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Need to consider
interactions between abiotic
(non living) and biotic (living)
 Also consider energy flow
and chemical cycling.
nitrogen and
oxygen can be recycled
between living and nonliving things in an
ecosystem and the
though energy flow
and chemical cycling are
different in nature, they
are related to feeding
patterns within
Producers incorporate chemicals from nonliving environment into organic compounds.
 Consumers feed on producers, incorporating
some chemicals into their bodies and release
some as waste.
 As organisms die, decomposers break them
down to supply chemicals in the inorganic
form for soil, water and air.
 Three types of cycling:
◦ Carbon and Oxygen Cycle
◦ Nitrogen Cycle
◦ Water Cycle
Chemical Cycling
 In
the atmosphere carbon is found in
its inorganic form CO2.
 Producers use the CO2 to form organic
compounds during photosynthesis.
 During cellular respiration, both
producers and consumers break down
organic compounds and release CO2 as a
waste product.
 Non-living processes contribute to CO2
Carbon and Oxygen Cycle
◦ Burning of fossil fuels
 Oil
 Coal
 Natural gas
◦ Burning of wood
◦ Forest fires
◦ Human activities
◦ Volcanic eruptions
Carbon and Oxygen Cycle
◦ Found in all living organisms
◦ An element of Amino Acids
 Produce proteins
◦ Makes up 80% of the Earth’s atmosphere
◦ Producers can use it in the form of ammonium or
 Nitrogen fixation
◦ Nitrogen gas to ammonia
 Nitrification
◦ Ammonium to nitrates
Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
Solar energy evaporates water from land
and water surfaces adding gaseous water
vapor into the atmosphere.
 Water vapor cools and condenses falling
to the ground as precipitation.
Plants get water from soil, consumers by
eating and drinking.
Water Cycle
 Some
water can be lost by plants
through the process called
transpiration, which is then
evaporated into the atmosphere.
 Water not retained by plants or
soil will run off into rivers and
streams, or restore ground waters.
Water Cycle