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The Holy Land Jerusalem Judaism, Christianity, and Islam’s relationship to the Holy Land of Jerusalem as rooted in Scripture and Tradition A Presentation by Aaron Cator, Molly Leaverton, and Jessica Power Where is the Holy Land? Ancient Israel Modern Israel Black: Date has significance to all faiths of the book Blue: Significant to Judaism Red: Significant to Christianity Green: Significant to Islam A Brief History of the Holy Land ca.1800 BCE- God promises Abraham the Land ca. 1000 BCE- King David establishes Jerusalem as the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel 587 BCE- Destruction of the First Temple of Jerusalem 30 CE- Death of Jesus 70 CE- Destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem 621 CE- Muhammad descends into heaven from the city of Jerusalem during his “night journey” 633 CE- Islamic conquest of Palestine (beginning of 1300 years of the rule of more than 10 different empires) 1918 CE- British control of Jerusalem 1948 CE- establishment of the modern day state of Israel. Scriptural/Traditional Attachment to the Holy Land: Judaism Jerusalem has been the holiest place in Judaism since the 10th century and the establishment of the Kingdom of David – Exile/destruction of Jerusalem as punishment from God and restoration of Jewish rule of Jerusalem as a divine reward – – – First Chron. 11:1-11 Second Chron. 7:19 Babylonian Exile Book of Lamentations Love/Mourning of Jerusalem throughout the Hebrew Bible – – "By the rivers of Babylon we sat down and wept when we remembered Zion." (Psalms 137:1) "The builder of Jerusalem is God, the outcast of Israel he will gather in...Praise God O Jerusalem, laud your God O Zion." (Psalms 147:2-12) Scriptural/Traditional Attachment to the Holy Land: Christianity Significance in the Hebrew Bible, Christ’s Jewish identity Birth of Christianity in Jerusalem – – – Jesus and the Temple of Jerusalem – – Place of some of Jesus’ teachings Place of the Last Supper, Death and Resurrection of Christ Site of Jesus’ burial at the Church of the Holy Sepulcher Jesus is presented as a child at the Temple (Luke 2:22) Cleanses the Temple of Jerusalem (Mark 11:15) Medieval Christians believed Jerusalem was the center of the World Scriptural/Traditional Attachment to the Holy Land: Islam Night Journey of Muhammad 621 CE – Dome of the Rock – believed by Muslims to be the site of where Muhammad ascended into heaven. Al-Aqsa Mosque – “In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. “Glory to (Allah) Who did take His Servant For a Journey by night From the Sacred Mosque Whose precincts We did Bless—in order that We Might show him some Of Our Signs: for He Is the One Who heareth And seeth (all things).” -Surah 17:1 “So Sakariya came out to his people From his chamber: He told them by signs To celebrate Allah’s praises In the morning and the evening.” Surah 19:11 Cite of the first “Qibla” before it was changed to the city of Makka. Shortly after Muhammad’s death, Muslims conquered Jerusalem. Worksheet # 19b Question # 2: Based on the assigned secondary readings, do you think the notion of “Holy War” is affirmed in any of the scriptures used by the three “Religions of the Book”? Common Beliefs about Jerusalem A Holy city, explicitly mentioned in all three religion’s holy scriptures The Temple Mount is the place that Abraham nearly sacrificed his son City that many prophets visited and prophesized in – Abraham, Moses, Elijah, etc. Common Jewish heritage Current Relationship to Jerusalem: Judaism Zionism – – – Religious Zionism – – Political movement that began in the 19th century for the state of Israel "The builder of Jerusalem is God, the outcast of Israel he will gather in...Praise God O Jerusalem, laud your God O Zion." (Psalms 147:2-12) Mainly secular, but rooted its legitimacy in biblical nationalistic claims Jews have an inalienable right to the land of Jerusalem because God granted it to them Orthodox Jews tend to adopt this view, while many other branches of Judaism vary from finding it insignificant to being completely opposed The Modern State of Israel was established in 1948 Current Relationship to Jerusalem: Christianity Site of the pilgrimage of thousands of Christians each year Around 2.5% of population is Christian (ca. 150,000 people) Although Jerusalem is a Holy site for Christians, God is everywhere and can be found in any place Current Relationship to Jerusalem: Islam Jerusalem is considered the third holiest city, next to Makka and Madinah Dominated by current conflict – – Most Arab Muslims believe that Israel belongs to the Palestinians Most Muslims believe that the Palestinians have been unfairly portrayed through the media and that their position is not fully understood Israeli/Palestinian Conflict Before WWI what is now the state of Israel was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. In 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement stated that once the Ottomans were defeated this land would be international territory Balfour Declaration: 1917 – Palestinian Exile – – The British create plans for the creation of an Israeli state Flee to nearby Arab states Around 10 million people considered “Palestinian” 1948-Creation of the State of Israel and the Arab-Israeli War 1967 6-Day War Continued fighting over the West Bank, Jerusalem, Gaza Strip Worksheet #19b Question 3: What are your own thoughts regarding the ongoing struggle over the Holy Land? Do you think the media fairly represents the motives for each religion’s stake in the ongoing conflict?