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GEOGRAPHY 5: WORLD REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY: Final Exam Study Guide, FALL 2016.
Chapter 7: Southwest Asia & North Africa
Said, Orientalism, images of the region
Islam, Mohammed, Angel Gabriel, Qur’an, Five Pillars, Sunni, Shia, Wahhabi, Sufi
Mecca, Grand Mosque
Benjamin Barber, Jihad v McWorld; Timothy Mitchell, McJihad
Saudi Arabia, Ottomans, Rashids, Sauds, Great Britain, Wahhabis, Ibn al Saud, mujahedeen,
Afghanistan, 9/11, Taliban, autocracy.
United Arab Emirates—modernization, tourism, oil wealth, autocracy, Guest Workers,
demographic imbalance, environmental impacts—Palm Jumeirah, World Islands.
Colonial legacies, oil, Pan-Arab Nationalism, fundamentalism, Sunni v Shia.
Israel-Arab conflict—1917 Balfour Agreement, UN Two State Mandate 1948, Arab Wars—
1948, 1956, 1967, 1973. Camp David Accords, 1976, Begin, Sadat, Carter. Gaza today—Hamas.
West Bank—Fatah, Israeli settlements.
Iran-Iraq conflict—1953 US backed coup in Iran, Iranian Revolution 1979 (Ayatollah
Khomeini), Iraq-Iran war 1980-89, Saddam Hussein (US backed).
Operation Desert Strom—1991, Kuwait, Iraq, Shias
Operation Iraqi Freedom—2003, WMD (?), Hussein (a Sunni, Baathist) executed, who takes
over?, Shia v. Sunni civil war, rise of ISIS (Sunnis, al Zarqawi, al Baghdadi…)
Syrian civil war—2011, Arab Spring, ISIS, rebel groups, government forces (supported by
Russia).
Describe the viewpoints of the following scholars regarding the region of Southwest Asia,
Islam, and the relationship they have with the “West:” Benjamin Barber, Samuel Huntington,
Edward Said and Timothy Mitchell.
Critique the idea that the Middle East is a uniform place with same people, same religion, all
desert, etc.
Describe the origins of Islam, its basic beliefs, its different branches and its geography.
Describe how the country of Saudi Arabia came to exist and the relationship it has with the
US, oil and religious fundamentalism.
Compare and contrast the impact that oil has had in Saudi Arabia and in the United Arab
Emirates.
Explain how Israel and a Palestinian Arab state came to be and why there have been conflicts
between them and how some of these have or have not been resolved.
Describe the relationship between Iran and Iraq. What led to the Iranian Revolution in 1979
and why did Iraq invade Iran in 1980? Who did the United States support in this conflict and
how did it lead to further U.S. involvement in the region?
Describe the events (beginning with the invasion by the U.S. in 1991) that led to conflict in
Iraq and how that conflict has affected other areas in the region.
EXTRA CREDIT: Describe the four physiographic regions of Southwest Asia & North Africa.
Chapter 11: East Asia
Physiographic regions: outer China, inner China, peninsula, Pacific Ring of Fire
Climate: latitude (huge range), monsoons (dry winters), Japan an island so more maritime,
interior locations continentality.
Subduction zones---Pacific plate, Eurasian plate, Philippine plate.
Sendai earthquake, 2011, 9.0, tsunamis, Fukushima nuclear power plant, wave heights 30.5’.
Sichuan earthquake, 2008, 8.0, 70,000 killed.
Kobe earthquake, 1995, 6.8, 6400 killed.
Economic growth in China—social and environmental problems, policy & political repression.
Mao Zedong, Chinese Revolution
Great Leap Forward, collectivization, backyard furnaces, Four Pests Campaign, close
cropping, disaster.
Deng Xiaoping, reforms: Open Door Policy, SEZs, One Child Policy. Success, but at what
cost?
Social costs—“illegal” immigrants, Hukou System, lower labor costs, eco-migrants.
Environmental costs—air pollution, water pollution, desertification, habitat loss, endangered
species, cancer villages, Three Gorges Dam, overconsumption (?).
Political dissent—Tiananmen Square
North and South Korea, DMZ, Kim Jung Un (son of Kim Jung Il), juche, state capitalism,
chaebols.
Describe East Asia’s four physiographic regions and the climates found in the region and the
causes of these climates.
Describe the tectonic environment of East Asia. What natural hazards does the region face?
Provide examples.
Explain how political repression and the policies of Mao Zedong and his fellow leaders
created social and environmental catastrophe for China.
Evaluate the changes brought after Mao died, in 1976, by Deng Xiaoping, considered a
‘reformer.’ Have the new Chinese leadership’s policies alleviated or exacerbated (made
worse) the social (such as illegal labor and eco-migrants) and environmental problems in
China? Why is reform so difficult?
What environmental concerns does China currently face and what are their causes?
Compare and contrast North and South Korea economically and socially.