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Transcript
Hemopoietic System
Spring 2012
FINAL
Hemopoietic System
1)
2)
3)
4)
2
Three Types of Blood Cells
• ______________
– Red blood cells
– Responsible for transferring oxygen and CO2 to &
from various organs in the body
• _______________
– White blood cells
– Formed within bone marrow
– Play an important role in body’s defense system
• _______________
– Platelets
– Necessary for blood to clot properly
3
Erythrocytes
• Very small cells in relation to
other blood cells
• Don’t contain a ___________
– Live approx _____________
• Individuals with less than 12g
per 100ml of blood have
anemia
• Contain various ___________
or lack of which determines
blood type
4
Blood Types
i.This rebuttal has been covered in point number 2 above.
5
____________________
• Rejection of cells due to antigens
– Can cause immediate shock
– Delayed symptoms
• _______________________________
– Universal donor (does not have antigens)
• _______________________________
– Universal recipient
6
________________________
7
Pathologies of RBC’s
8
Erythrocytes
• http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/obje
cts/mroradpath_v1/mod11/media/11s03l01
01_p1/11s03l0101_p1.html
9
Leukocytes
• May be classified as _______&___________
– Granular has _________granules and irregular _____
– Non-granular does not contain granules & has a
__________nucleus
• Mainly formed in __________& ____________
• Able to move out of capillaries and attack foreign
substances
10
Leukocytes
11
Leukocytes
• http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/obje
cts/mroradpath_v1/mod11/media/11s04l01
01_p1/11s04l0101_p1.html
12
• Necessary for blood to
___________________
Thrombocytes
• Formed in ____________
• Live for __________ days
• Critical for preventing
___________
13
Thrombocytes
• http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/obje
cts/mroradpath_v1/mod11/media/11s05l01
01_p1/11s05l0101_p1.html
14
Lymphatic System
15
Lymphocytes
• Most _________________________ blood cells
• Most important in the development of ________
• Derived from lymphatic tissue (T) and bone
marrow (B)
– Both work together to ingest foreign substances and
process the specific foreign antigens
– With transplants- these cells along with macrophages
see it as a foreign substance
• Try to destroy the foreign antigens resulting in rejection of
graft or organ
16
Spleen
17
Spleen
• Largest ______organ
• Produces
______________and
______________
• Cleanses _______ &
lymphocytes to fight
infectious blood-borne
microorganisms
– Removes
_________________
18
Anemia
• ______________________________________
– Results in improper formation of new RBC’s
– Increased rate of RBC destruction
– Or a loss of RBC as a result of prolonged bleeding
• Person appears_____________________
• Has muscle weakness, fatigue, & SOB
19
Types of Anemia
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
20
_______________________
• Most common type
• Results from ___________________________
– From an ulcer, malignant tumor, or menorrhagia
– Inadequate iron intake
– Pregnancy
• Treatment
– _________________________________
– _________________________________
21
________________________
• Shortened life span of the red blood cells
with resulting hemolysis and the release of
hemoglobin into the plasma
• 3 hereditary defects
1)
2)
3)
22
____________________
• Hemoglobin molecule is
abnormal and RBC’s are
__________________
– Tend to rupture
• X-ray demonstrates
biconcave indentations
on both the superior &
inferior margins
– ______________________
– ______________________
23
Thalassemia
• Defect in hemoglobin
formation
• Occurs in persons living
near Mediterranean Sea
• ___________________
• Extensive hyperplasia
• X-ray demonstrates
widening of medullary
spaces and thinning of
the cortices
– ______________________
______________________
24
• A deficiency of
______&__________
____________
– Can be from
__________, strict
vegetarianism &
alcoholism
– Leads to defective
DNA synthesis
– Decreased number if
__________________
25
_____________________
• Failure of _________________ to function
• Results in a decrease in RBC’s,
leukocytes, and platelets
– Cannot _______________ and have a
______________________________
• Causes include exposure to chemical
agents, drugs, infections and invasion of
bone marrow by cancer
26
______________________
• Infiltration of bone marrow by
____,________, &___________________
• Causes cortical thickening and can cause
a severe decrease in red and white blood
cells and platelets in the bone marrow
27
AIDS
• It is caused by HIV 1 and HIV 2
• HIV 1 more virulent
– Paralyzes the normal immune mechanisms
resulting in severe immunosuppression
– In the majority of cases in western hemisphere
• HIV 2
– Converts viral RNA to a DNA copy
– Each time cell divides retroviral DNA is
duplicated
28
HIV and Tissues
• One major sign in the
presence of unusual
opportunistic
infections
• Symptoms include
fever,
lymphadenopathy,
malaise, joint pain
w/in 1-4 weeks of
infection
29
______________
Contrast enhanced lesions
Will be shown via CT and MRI
30
_______________
Most common malignanancy
In AIDS pts
Especially in homosexual males
Co-infected with herpes
Present in 25-30% of AIDS pts
31
AIDS
X-rays demonstrate hilar
Adenopathy
Nodular pulmonary
Infiltrates
Pleural effusion
32
• _______________
Case Study
REVIEW
• Chest radiograph
of patient with
dyspnea, hypoxia,
and HIV infection.
• The pattern of
diffuse interstitial
infiltrates as seen
suggests a
diagnosis of PCP.
33
Neoplastic Diseases
______________
X-ray plays an important role as
____ of cases has bone involvement
X-ray demonstrates ___________with
Discrete punched out _______ lesions
MRI can be useful in early stage
35
Multiple Myeloma
• Disease of plasma
cells that results in
cell proliferation
• Usually confined to
_________________
• Forms tumors with
weakened bone
36
Leukemia
• Neoplastic disease of leukocytes
• May lead to anemia, bleeding & infection
• All forms require destruction of cells through
radiation therapy or chemotherapy
– Leaves pt severely immunosuppressed
– Survival rates depends on complete remission
– May bone marrow transplant
• Radiography plays limited role
37
Leukemia
Acute
• Quick onset
Chronic
• Slow onset
• May have hemorrhage
• Non specific signs
– Fatigue & weakness
• Children primarily
– 33% of all cancer deaths
in children under 15
• Without treatment die
in 6 months
• Poor differentiated cells
• Over age 60 years
• Mature differentiated
cells
38
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Around aorta and mesentary
39
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
• CT of abdomen &
pelvis is used to
stage disease
• Treatment consists of
chemo and/or Rad
therapy
• Symptoms vary
– Lymphadenopathy
and anemia
40
Case study:
Hodgkin’s Disease
• CT exams show
enlarged
retroperitoneal
nodes
• NM and MRI can be
useful in staring of
this disease as well
41
Hodgkin’s Disease
Treatment includes RAD therapy
And chemotherapy
Symptoms include malaise, fever,
Anorexia, enlarged lymph nodes
42
Infectious Mononucleosis
• Viral
disease
• Often
associated
with
Epstein
Barr
syndrome
43
Infectious
Mononucleosis
X-rays can demonstrate this by
Demonstrating _______________&
____________________________
Hilar lymph node enlargement bilateral
44
Hemophilia
45
Hemophilia
• Inherited anomaly of ____________________
that only affects males
• X-ray demonstrates recurrent bleeding in _____
–
–
–
–
Most commonly ______,______, &_____________
Soft tissue prominence
Synovial hypertrophy
Causes destruction of bone leading to segments of
severe osteoporosis
46
Hemophilia
47
Imaging Considerations
• X-ray plays a limited role
– Except in cases of multiple myeloma, some types of
leukemia and AIDS
• CT is valuable in determining lymph node
involvement of neoplastic disease
• CT and MRI of brain can assist in diagnosis and
treatment of CNS problems associated with HIV
• MRI useful in diseases of the blood marrow
48