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Transcript
Archaeology
Photo from my work at
Mammoth Cave National Park.
Archaeologists DO NOT:
Study dinosaurs.
Just look for pretty or
valuable objects.
Just pick up artifacts.
Spend all their time just
digging.
Buy, sell, or put a price on
artifacts.
What Is Archaeology?
Archaeology is one of
four sub-disciplines of
Anthropology.
Anthropology is the study
of people and their
biology and culture across
space and time.
Anthropology
Subdisciplines:
Archaeology
Cultural Anthropology
Linguistic Anthropology
Biological or Physical
Anthropology
Archaeology
Culture
Speech
&
Language
Biology of Man
What Is Archaeology?
Archaeology is the
systematic, scientific
recovery and analysis
of artifacts in order to
answer questions
about past human
culture and behavior.
Archaeology Terms
Systematic: A consistent
way of studying anything.
Science: Methods and
knowledge of studying
anything.
Recovery/ Analysis: To
collect and study artifacts.
Artifact: Any item
resulting from human
activity.
Archaeology Terms
Question-based:
Archaeologists study
artifacts in order to answer
questions about how
humans lived.
Past: Archaeologists
study human cultures that
are no longer living.
Culture: Any learned
behavior that is shared
with others.
History of Archaeology
The first archaeologists
Antiquarians or wealthy collectors
of artifacts
Christian Jurgensen Thomsen
Early Archaeology
It was a combination of several
other sciences concerned with the
evolution of man.
1817
Danish archaeologist Christian
Jurgensen Thomsen opened the
National Museum of Antiquities in
Copenhagen to the public.
1859 Origin of Species.
Darwin publishes his book.
1920’s
Archaeology became a fully
fledged scientific discipline.
Charles
Darwin
Early American Archaeology
Earliest American settlers
They debate the origin of
American Indians.
1880’s
Archaeologists and
anthropologists study Pueblo
Indians as direct descendants
of the first people in America.
1890’s
Cyrus Thomas of the Bureau
of American Ethnology proves
the “Moundbuilders” were
indeed Native Americans.
Indian burial mound in Georgia.
Modern Scientific Archaeology
1960’s
The invention of modern
scientific excavation techniques
Using a multidisciplinary
approach to study people.
Increasing impact of science on
archaeology
Refinement of archaeological
theory.
Dendrochronology
DNA
Botany
Academic Goals of Archeology
Culture History
Sequence of events
How artifacts change over time
Explain why events happened.
Lifeways Reconstruction
Technology, subsistence,
exchange, settlement, social
organization, ideology, etc.
Culture Process
Theoretical models on
lifeways.
Photo from my work at Mammoth Cave National Park.
Applied Goals of Archaeology
Conveying the past as it’s
known through archaeology.
The proper way to do
archaeology.
Archaeology is a profession.
Public Education
Museum exhibits
Television shows
Documentary films
Public lectures, digs, or
workshops.
Archaeology Specialties
Prehistoric Archaeology
Before writing.
Historical Archaeology
Document/writing assisted
Classical Archaeology
Greek and Roman
Biblical Archaeology
Underwater Archaeology
Shipwrecks or anything else
under water.
Industrial Archaeology
Industrial Revolution and other
modern structures
PowerPoint created by Amy J McCray, 2005, updated 2007.
Egyptologists, Mayanists,
Assyriologists
Study of specific civilizations
or time periods.
Cultural Resource Management
Management and assesment of
significant cultural resources.
References
Applegate, Darlene. “Anth 130” In-class notes.
Western Kentucky University, Spring 2004.
Fagan, Brian M. Archaeology: A Brief
Introduction. New Jersey: Lindbriar Corp., 2003.
Society for American Archaeology. 19 September
2005. <http://www.saa.org/>.