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History of Ethnographic Research and Its Uses Part II Applied Anthropology Applied anthropologists use their insights and research techniques to analyze social, political, and economic problems and develop solutions. Culture at a Distance During World War II anthropologists interested in learning more about enemy states gathered information by reviewing newspapers, literature, photographs and popular films as well conducting interviews with immigrants and refugees. Contemporary State and Peasant Studies After WWI and even more so after WWII, cultural anthropology took yet another turn, expanding fieldwork and ethnography to peasant and urban societies, which were enmeshed in more complex regional and national systems. The connections between cultures are so central that no society, no matter how seemingly remote, can be studied as if it existed in cultural isolation. Advocacy Anthropology Advocate anthropology is research that is community-based and politically involved. Some anthropologists have become advocates for the groups they have studied, such as peasant communities, ethnic or religious minorities, or indigenous groups. Multi-sited Ethnography The investigation and documentation of peoples and cultures embedded in the larger structures of a globalizing world, utilizing a range of methods in various locations of time and space. In multi-sited ethnography research tracks a subject across spatial and temporal boundaries. Doing Ethnography: Cultural Anthropology Research Methods Ethnography is the written description and analysis of the culture of a group of people based on fieldwork. Site selection and preporatory research are both crucial first steps. Participant Observation It is a research method in which one learns about a group’s beliefs and behaviors through social participation and personal observation within the community, as well as interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over an extended stay in the community.