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Transcript
Greek Mythology
The Gods and Goddesses
The men and women, the myths, and the legends…
Gods and Goddesses
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MOUNT OLYMPUS
HOME OF THE GODS
Mount Olympus is both an actual mountain in
Greece and the mythical home of the Greek
gods. In Zeus' palace on its peak resided the
Twelve Olympians, which consisted of the major
gods and goddesses. Depending on whom you
asked, the exact names of those twelve
changed. Below are the major gods and
goddesses of Greek mythology. Be sure to click
on any highlighted names if you want to find out
more about that particular god or
goddess. Enjoy!
Gods and Goddesses
APHRODITE
ROMAN NAME: VENUS
 GODDESS OF LOVE AND BEAUTY
 Aphrodite was so lovely that the Greeks couldn't imagine
her being born in the usual way. Instead she sprang from the
white beauty of the sea foam. In an odd arrangement, this
most beautiful goddess was married to the only ugly
Olympian, HEPHAESTUS, the deformed forge god. Some said
that ZEUS forced her into the marriage; others, that she
chose him herself. Either way, her vows did not stop her
from having many affairs. Gods and mortal men found her
charms simply irresistible. Whenever on business abroad,
Aphrodite was pulled through the sky by a swan-drawn cart.
The swan and the dove were both symbols of her grace. In
Greece her worship was popular, although the temple
priestesses were rumored to be prostitutes. Our word
aphrodisiac, a passion-inducing substance, is derived from her
name.
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Gods and Goddesses
APOLLO
ROMAN NAME: PHOEBUS APOLLO
 GOD OF LIGHT, TRUTH, POETRY, PROPHECY, &
MUSIC
 From all the important titles laid at Apollo's feet, you can
see the Greeks thought very highly of him. He is called the
"most Greek of all the gods". He, above all others,
represented the ideal man: handsome, athletic, intelligent,
talented, and good. His twin sister is ARTEMIS, Goddess of
the Moon. Over time, Apollo came to replace the Greek god
Helios as God of the Sun as well. The lyre is Apollo's
instrument, as he is the master musician. Apollo's tree is the
laurel. A wreath of laurels was awarded in Greece to those
who won a contest of poetry. Apollo's oracle in Delphi was
the most reliable and the most popular.
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Gods and Goddesses
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ARES
ROMAN NAME: MARS
GOD OF WAR
Ares is the cruelest member of the Olympians, hated
by all (even his mother, HERA). This god is known for
his ruthlessness when he has the upper-hand and his
cowardice when the tides turn against him. Even the
Greeks disliked this terrible god. There were no
temples to Ares in ancient Greece.APHRODITE, in
one of her many infidelities, started an affair with
Ares, which was his motivation to fight for the Trojans
in the great war. Martial (having to do with war) and
March are coined from his Latin name.
Gods and Goddesses
ARTEMIS
ROMAN NAME: DIANA
 VIRGIN GODDESS OF THE HUNT, PROTECTOR
OF MAIDENS AND WILD CREATURES
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Artemis is often called upon by maidens who want nothing
to do with men. Her silver arrows have slain many overzealous suitors. Artemis was also the twin sister
of APOLLO and revered as the Goddess of the Moon. At
times her different duties contradict one other. Even though
she is a hunter of animals herself, she often demands that
mortals pay for killing defenseless beasts. In the most famous
case, she demands that a Greek army offer her a human
sacrifice in apology for trampling a family of rabbits. She asks
for the life of the general's young daughter, a maiden. This is
strange behavior for the protector of maidens.
Gods and Goddesses
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ATHENA
ROMAN NAME: MINERVA, PALLAS ATHENA
GODDESS OF WISDOM AND BATTLE
According to one tale, Athena was not actually born, but sprang
fully-grown from ZEUS' head. This is symbolic of her distinction as
Goddess of Wisdom. Athena's animal was the wisest of birds, the
owl. As the leader of the Virgin Goddesses, those who will never
marry, Athena refuses to let any man to be her master. When a new
city-state was founded, there was a contest between Athena and
her uncle POSEIDON over who should be its patron god. The
competition was fierce. To win the people over to his side,
Poseidon formed the first horse from the crest of a wave. In order
to one-up his gift, Athena created the bridle, a tool man could use
to subdue Poseidon's creation. Since her gift was the wiser, the city
chose Athena as their patron goddess. From this point on the citystate was called Athens.
Gods and Goddesses
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DEMETER
ROMAN NAME: CERES
GODDESS OF AGRICULTURE
The Greeks and Romans felt an extremely strong connection with
Demeter. The goddess was responsible for providing them with
their sustenance and livelihood. In addition to this, Demeter was
one of the few gods who did not reside on Olympus. She lived on
earth, where she could be close to those who needed her most.
Also unlike the other gods, Demeter's existence was bittersweet. In
the fall and winter, she mourned her daughter, PERSEPHONE. Only
during the spring and summer was she truly happy. All of these
qualities endeared her to her worshipers. Her sacred cult at Eleusis
was one of the most popular, and the secrets kept so well that to
this day researchers have no clue what their rites consisted of.
From Ceres comes our word for grain-based food, cereal.
Gods and Goddesses
DIONYSUS
ROMAN NAME: BACCHUS
 GOD OF THE VINE AND WINE, PATRON GOD OF THE
THEATRE
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Dionysus was a latecomer to Mount Olympus. He was the only god to
have a mortal parent. Dionysus was a two-sided god. On one side, he is the
gentle planter of the vine. On the other, he is a wild drinker, inspiring his
followers to commit terrible acts through their intoxication. Satyrs, halfmen half-goat creatures, were said to be the companions of Dionysus,
along with his fanatical female followers the maenads. Followers of
Dionysus gathered in the wilderness and drank themselves into a wild
frenzy. More often than not their gatherings ended with violence. In many
stories, kings, who do not approve of the new god or the behavior he
promotes, forbids his worship. This probably reflects Greek society's
displeasure with the worshipers of Dionysus, whom many viewed as
hedonistic drunks. Despite his late addition by the gods and his initial
opposition from men, Dionysus became one of the most popular additions
to the Greek pantheon. Athens dedicated its springtime drama festival to
the god, solidifying his place as patron of the theatre.
Gods and Goddesses
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HADES
ROMAN NAME: PLUTO, DIS
RULER OF THE DEAD, LORD OF THE UNDERWORLD
Although he has been presented as one before, Hades is no villain.
He is cold and calculating. He keeps to himself, only showing up in
myth when he is sought out. Hades is more a recluse than anything
else. He has little to do with mortals' lives. Their deaths are a
different story. Hades is not Death himself; in other words he is not
responsible for deciding when mortals die. A mortal's death is an
assembly line: The Fates snip the threads of life, Thanatos (or death)
causes the mortal to die, HERMES leads the soul to the banks of
the Styx. After the gods defeated their forbearers, the Titans, Hades
was presented with a helmet of invisibility and given the
Underworld to rule. Hades' Roman name Pluto came from the
Greek word for wealth. The god was considered rich because of all
the precious metals that are found beneath the earth.
Gods and Goddesses
HEBE
ROMAN NAME: NONE
 GODDESS OF YOUTH
 Hebe is the most easily-overlooked
Greek goddess. Her only job was to hold
her father, ZEUS' cup, which contained
the nectar of the gods. She was later
married to Heracles after he became a
god himself.

Gods and Goddesses
HEPHAESTUS
ROMAN NAME: VULCAN
 SMITH-GOD OF THE FORGE, GOD OF FIRE
 Hephaestus, a peace-loving god, was the patron of practical
arts. He was renowned for his metal-working abilities. The
unparalleled armor of the gods and heroes come from his
forge. His lame leg and grizzled appearance earn him the
distinction of being the only ugly god. In fact, when Hera gave
birth to such an unattractive son, she hurled him out of
heaven, laming his leg. Ironically, APHRODITE, Goddess of
Beauty, is his wife. The Romans pictured the fiery god Vulcan
working his forge beneath the mountains, and when they saw
a hilltop erupt with flame, they labeled it a volcano.
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Gods and Goddesses
HERA
ROMAN NAME: JUNO
 GODDESS OF MARRIAGE, QUEEN OF OLYMPUS
 Hera is usually shown as a crafty schemer and jealous wife.
She is the mother of a few of the second generation gods:
ARES, HEPHAESTUS, and HEBE. ZEUS and his frequent
affairs are enough to keep her busy, punishing his many lovers
and cursing his illegitimate children. Even though she cannot
protect her own marriage, Hera is labeled as the protector
of the institution. Wives with unfaithful husbands could
definitely sympathize with her. Hera has a fiery temper and
enough venom for her anger to last centuries. Her animal is
the cow, and her bird is the peacock. The Romans named
June, the season for marriage, after Hera (Juno).

Gods and Goddesses
HERMES
ROMAN NAME: MERCURY
 MESSENGER OF THE GODS
 Hermes, the most mischievous and clever of the gods, also served as a
psychopomp, a guide of dead souls to the Underworld. One of the
youngest gods, Hermes showed his ability to cause both trouble and
delight at an early age. On the day of his birth, Hermes snuck out from his
cradle and whisked away the cattle of his elder brother APOLLO. A
witness soon reported this to Apollo, who came to Maia, Hermes's mother,
demanding the return of his livestock. Maia insisted that Hermes had been
in his cradle the entire time. Hermes was quickly found out and forced to
return the cattle. But in reparation for his actions against Apollo, the
newborn god created a lyre from the shell of a turtle. He presented the
stringed instrument to his older brother. His anger melted away, Apollo
presented Hermes with a magical sleep-inducing staff called the
Caduceus. Once ZEUS realized his young son would cause nothing but
trouble if his mind weren't constantly occupied, he gave him with the job
of Olympian Messenger. He was given a winged cap and sandals to assist
him in his duties. Due to the nature of his job, Hermes appears most often
of all the gods.
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Gods and Goddesses
HESTIA
ROMAN NAME: VESTA
 GODDESS OF THE HEARTH AND HOME
 Hestia never plays a part in any Greek myth. Even
though she wasn't exciting enough to make it into
their stories, the Greeks honored Hestia with their
dinnertime prayers, asking her to bless their food and
protect their homes. City-states had a central hearth
dedicated to the goddess, where the fire never went
out. She was the third of the virgin goddesses. To the
Romans she was the patron goddess of the Vestal
Virgins, who in the Temple of Vesta kept the hearth
fire of Rome forever burning. Hestia is one of three
virgin goddess, along with ATHENA and ARTEMIS.
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Gods and Goddesses
PERSEPHONE
ROMAN NAME: PROSERPINE
 GODDESS OF SPRINGTIME
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Persephone was the daughter of ZEUS and his
sister DEMETER, the Goddess of the Harvest.
One day while Persephone was gathering
flowers, HADES spied her in the meadow. Not
wasting a second, he drove his team of coal-black
steeds up through the earth and pulled her into
his chariot. Back in the Underworld, Hades forced
her to be his queen.
Gods and Goddesses
POSEIDON
ROMAN NAME: NEPTUNE
 BLUE-MANED GOD OF THE SEAS AND OCEANS
 Next to his brother ZEUS, Poseidon is the god the Greeks
most feared. As a sea-faring people, they knew the hazards
of a stormy sea. The god was known for his mood swings,
violent rage one minute, calm the next--just like the waters
he controlled. In the Trojan War he favored the Greeks
because of their love of ship-building, yet legend had it that
generations before, he and APOLLO had helped build the
walls of Ilium (Troy). When an earthquake, the Greeks
recognized it as the work of Poseidon Earthshaker. Poseidon was married to the Daughter of Ocean and
commanded the waves with his mighty trident.

Gods and Goddesses
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ZEUS
ROMAN NAME: JOVE, JUPITER
LORD OF THE SKY, RAIN-BRINGER, CLOUDGATHERER
 After leading his brother and sister gods in a revolt against
their parents, the Titans, Zeus became the unquestioned
ruler of the Heavens. His feared weapon is the Thunderbolt,
and his palace on Mount Olympus is a place of peace, where
all gods are welcome. Zeus is the husband of the
goddess HERA, but it's not in his nature to be faithful. Time
and time again, he enters into disastrous affairs with other
goddesses, nymphs, and mortal women. Zeus is the all-father.
Almost all the second generation of gods claim Zeus as their
father. Many of the mortal heroes are children of the god as
well. Zeus' bird is the eagle.
