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Notre Dame extended Research Community
History of Machines: Big to Small
Michael Crocker
Valerie Goss
Patrick Mooney
Rebecca Quardokus
1
Early “Computer” – 19th Century Loom
Joseph Marie
Jacquard
Programmable with punch cards
2
Difference Engine/Analytic Engine
Charles Babbage
(1822)
3
ENIAC – First Electrical Computer (1946)
Programmable with switches and cables
4
Smaller and Smaller Devices
Vacuum
Tube
(1946)
Discrete Transistors
(1955)
Integrated Circuits
(1960)
5
Computers Since 1971 (Intel 4004)
2-3 Thousand
Transistors
1-2 Billion
Transistors
92 Thousand
Instr/Sec
147 Billion
Instr/Sec
10 Megabytes
1 Terabyte
6
Moore’s Law
 A predicted trend
 Predicted in 1965 (will last at least 10 years)
 Density doubles every two years
 Also applies to speed and storage capacity
 Prediction has lasted for 40+ years
 With some minor exceptions
 Transistors are very small now (<100nm)
 Required Nanotechnology Research!
 Exponential has lasted for 100+ years
7
Speed
and
Cost
8
45nm Node Transistors (2007)
Well inside the nano realm!
Fabrication of these transistors
requires very precise lithography
9
Fabrication
 Photolithography
 32nm half pitch: ~$4 Billion for fab facility
 Double patterning, Immersion lithography
 Electron Beam Lithography
 A few nanometer feature size patterning
 Limitation is scattering, not the beam!
 Takes a long time, not mass production
 Self Assembly
 Not precise control
 Instead, automatic arrangement
10
Self Assembly
11
Self Assembly with DNA!
Using DNA, it should be
possible to fabricate many
patterns without lithography
12
Imaging is Very Important





Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)
Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM)
Why are these important?
Nano devices are unknown
 behaviors, properties, & uses
 All at the nano-scale
 Biological processes could tell us so much!
13