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Transcript
Archaeology
Photo from my work at
Mammoth Cave National Park.
What do archaeologists do?
What archaeologists don’t
do:
Study dinosaurs.
Spend all their time just
digging.
Just look for pretty or valuable
objects.
Just pick up artifacts.
Buy or sell artifacts.
Just study prehistoric people.
Photos from my work at Mammoth
Cave National Park.
What Is Archaeology?
Archaeology is one of four subdisciplines of Anthropology.
Anthropology is the study of
people and their culture.
Anthropology Disciplines:
Archeology
Cultural Anthropology
Linguistic Anthropology
Biological or Physical
Anthropology
Archaeology is the systematic,
scientific recovery and analysis
of artifacts in order to answer
questions about past human
culture and behavior.
Archaeolology
Culture
Speech
&
Language
Biology of Man
Archaeology Terms
Systematic: A consistent
way of studying anything.
Science: Methods and
knowledge of studying
anything.
Recovery/ Analysis: To
collect and study artifacts.
Artifact: Any item
resulting from human
activity.
Archaeology Terms
Question-based:
Archaeologists study
artifacts in order to answer
questions about how
humans lived.
Past: Archaeologists
study human cultures that
are no longer living.
Culture: Any learned
behavior that is shared
with others.
History of Archaeology
The first archaeologists
Antiquarians or wealthy collector
of artifacts
Christian Jurgensen Thomsen
Early Archeology
It was a combination of several
other sciences concerned with the
evolution of man.
1817
Danish archaeologist Christian
Jurgensen Thomsen opened the
National Museum Of Antiquities
in Copenhagen to the public.
1859 Origin of Species.
Darwin publishes his book.
1920’s
Archaeology became a fully
fledged scientific discipline.
Charles
Darwin
Early American Archaeology
Earliest American settlers
They debate the origin of
American Indians.
1880’s
Archaeologists and
anthropologists study Pueblo
Indians as direct descendants
of the first people in America.
1890’s
Cyrus Thomas of the Bureau
of American Ethnology proves
the “Moundbuilders” were
indeed Native Americans.
Indian burial mound in Georgia.
Modern Scientific Archaeology
1960’s
The invention of modern
scientific excavation techniques
Using a multidisciplinary
approach to study people.
Increasing impact of science on
archaeology
Refinement of archaeological
theory.
Dendrochronology
DNA
Botany
Academic Goals of Archeology
Culture History
Sequence of events
How artifacts change over time
Explain why events happened.
Lifeways Reconstruction
Technology, subsistence,
exchange, settlement, social
organization, ideology, etc.
Culture Process
Theoretical models on
lifeways.
Photo from my work at Mammoth Cave National Park.
Applied Goals of Archaeology
Conveying the past through
archaeology.
The proper way to do
archeology.
Archaeology is a profession.
Public Education
Museum exhibits
Television shows
Documentary films
Public lectures, digs, or
workshops.
Types of Archaeology
Prehistoric Archaeology
Before writing.
Historical Archaeology
Document/writing assisted
Classical Archaeology
Greek and Roman
Biblical Archaeology
Underwater Archaeology
Shipwrecks or anything else
under water.
Industrial Archaeology
Industrial Revolution and other
modern structures
Egyptologists, Mayanists,
Assyriologists
Study of specific civilizations
or time periods.
Cultural Resource Management
Management and assesment of
significant cultural resources.
Professional Archaeology Groups
United States National Associations
American Anthropological Association (AAA)
Archaeological Institute of America
Association of Historical Archaeologists of the Pacific
Northwest
Classical Association of the Middle West and South
Classical Association of the Pacific Northwest
Eastern States Archaeological Federation
Southeastern Archaeological Conference
Society for American Archeology
Source: http://archaeologic.com/associations.htm
References
Applegate, Darlene. “Anth 130” In-class notes.
Western Kentucky University, Spring 2004.
Fagan, Brian M. Archeology: A Brief
Introduction. New Jersey: Lindbriar Corp., 2003.
Society for American Archeology. 19 September
2005. <http://www.saa.org/>.