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Transcript
Christianity 2.1 billion
Islam 1.5 billion
Atheism/Agnostic/
1.1 billion
Non-Religious
Hinduism 1 billion
New Age 3.5 million
Shinto 3 million
Wicca 1-3 million
Unification Church 1-3 million
Chinese Religion 400 million
Aladura 1 million
Buddhism 350 million
Rastafari 1 million
Sikhism 23 million
Taoism 20 million
Judaism 14 million
Mormonism 13.5 million
Unitarian
800,000
Universalism
Hare Krishna 250,000 - 1 million
Druze 500,000
Spiritualism 11 million
Scientology 500,000
Falun Gong 10 million
Christian Science 400,000
Seventh-day Adventists 10 million
Zoroastrianism 200,000
Jehovah's Witnesses 7 million
New Thought 160,000
Jainism 6 million
Bön 100,000
Baha'i 5 million
Confucianism 5 million
Cao Dai 4-6 million
Nation of Islam 10,000 - 100,000
Gnosticism Small modern revival groups
Mayan Religion Small modern revival groups
Faith
Six Articles
of Faith
Deeds
Five Pillars
of Islam
Six Articles of Faith
A true Muslim believes in
Angels
Fate
Prophets
Allah
Day of
Judgement
Divine
Books
Allah
99 names of Allah:
– The Exceedingly Compassionate, Beneficent,
Gracious, The Merciful, The King, The Sovereign,
The Holy, The Divine, The Peace, The Guarantor,
The Affirming…
Angels and Jinn
Angels
Made of light and have wings
Don’t have free will
Used for communicating revelations
from God, glorifying God, recording
people’s actions, taking a person’s soul
at time of death
Jinn
Created from smokeless fire
Have free will, good and bad
Can look like humans or animals (pure black
dog/cat/snake)
Satan is a fallen Jinn (called Iblis)
Quran
• Means “the recitation”
• Delivered by Gabriel to Muhammad in a cave
in 610 AD
• Received revelations over 23 years
Medina
Mecca
Quran
• Muhammad couldn’t read or write,
so he had to memorise and recite to
his disciples
• Compiled 20 years after
Muhammad’s death
• Consists of 114 chapters (suras)
– Cover ethics, history, law and theology
– Written as poetry and prose (some
rhyming)
• This dialect of Arabic became the
formal Arabic of the Islamic nations
Tajwid
• Tajwid determines how the Quran should be
recited:
– Pronunciation
– Pauses and resumption
– Melody
• 10 variations
Desecration
•
•
•
•
Most traditional schools require ritual ablutions
Burn or bury in cloth old books
Cannot recycle the paper
Desecration punishable by life imprisonment in some
countries and by death in Afghanistan, Somalia and
Pakistan
Relation to Bible
• Biblical prophets are recognised
– Adam, Enoch, Noah, Eber, Saleh, Abraham, Lot,
Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Jethro, Moses,
Aaron, David, Solomon, Elijah, Elisha, Jonah,
Ezekiel, Zechariah, John the Baptist, Jesus
• Tanakh and New Testament are non-canonical
but useful as a corrupted inspired text
Hadith
• Collection of sayings and deeds of
Muhammad as recorded by his companions
• Supplements and clarifies Quran
Jesus (Isa)
• Virgin birth
• Well-built, average height, broad
chest, fair complexion, long slightly
curly hair to his shoulders
• No Trinity
– Allah gave the ability to perform
miracles
• Wasn’t crucified or resurrected
– Didn’t die but ascended into heaven
• Believe in second coming
Muhammad
• Muhammad Ibn Abdullah born in 570 AD in
Mecca and died in 632 AD
• Got married at 25 to Khadija who was 40, and
then had seven children
– Had 12 wives during his life
• Had 40 converts in the first 3 years
– Early on the ruling tribe persecuted the Muslims with
beating and boycotting their business
– Settled in Medina, but became militant towards his
later life and retook Mecca
Resurrection and Judgement
• Bodily resurrection
• Judged on good vs. bad
deeds
– Charity, prayer, compassion
towards animals
• Eschatology
1. Mahdi on a white horse
2. False messiah, Masih adDajjal (aka Antichrist)
3. Return of Isa (Jesus) to slay
Dajjal
…
Predestination
• “Ye shall not will except as God wills”
• Allah has full knowledge and control over
everything
– Good and evil
– Salvation
Five Pillars of Islam
A true Muslim will undertake
Confession
Prayer
Fasting
Charity
Pilgrimage
Confession of Faith (Shahada)
aka How Convert to Islam
• Everyone is a Muslim at birth, so accepting
Islam reverts them back to the original
condition
• Three honest recitations of the shahadah with
an Imam and others to witness:
– “There is no god but God, Muhammad is the
messenger of God”
Prayer (Salah)
• Focus mind on God
and express gratitude
and worship
• In Arabic, with verses
from Quran
• Five times a day
Fasting (Sawm)
• Ramadan
– No drinking, eating, sex,
smoking and chewing
gum during daylight
– 9 July to 7 August 2013
• Eid al-Fitr (Lesser Eid)
– 7-8 August 2013
• Eid al-Adha (Greater Eid)
– 14-15 October 2013
Charity (Zakat)
• Charity given to poor
• Helps giver by moving them towards more
holiness and submission to Allah
• 1/40 or 2.5% of capital assets per year
Pilgrimage (Hajj)
• Pilgrimage to Mecca if they are able
• Takes place in the last month of the Islamic calendar
– 13-18 October 2013
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Walk counter clockwise around the Ka’aba
Run back and forth between hills
Drink from the Zamzam Well
Stand in vigil at Mount Arafat
Throw stones at the walls of Mina
Shave heads
Animal sacrifice
Ka’aba
Some Terms You May
Have Come Across
30
10
15
28
2
12
0.5
0.2
Shariah
• Covers
– Hygiene, economics, diet, theological obligations,
marriage, crime, military, dress code, etc.
• Legal proceedings
– No lawyers or jury
– No binding precedents
– Priority on oral testimony
• Punishments
– Qisas, Diyya, Hudud, Tazir
• Means “lawful” or “permissible”
• Applies to all food (animal by-products)
• Meat from herbivorous animal slaughtered “in
the name of God” by a Muslim, Jew or Christian
• Forbidden: pork, blood, food offered to idols,
carrion, alcohol
• Can eat non-halal if no other option
Jihad
• Means “to strive or struggle”
• Can be used for visible enemy, Satan, or sinful
desires
• Greater jihad vs. lesser jihad
• Muhammad ordered
100 military expeditions
– Physically took part in
27 of these
Mosque
Madrasa
• Islamic educational institution
1. Memorise Quran
2. Interpret Quran
3. Shariah
4. Hadiths
5. Jurisprudence
6. Muslim history
Hijaab
• “Say to the believing men that they should
lower their gaze and guard their modesty”
• “Say to the believing women that they should
lower their gaze and guard their modesty;
they should not display their beauty and
ornaments except what must ordinarily
appear; they should not display their beauty
except to their husbands, fathers, husband’s
fathers, sons…”
Hijaab
1. Body should be covered
– Males: navel to knees
– Women: complete body except face and hands
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Clothes should be loose and not reveal figure
Clothes should not be transparent
Clothes should not be glamorous
Clothes should not resemble opposite sex
Clothes should not resemble unbelievers
Islamic Veils
Niqab
Burqa
Chador
Hijab
Women
Polygamy
• Quran says “marry only one” …
– Only religious book that provides that instruction
• … but also says “Marry women of your choice,
two, or three, or four, but if ye fear that ye
shall not be able to deal justly, then only one”
• Justified by:
– Average lifespan of females is greater (inc. wars)
– Female population is greater
Polyandry
• Can’t easily identify who the parents are
• Man is more polygamous by nature
• Easier for a man to perform his duties as
husband
Women
• For witnessing financial transactions, either
need two men, or one man and two women
• Women inherit half of what a man receives
Islam in Contexts
Islam in India
Islam in India
• 3rd largest population
– Generally more children than Hindus
• Castes
– Ashrafs (Arab ancestry) vs Ajlafs (Hindu converts)
• Partition of India
– India, Pakistan, Bangladesh
Christianity and Islam
• Catechism of the Catholic Church
– “The plan of salvation also includes those who
acknowledge the Creator, in the first place
amongst whom are the Muslims; these profess to
hold the faith of Abraham, and together with us
they adore the one, merciful God, mankind’s
judge on the last day.”
• Quran
– Salvation for any Christians before Muhammad
Arabic Phrases
In shā’ Allāh
If God wills
Allāhu akbar
God is great
As-salamu `alaykum
Peace be unto you
Bismillah
In the name of God
Eid Mubārak
Blessed Eid
Eid Sa‘īd
Happy Eid