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AP Psych Class Announcements:
Next Psych Club meeting:
Monday 11/19
Topic:
Lauren Deveanu
2006 Bayside Grad
Lauren is finishing her Psychology
degree. She works with women who
are incarcerated or have legal issues
with the criminal justice system.
Come hear her about her work
encouraging them in recovery and
prevent relapses.
Aim: to compare the three
main drug categories and
their effects.
Do NOW:
1. quiz 108-25
2. What did you learn from
the addiction
simulation?
3.Read “Effects of Long
Term Cannabis Use”
HW : Study notes for test
Answer practice questions
States of Consciousness
Sleep
• Sleep is a state of
consciousness.
• We are less aware
of our surroundings.
• Circadian Rhythm
Circadian Rhythm
• Our biological clock
• Body temp rises in the am
and falls in pm
• The hypothalamus sends
a signal to the pineal
gland to increase
melatonin when it gets
dark
• Jet lag- changes in
time/light mess with our
circadian rhythm
Sleep Cycles
• Use an EEG machine
to measure stages of
sleep.
Sleep Onset (hypnagogic stage)
• When you are the onset of sleep you
experience alpha waves.
• Produces mild hallucinations, like a
feeling of falling.
• Lose awareness of time
Stage 1
• Kind of awake and
kind of asleep.
• Only lasts a few
minutes, and you
usually only
experience it once a
night.
Stage 2
• Brain waves get
progressively slower.
• Begin to show sleep
spindles…short
bursts of rapid brain
waves.
Stages 3 and 4
• Slow wave sleep.
• You produce Delta
waves.
• If awoken you will be
very groggy.
• Vital for restoring
body’s growth
hormones and good
overall health.
From stage 4, your brain begins to speed up and you
go to stage 3, then 2….then ……
What can happen during Stage 4??
• Sleep walking, talking
• Night terrors (common
among children b/t
ages of 3-12)
• Why?
• Your body is NOT
paralyzed during this
stage
Stages of Sleep
REM Sleep
• Rapid Eye Movement
• Often called
paradoxical sleep.
• Brain is very active
with alpha waves.
• Dreams usually occur
in REM.
• Body is essentially
paralyzed.
So…..
• Amount of REM increases as night goes on
• Amount of NREM decreases
• REM sleep = alpha waves (Alpha/active)
• Stage 4 sleep = delta waves (Delta/deep)
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ihJnOTGj8A&feature=relatedhttp://www.yout
ube.com/watch?v=pihygVBjAYU&feature=relat
ed
REM Rebound
• If you fail to get your
REM the night before,
the brain will attempt to
double up on the time
spent in REM the next
night
True or False????
1. When sleeping, the brain blocks out all
outside stimuli.
2. PET scans reveal that the parietal and frontal
lobes are active during REM sleep.
3. Some people never dream.
4. As we age, we switch from becoming “night
owls” to a “morning” person.
5. Infants spend about 16 hours in REM.
Sleep Disorders
Insomnia
• Persistent problems
falling asleep
• Effects 10% of the
population
Narcolepsy
• http://www.youtube.co
m/watch?v=X0h2nleWT
wI
Click above to see Skeeter the narcoleptic dog.
• Suffer from
sleeplessness and
may fall asleep at
unpredictable or
inappropriate times.
• Directly into REM
sleep
• Less than .001 % of
population.
Sleep Apnea
• A person stops
breathing during
their sleep.
• Wake up momentarily,
gasps for air, then
falls back asleep.
• Very common,
especially in heavy
males.
• Marked by loud
• snoring
http://www.youtube.co
m/watch?v=Wm-TZdO_rQ
Night Terrors
• Wake up with rapid
heart beat, panicked
and have no idea
why.
• Not a nightmare.
• Most common in
children (boys)
between ages 2-8.
Somnambulism
• Sleep Walking
• Most often occurs
during the first few
hours of sleeping and
in stage 4 (deep
sleep).
• If you have had
night terrors, you
are more likely to
sleep walk when
older.
Why do we need sleep?
• 1. It protects us
(ancestors didn’t walk
around much in the
dark)
• 2. helps restore cells,
tissues etc.
Effects of Sleep Deprivation
•
•
•
•
Difficulty concentrating
Decreased productivity, more errors
Increased irritability, moodiness
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zIV1f6aJH
cM&feature=related
Why Do We Dream?
A few theories:
1. Freud’s Theory of Dreams
• Freud felt that
dreams are a
roadway into our
unconscious.
• He thought they
were a safe way to
discharge
unacceptable urges,
feeling
Freud’s theory about dreams
• He analyzed dreams
into two parts:
1. Manifest Content
(the dream’s
storyline)
2. Latent Content (the
dream’s underlying
meaning)
Ex of Freud’s analysis:
Manifest Content:
• “I was a child again and was playing in the
front yard. All of a sudden a big storm
developed. I ran into the house for cover and
next thing I know, a tree from the yard blows
down and falls on the house.”
Freud ex. Con’t:
Latent Content
The dream reveals a trauma that occurred in childhood, probably
molestation. The storm represents something that took away
your childhood (the storm forced you to stop playing). The
house represents your female reproductive organs which
were hurt by male genitalia, the tree.
2. Activation-Synthesis
Theory
• Our Cerebral Cortex
is trying to interpret
random electrical
activity we have
while sleeping.
• That is why dreams
sometimes make no
sense.
• Biological Theory.
3. Information-Processing
Theory
• We are merely
processing the events
of the day.
• Dreams are a way to
deal with the
stresses of everyday
life.
• We tend to dream
more when we are
more stressed.
Hypnosis
Videos
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KTml6AY1RQ&feature=related
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h4aB6vvV
liE&feature=related
Hypnosis
• Is it an altered
state of
consciousness?
What is:
• Posthypnotic
suggestion
• Posthypnotic
amnesia
Hypnosis:
Myth or Truth?
Place a M if the statement is a myth
Place a T if the statement is true
Which of the following is backed by
research evidence?
Under hypnosis:
• 1 your memory is more accurate.
• 2. you can “age regress” with remarkable
accuracy
• 3. can get people to tell the truth
• 4. get people to feel less pain
• 5. get people to do unlawful things
• 6. can demonstrate superhuman strength
Who makes for a good subject to
hypnotize?
 10-15% Very difficult to hypnotize
 70-80% Can experience some suggestions
 10-15% Can experience all or most
suggestions, even difficult ones
*easiest are most imaginative and fantasy prone
Hypnotic Theories:
1. Social Influence
2. Divided Consciousness
Theory
Social Influence Theory
• Think hypnosis is NOT
an altered state of
consciousness.
• Believe it is a social
phenomenon where
people want to believe
and are trying to please
the hypnotist.
• Works better on people
with richer fantasy
lives.
Divided Consciousness Theory
• They believe that hypnosis IS an
altered state of consciousness.
• They argue:
Subjects will carry out suggestion
even when no one
is watching!!!!
How does the Divided
Consciousness theory explain
hypnosis?
• They believe that consciousness is truly
divided under hypnosis
Conscious
mind
Co
Under
hypnosis
Dissociation
• Demonstrated by
researcher, Ernest
Hilgard.
• We voluntarily divide
our consciousness up
like when we doodle in
class or get lost in a
good book.
• Ice Water Experiment.
• We have a “hidden
observer”, a level of us
that is always aware.
Examples of dissociation
• Highway hypnosis
• Getting “lost” in a good book or movie and
not hear someone calling your name
• Your eyes scan to read, but your mind does
not actually read
Drugs
Drugs are either….
• Agonists
• Antagonists
• Reuptake inhibitors
If a drug is used often, a
tolerance is created for
the drug.
Thus you need more of the
drug to feel the same
effect.
If you stop using a drug
you can develop
withdrawal symptoms.
Stimulants
• Speed up body
processes.
• More powerful ones
(like cocaine) give
people feelings of
invincibility.
Depressants
• Slows down body
processes.
• Alcohol
• Barbiturates and
tranquilizers
Hallucinogens
• Psychedelics
• Causes changes in
perceptions of
reality
• LSD, peyote,
psilocybin
mushrooms and
marijuana.
• Reverse tolerance or
synergistic effect
Opiates
• Has depressive and
hallucinogenic qualities.
• Agonist for endorphins.
• Derived from poppy
plant.
• Morphine, heroin,
methadone and codeine.
• All these drugs cross
the placental
barrier….teratogens.
How drugs work
• http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addict
ion/
• “Drug of Abuse”
• “Mouse party”