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Transcript
The Circulatory System
Refresh your
memory….
The 3 main parts of The
Circulatory System

The Heart

The Blood Vessels

Blood
Main functions of the circulatory
system….




Transports oxygen, nutrients, and
other needed substances to the body’s
cells
Transports carbon dioxide and other
waste products away from the cells
Fights infection
Regulates body temperature
Parts of The Heart
•The heart is a
muscular, double
pump




The Atria (Atrium)
-2 upper chambers
The Ventricles
-2 lower chambers
The Valves
-Prevent backflow
The Septum
-Divides the heart
into right and left
Blood Flow
Body  Right Atrium  Right
Ventricle  Lungs  Left Atrium
 Left Ventricle  Body
Remember, the right side of the heart
receives deoxygenated blood, and the left
side pumps out oxygenated blood to the
body.
Types of Blood Vessels



Arteries (AWAY)
-Carry blood away from the heart
-The Aorta is the largest artery
Veins (TOWARDS)
-Carry blood towards the heart
-Veins contain valves
-The Vena Cava is the largest vein
Capillaries
-Tiny blood vessels where gases and
nutrients are exchanged
Blood = a connective
tissue made up of blood
cells and a liquid called
plasma.
 Pumped
by your heart, and
makes up about 7% of your body
mass
 Travels through thousands of
miles of blood vessels
The Functions of Blood
To Deliver:
 Oxygen
 Nutrients
 Hormones and
Enzymes
 Water
 Minerals
To Pick Up:
•Waste
•Carbon Dioxide
• Heat
…AND TO FIGHT INFECTION!
The Composition of Blood

The Plasma (Fluid)
makes up 55% of
the blood volume.
Blood Composition
60
50
40

The Solids (Cells)
make up 45% of
the blood volume.
30
20
10
0
Plasma
Solids
55%
plasma
45 %
RBC, WBC
and platelets
The Parts of Blood
1. Plasma = liquid part of the blood; carries
everything
2. Red Blood Cells =(RBC) Gas exchange
3. White blood Cells =(WBC) Fight infection
4. Platelets = Clotting (scabbing)
Plasma- nonliving



Yellow liquid (92% water)
8 % nutrients, salts, urea, hormones
Produced in the liver
Carries:
Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells,
Platelets, Carbon dioxide, nutrients,
and waste

Red Blood Cells (RBC)- living








Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs
to all the cells of the body
5,000,000 in 1 drop of blood
Shape = Concave (donut)
Made in bone marrow
Live approximately 120-125 days
Hemoglobin = oxygen containing pigment
Binds to oxygen and carries it to the cells
Gives red blood cells their red color
http://hes.ucf.k12.pa.us/gclaypo/circdia.html
White Blood Cells (WBC)- living
Protect the body against
infection and diseases
 Largest blood cell, made in
bone marrow
 Shape= Spherical (circular)
 8,000 per drop of blood
 Two types:
 Neutrophils: engulf and destroy bacteria at
the site of infection
 Natural Killer Cells: are associated with the
immune response. Produce specific
chemicals called antibodies which attack
foreign molecules known as pathogens

scienceu.fsu.edu
www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual_home/
illus/167i2.htm
Platelets- living




Smallest blood cells (fragments)
150,000 to 300,000 per drop of blood
Involved in blood clotting
Clotting-a solidification of blood
where a blood vessel has been
damaged
Clotting:
Involves a series
of enzyme
controlled
reactions resulting
in the formation of
protein fibers that
trap blood cells
and form a clot.
user.gru.net/clawrence/ vccl/chpt7/plate.htm
Diseases of the Circulatory System

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Myocardial Infarction- heart attack
Hypertension- high blood pressure
Hypotension- low blood pressure
Stroke- clot in the brain
Angina Pectoris- severe pain in chest
Sickle Cell Anemia- sickle shaped rbc’s
Pernicious Anemia- very low rbc count
Pericarditis- inflammation of outer membrane covering
the heart
Leukemia- cancer of the blood, elevated wbc count
Arrhythmias- irregularities in heart beat
Endocarditis- inflammation of inner lining of heart
Cardiomyopathy- weakening of the heart muscle
Hemophilia- no clotting factor in the blood
Thalassemia- low rbc count, genetic, low hemoglobin
count
High Blood Pressure
Causes of HBP implicated:
1. excess sodium intake
2. stress
3. cigarettes (nicotine)
4. saturated fats
5. alcohol & caffeine
6. obesity
7. heredity & aging
No cure--may be treated by medication & diet.
"Silent killer"--millions don't know they have it
How do we keep our heart healthy?
Cardiovascular Exercise! (running,
walking, playing sports, biking, hiking,
swimming, etc)
 Eat less fried foods and fatty meats
(ex. bacon, hamburgers)
 Eat less junk food, drink less soda
 Eat more vegetables and fruits!
 Do not smoke. Smoking increases risks of
heart disease.
