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Reign of Süleyman I
Peak of the empire
Süleyman as "Lawgiver"
Despite the success of his reign, how did Süleyman
create problems for the Ottoman Empire?
By executing his most able sons, he ensured that
the next ruler would be an incompetent one.
Beginnings of Decline
Changes in government
Impact of Western ideas and customs
Economic problems
Why do you think some sultans tried to stop the
introduction of Western ideas and customs?
They may have felt threatened by Western ideas or
customs and may have been trying to preserve their
own culture.
Ṣafavids Attempt to Build a Shia
A new dynasty in Persia and Central Asia
Attempts to unify empire through forced conversion
What effects do you think the Safavids' attempts to
enforce mandatory conversion to the Shia faith
might have had on the Sunni population?
Rising hostility and further division between
Sunni and Shia Muslims.
The teachings of the prophet Muhammad formed the foundation of
Islam. When Muhammad died, he left no clear line of succession,
and disagreements later broke out about who should be the caliph,
or leader of Islam. An especially contentious argument surrounded
the legacy of the fourth caliph, Ali, who was Muhammad's son-inlaw. After Ali was assassinated, the Umayyad Dynasty became the
leaders of Islam. But followers of Ali, refusing to recognize the
Umayyads as caliphs, formed their own branch of Islam that came
to be called Shia. Another branch, called Sunni, was formed by
Muslims who disagreed with the Umayyads but still recognized
What did the emphasis on religious orthodoxy mean
for people in the Ṣafavid Empire?
People were pressured to conform to traditional
religious beliefs and women were forced into
seclusion and required to wear the veil.
Orthodoxy - conforming to established doctrine,
especially in religion.
Are there calls for religious orthodoxy today?
Religious leaders of many faiths today urge people
to follow or return to traditional beliefs.
How were the Ottoman and Ṣafavid empires similar? How
were they different?
Similarities: both were Muslim, both conquered
surrounding territory, both had the latest weapons, and
both encouraged the arts. Differences: the Ottomans were
Sunni, whereas the Ṣafavids were Shia; the Ottomans
were ruled by a sultan, whereas the Ṣafavids were ruled
by a shah.