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Transcript
Taxonomy
Is the branch of
biology that
names and
classifies species
according to a
system of broader
and broader
groups
Species Genus Family
Order
Class
Phylum
Kingdom
Domain
Ursus
americanus
(American
black bear)
Ursus
Ursidae
Carnivora
Mammalia
Chordata
Animalia
Figure 1.14
Eukarya
1
• Over a million species
named (so far)
• More identified every week!
• Est. 2-20 Million left to find?
• Why bother with a naming
“system”? Need to organize
information, make sense of it,
look for similarities and
differences
• Groups organisms based on:
Anatomy, Genetics,
andEvolutionary history
(“relatedness”)
2
(384–322 BC) the Greek philosopher was
the first to attempt to classify all living things, and
some of his groups are still used today, like the
vertebrates and invertebrates, which he called
“animals with blood and without blood”.
(Karl von Linne) 1707-1778, was
a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who
formalized the modern system of naming
organisms called
, in
Systema Naturae (1758)
• He is known by the epithet “Father of Modern
Taxonomy".
3
• 3 Domains
• 6 Kingdoms
• Phylum (“Division”
for plants)
• Class
• Order
• Family
• Genus
•
Species
4
5
– Distinguished based on biochemical evidence (differences in
rRNA, genes)
–
Domains Archaea and Bacteria are unicellular organisms lacking
membrane-bound organelles like nuclei (Prokaryotes)
–
Domain Eukarya is organisms whose cells have nuclei (Plants, Animals,
Fungi and Protists)
6
• Prokaryotes
– Single celled, DNA/RNA but no
nucleus, few, simple organelles,
cell walls)
• Kingdom Archaebacteria
– Found in extreme
environments (similar to
those of early earth)
– Complex metabolic ability
(many are chemosynthetic)
– First organisms similar to
Archaea?
7
– Unicellular
– Prokaryotic cells (no nucleus, few,
simple organelles, cell walls)
– Found almost everywhere
– More of them than any other living thing
– Some are autotrophs, some
heterotrophs (depends on the
species)
– Some are pathogens (cause diseases)
– Most are harmless and many are vital
to human well being
• Decompose our wastes
• Make vitamins in our guts
• Producing certain products that we
use (yogurt, cheese)
8
– Most are one-celled
organisms (ex: amoeba,
paramecium, euglena)
– A few are multicellular (ex:
kelp, seaweed)
– May be producers or
consumers (or both);
depends on the species
– Some are very “plant-like”,
others are very “animal-like”
9
– Eukaryotic cells
– Have cell walls for support
(chitin)
– Most are multicellular, with
a few unicellular species
(yeasts)
– Heterotrophic;
enzymatically digest and
absorb nutrients
– Mostly decomposers
(important for ecosystem
nutrient cycling); a few are
parasitic
10
– All are multicellular
– Composed of eukaryotic
cells with a cell wall made
of cellulose
– Photosynthetic autotrophs,
chlorophyll
– Important producers of
glucose “fuel” for entire
ecosystem
11
All are multicellular
(sponges to humans)
Composed of complex,
eukaryotic cells, no cell walls
(flexible, for mobility)
All are heterotrophic
consumers
12
Classification of Living Things
• Within Kingdoms, organisms are sorted into Phylum,
Class etc.
• At species level organisms so closely related they can
interbreed
• Scientific name = Genus and species names (binomial
nomenclature
ex. Felis catus, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens
• Genus includes other similar species
ex. F. leo and F. tigris or Quercus rubra, Quercus alba
• Genus ALWAYS starts with cap, species lower case
• Genus and species names are always either underlined or
italicized
13
Scientific nomenclature shows both anatomical
similarity and evolutionary history
14