscle contracts more forcefully after it has
contracted a few times
•Warm-up before exercise
UNFUSED TETANUS
•Very short periods of relaxation between
peaks of tension
FUSED TETANUS
•Smooth, sustained contractions
Length-tension Relationship
Optimal length
Strongest max
contraction
possible
Overstretched
Sarcomere
compressed
Muscle can’t
develop tension
Muscle can’t
develop tension
due to filaments
too far apart
ATP Sources- Energy for muscles
• Aerobic Respiration
– Requires O2
– Produces max amount of energy available from each
glucose molecule
• Anaerobic Respiration
– Occurs when lack of O2
– Forms lactic acid
• During exercise
• Muscles “burn”
– O2 debt
• Heavy breathing during exercise in order to process lactic acid
Muscle Fatigue
• Muscles loses ability to contract due to lack of
ATP
• Lactic acid build up
Myopathies
• Myalgia - muscle pain due to overstretching/tearing of
muscle fibers
• Strain – caused by overexertion/trauma and can lead to
muscle tear
• Myositis - any muscle inflammation
• Fibromyositis - tendon inflammation along with myositis
• Cramps
– Painful muscle spasms
• Last few seconds to few hours
• Caused by injury or overuse
– Dehydration
– Low K+ or Ca+2
Myopathies
• Contusion
– Muscle bruise, local internal bleeding and inflammation
• Poilio
– Viral infection of nerves controlling skeletal movement
– Causes partial or full paralysis and death
– Vaccine created in US in 1950s, but not everywhere
• Muscular Dystrophy
– Genetic disease caused by muscle atrophy
– Some forms are fatal
• Hernias
Myopathies
– “protrusion”
– Reducible – can manipulate protruding organ back into abdominal cavity
– Strangulated – blood flow to organ is stopped; obstruction, gangrene, pain.
Vomiting, emergency surgery
– Types
• Inguinal – hernia extends into inguinal canal into scrotum or labia; affects more
males
• Femoral – affects more women below groin area due to pregnancy