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Classification
Taxonomy
• The branch of biology that classifies
organisms into taxa (taxon is singular)
The Seven Taxa
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Kingdom (most diverse)
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species (least diverse)
• If an organism is in the same family, then
they are also in the same order, class,
phylum, and kingdom.
• For example, a bobcat, a house cat, and a
lion are all in the same family (Felidae)
Comparing Dogs and Gorillas
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Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Dog
Animalia
Chordata
Mammalia
Carnivora
Canidae
Canis
familiaris
Gorilla
Animalia
Chordata
Mammalia
Primates
Hominidae
Gorilla
gorilla
Red Panda
Kingdom:
Animalia
Phylum:
Chordata
Class:
Mammalia
Order:
Carnivora
Family:
Ailuridae
Genus:
Ailurus
Species:
A. fulgens
Naming Organisms
• Organisms are named by their genus
name followed by the species
• Genus is ALWAYS capitalized and the
species is ALWAYS lowercase.
• Both names are italicized (or underlined if
handwritten)
• This system is called binomial
nomenclature
• When three scientific names are used to
specify a subspecies, the system is called
trinomial nomenclature
• What is the scientific name for the red
panda?
Who is more closely related?
• The scientific name for a red maple tree is
Acer rubrum
• Quercus rubrum or Acer saccharum
• Acer is the genus for maple trees
• Quercus is the genus for oak trees
Who is the red panda closer related
to?
• Giant Panda or
• Raccoon
6 Kingdoms
• Aristotle first classified organisms into 2
kingdoms: Plants and Animals
• Microscopes changed the way we classify
organisms and eventually they decided to
go to a five kingdom system
• Recent technology has shown that some
bacteria have different gene sequences
than any other organism on earth.
• This led to the formation of a new
kingdom: Archaebacteria
• Most scientists use the 6 kingdom system
The Six Kingdoms
• Archaebacteria- bacteria that live in extreme
conditions
• Eubacteria- (aka Monera) typical bacteria
• Protista- algae, protozoa, slime molds
• Fungi- molds, mushrooms, yeasts
• Plantae- mosses, ferns, grasses, vegetable
plants, trees
• Animalia- sponges, jellyfish, worms, insects, fish,
frogs, lizards, birds, kangaroos
Classification based on
Evolutionary Relationships
• Scientists look at more than just physical
traits: fossil record and molecular data
• The evolutionary history of a group of
species is called phylogeny
• Phylogenies are like family trees
• The most common way to make
evolutionary trees is cladistics
(classification based on common ancestry)
• A cladogram is an evolutionary tree
Methods of Transportation
wings
Passengers
enclosed
motor
wheels