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The Circulatory System Refresh your memory…. The 3 main parts of The Circulatory System The Heart The Blood Vessels Blood Main functions of the circulatory system…. Transports oxygen, nutrients, and other needed substances to the body’s cells Transports carbon dioxide and other waste products away from the cells Fights infection Regulates body temperature Parts of The Heart •The heart is a muscular, double pump The Atria (Atrium) -2 upper chambers The Ventricles -2 lower chambers The Valves -Prevent backflow The Septum -Divides the heart into right and left Blood Flow Body Right Atrium Right Ventricle Lungs Left Atrium Left Ventricle Body Remember, the right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood, and the left side pumps out oxygenated blood to the body. Types of Blood Vessels Arteries (AWAY) -Carry blood away from the heart -The Aorta is the largest artery Veins (TOWARDS) -Carry blood towards the heart -Veins contain valves -The Vena Cava is the largest vein Capillaries -Tiny blood vessels where gases and nutrients are exchanged Blood = a connective tissue made up of blood cells and a liquid called plasma. Pumped by your heart, and makes up about 7% of your body mass Travels through thousands of miles of blood vessels The Functions of Blood To Deliver: Oxygen Nutrients Hormones and Enzymes Water Minerals To Pick Up: •Waste •Carbon Dioxide • Heat …AND TO FIGHT INFECTION! The Composition of Blood The Plasma (Fluid) makes up 55% of the blood volume. Blood Composition 60 50 40 The Solids (Cells) make up 45% of the blood volume. 30 20 10 0 Plasma Solids 55% plasma 45 % RBC, WBC and platelets The Parts of Blood 1. Plasma = liquid part of the blood; carries everything 2. Red Blood Cells =(RBC) Gas exchange 3. White blood Cells =(WBC) Fight infection 4. Platelets = Clotting (scabbing) Plasma- nonliving Yellow liquid (92% water) 8 % nutrients, salts, urea, hormones Produced in the liver Carries: Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells, Platelets, Carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste Red Blood Cells (RBC)- living Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to all the cells of the body 5,000,000 in 1 drop of blood Shape = Concave (donut) Made in bone marrow Live approximately 120-125 days Hemoglobin = oxygen containing pigment Binds to oxygen and carries it to the cells Gives red blood cells their red color http://hes.ucf.k12.pa.us/gclaypo/circdia.html White Blood Cells (WBC)- living Protect the body against infection and diseases Largest blood cell, made in bone marrow Shape= Spherical (circular) 8,000 per drop of blood Two types: Neutrophils: engulf and destroy bacteria at the site of infection Natural Killer Cells: are associated with the immune response. Produce specific chemicals called antibodies which attack foreign molecules known as pathogens scienceu.fsu.edu www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual_home/ illus/167i2.htm Platelets- living Smallest blood cells (fragments) 150,000 to 300,000 per drop of blood Involved in blood clotting Clotting-a solidification of blood where a blood vessel has been damaged Clotting: Involves a series of enzyme controlled reactions resulting in the formation of protein fibers that trap blood cells and form a clot. user.gru.net/clawrence/ vccl/chpt7/plate.htm Diseases of the Circulatory System Myocardial Infarction- heart attack Hypertension- high blood pressure Hypotension- low blood pressure Stroke- clot in the brain Angina Pectoris- severe pain in chest Sickle Cell Anemia- sickle shaped rbc’s Pernicious Anemia- very low rbc count Pericarditis- inflammation of outer membrane covering the heart Leukemia- cancer of the blood, elevated wbc count Arrhythmias- irregularities in heart beat Endocarditis- inflammation of inner lining of heart Cardiomyopathy- weakening of the heart muscle Hemophilia- no clotting factor in the blood Thalassemia- low rbc count, genetic, low hemoglobin count High Blood Pressure Causes of HBP implicated: 1. excess sodium intake 2. stress 3. cigarettes (nicotine) 4. saturated fats 5. alcohol & caffeine 6. obesity 7. heredity & aging No cure--may be treated by medication & diet. "Silent killer"--millions don't know they have it How do we keep our heart healthy? Cardiovascular Exercise! (running, walking, playing sports, biking, hiking, swimming, etc) Eat less fried foods and fatty meats (ex. bacon, hamburgers) Eat less junk food, drink less soda Eat more vegetables and fruits! Do not smoke. Smoking increases risks of heart disease.