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Table of Contents
Iraq
Iran
Saudi Arabia
Saddam Hussein
Iran-Iraq War
Persian Gulf War
Gulf War Pictures
Gulf War Movies
Iraqi surrender
Economic Sanctions and Weapon
Inspections
Saddam Hussein
 Hussein moved to Baghdad
in 1955, in 1959 he
joined the Baath party
and escaped to Cairo
after an assassination.
 Hussein became involved
in politics and returned to
Baghdad in 1963
 Built country up and
bought Soviet weapons
with oil money
 Rules country with an iron
hand, killed enemies
Iran-Iraq War
Iraqi loses
totaled 400,000
soldiers, and a
debt of $75
billion.
Lead by Hussein
Persian Gulf War
Iraq invaded
Kuwait in August
1990 and refused
to leave by the
UN security
council deadline of
January 1991.
Led by Hussein
Gulf War Pictures
Gulf War Movies
Iraqi Surrender
Economic Sanctions &
Weapon Inspections
 The UN impressed economic
sanctions on Iraq, such as no
fly-zones and embargo.
 The UN demanded themselves
to be allowed to check for
illegal weapons but this was
denied by Saddam Hussein.
 This made the UN aware that
they had to make a greater
effort to control chemical and
biological weapons.
 After War, Iraq was forced
to destroy its chemical and
biological weapons, but did not
comply
 No fly zones were created
over Kuwait
Hussein vs. Weapons Inspectors
The Shah Monarchy
Ayatollah Khomeini
Khomeini and Islamic
Revolution
Iran-Iraq War
Contemporary Iran
Divided
Iranian timeline
The Shah Monarchy
 “Shah” is Persian King,
years of reign.
 During 20th century Shah
monarchy Muslims were
not very religious.
 Women had almost equal
rights to men.
 Trade was good, but Iran
had economic problems.
 Children ages 7-13 were
required to go to school.
 Under Shah, security
strong.
 Strong ally of US and
Israel.
Ayatollah Khomeini
 For many years,
opposition to corrupt and
oppressive Shah reign.
 Under Khomeini, Iran
became an “Islamic
Republic”, and an enemy
of the US.
 Revolution very popular
with Iranians-between
Shah and Khomeini.
 Turned Iran away from
the western World “in
the name of Islam”. US
seen as “Great Satan”.
Khomeini & Islamic
Revolution
 Hostage Crisis.
 He was the absolute and
only Ruler for 10 years
until 1989.
 Followed the Shari'a laws
to an extreme extent.
 Rejection of West by
embracing fundamentalist
Islam.
 Died in 1989.
Iran - Iraq War
 1980 there was a war
between Iran and Iraqlasted 8 years.
 Caused by differences
between different ethnic
groups, Iran:Persian,
Iraq:Arab, as well as,
border disagreements.
 It was assumed by Iraq
that Iran was weak after
the Iranian Revolution.
 Iran lost 600,000
Iranians, and the
economic loss totaled 1.2
billion US dollars.
 War finally ends in a
stalemate.
Contemporary Iran
Divided
 Controversy between
Khatami and Khamenei.
 Khatami wants Iran to be
friendlier to the US and
the western world. More
freedom in Iran.
 Khamenei wants Iran to
be exactly the way
Khomeini had it. US as
“Great Satan,” Shari'a
law.
 Country divided.
 Most Iranian support
Khatami, but Khamenei
supported by military and
clerisy.
Controversy
Khatami
Khamenei
Iranian Timeline
The
Shahs
Islamic Revolution
Khomeini
D
I
E
D
Agree with
Khamenei
Controversy
Khatami
Wahhabism/History
Monarchy
Opec Oil; Saudis And Arab Neighbors
Opec Oil; Saudis And Arab Neighbors
Persian Gulf Security
Mecca, holds the holiest shrine of Islam,
the Kaaba.
Madina,is a scared city where
Muhammad took refuge
Riyadh, is the capitol of Saudi Arabia
Opec Oil; Saudis And
Arab Neighbors
 Saudi Arabia status
quo, rejects both
Arab nationalism,
Egypt under Nasser
and Islamic
fundamentalism, Iran
under Khomeini.
 Arab vs. Saudis:
mutual enmity.
Wahhabism/History
 Movement in Islam from
mid 18th century.
 The Wahhabis formed a
large tribe, and very
strictly followed Islam, in
vast empty deserts.
 In 1802, the Wahhabis
conquered Mecca, but in
1812, were driven out out
of Mecca.
 Because of their extreme
attitude, the Wahhabis
were founders of Saudi
Arabia.
 Eventually come to be
rulers of Saudi Arabia.
Monarchy
 The house of Saud is the
family that rules Saudi
Arabia.
 Monarchy started in 1932,
when they conquered
territories were unified,
and Abdul Azin was named
king.
 Present king of Saudi
Arabia: FAHD bin Abd alAzin Al Saud.
 Constitution: Governed
according to Shari’a
(Islamic Law); Basic Law
that articulates
governments rights and
responsibilities (est. 1993).
 Sauds use Islam as unifying
idea for country
Opec Oil; Saudis And
Arab Neighbors
 Happened during 1973,
while the Yom Kippur war
was happening in Israel.
 Saudi Arabia played a
leading role in an oil
boycott against the
Western countries that
supported Israel. Gains
Arab support
 In March, 1974, the oil
embargo ended.
 This resulted in a strong
increase in oil prices.
They nearly quadrupled.
Saudi Arabia becomes
rich and powerful.
Persian Security
 On August 2, 1990, Iraq
invades Kuwait
 1,000.000 Iraqi soldiers on
Saudi Arabian border.
 4 days later on August 6, King
FAHD meets with Richard
Cheney, and requests military
assistance form USA.
 Allied Coalition defeats Iraq and
Kuwait liberated.
 Saudi Arabia safe, Persian Gulf
free for oil shipping.
 Continued presence of American
troops very controversial inside
Saudi Arabia.
 Some Saudis call for overthrow
of King, resort to terrorism
against “infidels”
THE END!