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Course FINA 4000 Financial Institutions and Markets Professor Ralph E. Steuer Terry College of Business Fall 2013 8/13 1 Purpose To understand • an economy’s financial system • how it finances the economy • how it oversees the economy’s money supply Does this by facilitating the movement of money from where it is in excess to where it is most needed (to help an economy prosper). Also, to understand • much about the financial issues we read about in the paper every day 8/13 2 Two Parts 1. Financial institutions 2. Financial markets …and the there is Money 8/13 3 1. Financial Institutions commercial banks, mortgage lenders, investment banks, central bank, government sponsored enterprises, mutual fund companies, bond insurance companies, … Other than for central bank, goal is to bring money in at a low rate and deploy it at a higher rate. Cover costs and make profits mostly by means of the interest rate spread. 8/13 4 2. Financial Markets Bond market, commercial paper market, US Treasuries market, money market, Fed Funds market, credit default swaps market, New York Stock Exchange, Overthe-Counter market, primary market, secondary market,… Venues where people buy and sell financial claims (securities or financial instruments). Commissions and fees typically cover costs and provide profits for the markets. Cannot have an advanced economy as in the US, Canada, Japan, Germany,… without an efficient financial system. 8/13 5 Financial Claims • A financial claim is a claim on the issuer’s future income or assets. • With financial claims, there is an issuer and a holder. • While issuer remains the same, the holder may change many times. • Legislation and regulation give financial claims strength – makes them legally enforceable. 8/13 6 Best Known Financial Instruments A bond is a long-term (one or more years) debt instrument that obligates the issuer to make specific payments at specific times to the holder. A stock is a claim on the income and assets of a corporation. While stocks are the most widely followed, world of debt instruments is much larger. 8/13 7 Money Markets vs. Capital Markets Money Markets Capital Markets < 1 year ≥ 1 year corporate stock short-term debt debt more than one year yellow is this course 8/13 8 Money Markets vs. Capital Markets (US) Money Markets $10 trillion* short term debt Capital Markets $50 trillion* 1/3* corporate stock debt more than one year *roughly 8/13 9 How Big is $1 billion? Annual revenue of UGA is roughly $2 billion. Marketcaps Citigroup Costco Apple Exxon Mobil General Motors Alcoa AFLAC 8/13 156B 50B 412B 399B 49B 9B 28B 10 Appreciating $1 trillion 8/13 11 $1 million 8/13 12 $100 million 8/13 13 $1 billion 8/13 14 $1 trillion 8/13 15 Some Comments about Money • Although amount of cash outstanding is growing, usage of cash is in decline. • Cash in domestic use down to ≈2.5% of GDP. • $1 bill lasts ≈40 months, costs 10 cents to make. • While US Mint not producing as many 1’s, 5’s and 10’s, demand for 100’s has exploded. • $700 billion in 100’s outstanding, 2/3rds held by foreigners. • Total US currency outstanding near $1 trillion. • “legal tender” means only lenders are required to accept. 8/15 16 Economic Units Economic units (i.e., units that have a budget) fall into three categories • Households • Business firms • Governments For any period, an economic unit’s budget will be in a • Balanced position • Surplus position • Deficit position 8/15 17 SSUs and DSUs Surplus spending units (SSUs) have income for the period that exceeds expenditures, results in savings. Deficit spending units (DSUs) have spending needs for the period that exceed money they have on hand. DSUs issue financial claims to obtain the funds they need. SSUs only part with their money if the characteristics of the financial claims they receive are to their satisfaction. 8/15 18 Challenge of Financial System Task of matching up DSUs with SSUs. 1. Direct financing -- one end of financing continuum. Normally one’s first choice. No middleman. Often better this way if possible. 2. Indirect financing – other end of continuum. Involves use of an intermediary. Most financing is done in this way because direct financing often not practical. 8/15 19 Direct Financing SSU DSU Households Business firms Governments Households Business firms Governments Occurs when an SSU purchases a financial claim directly from a DSU. Example: Borrowing money from parents to start a business. 8/15 20 Difficulties of Direct Financing SSU DSU Households Business firms Governments Households Business firms Governments • DSU and SSU need place to come together • Characteristics of financial claim must be agreeable to both parties • • • • • denomination maturity risk liquidity of financial claim (i.e., marketability) any other important characteristics Any problem here could be a deal breaker. 8/15 21 Direct Financing Balance Sheets SSU Assets Liabilities DSU Assets Liabilities A financial claim is an asset to its holder, and a liability to its issuer. 8/15 22 Liquidity Ability to convert quickly into cash (or cash equivalent) without a price concession. • Liquid investments • Illiquid investments 8/15 23 Importance of Liquidity (Marketability) Importance of being able to resell financial claim. Suppose: SSU has $2 million to lend for 3 yrs. a DSU needs $2 million for 20 yrs. denomination, okay risk, okay maturity, not okay. Problem solved if there is marketability (SSU able to sell financial claim for fair price after 3 yrs) Being able to achieve liquidity, for example, by marketability always helps a lot. Good to have well functioning markets. 8/15 24 Indirect Financing SSU DSU Households Business firms Governments Households Business firms Governments financial intermediary Indirect financing is when money flows from an SSU through an intermediary to a DSU. DSU and SSU probably never know each other. An intermediary transforms the characteristics of financial claims. 8/20 25 Transformation of Claims Financial intermediation means selling financial claims to SSUs with one set of characteristics, and buying financial claims from DSUs with another set of characteristics. Financial intermediaries specialize in this for SSUs and DSUs to get money moved. 8/20 26 Indirect Financing Balance Sheets SSU Assets DSU Assets Liabilities Liabilities Financial Intermediary Assets Liabilities 8/20 27 Indirect Financing Because an SSU’s claim is against the financial intermediary rather than the DSU, the financing from DSU to SSU is indirect. A commercial bank typically issues financial claims to SSUs in the form of checking accounts, savings accounts, certificates of deposit,… Then with the money, buys financial claims from DSUs. Whereas SSUs can always achieve liquidity with financial claims from an intermediary, financial claims held by a financial intermediary from DSUs are typically not liquid. 8/20 28 Advantages of Intermediaries • Economies of scale due to specialization and ability to spread out fixed costs. • Reduced costs in search for credit information (only done needs to be done once per DSU). • Often privy to more than what comes up in a normal credit check due to being an involved as a member of the community (helps intermediary make better loans). 8/20 29 Intermediation Services 1. Denomination Divisibility. Pool the savings of many small SSUs into large investments. 2. Currency Conversion. Buy and sell financial claims denominated in various currencies. 3. Maturity Flexibility. Maturities, from 1 day to 30 years, to both DSUs and SSUs. 4. Credit Risk (probability money not paid back as promised) Diversification. Enables SSUs to not put all of one’s eggs in one basket. 5. Liquidity. SSU savings at an intermediary are usually immediately or quickly convertible into cash – generally accept low rates for the privilege. 8/20 30 Risks Faced by Financial Institutions 1. Credit risk 2. Interest rate risk – security price fluctuations as a result of changes in interest rates 3. Liquidity risk 4. Foreign exchange risk – if deal in foreign currencies or have investments abroad 5. Political risk 8/20 31 Interest Conventional theory -- interest is reward an SSU receives for postponing consumption, and penalty a DSU pays for consuming before the money is earned. In normal times, interest rates adjust to match supply and demand. Only part-true now because some rates so close to zero, can’t go down much. Reward aside, many people now saving just to keep money safe. 8/20 32 Brokers vs. Dealers Brokers do not take a position. Simply specialize in matching buyers with sellers. Make money by charging a fixed or percentage fee. Dealers “make markets” by buying at any time for inventory, and selling at any time from inventory. Make money by buying low and selling high. 8/20 33 OTC When people say over-the-counter (OTC), mean going through a dealer. OTC markets generally have no central location like organized exchanges. Vast majority of debt instrument markets are OTC. 8/20 34 Primary Market vs. Secondary Market Primary market is a financial market where new issues are sold to initial buyers. Secondary market is where people can buy and sell already existing financial claims. • People are more likely to buy a financial claim in the primary market if there is a secondary market. • Provides liquidity (ability to convert to cash) for the financial claim. 8/20 35 U.S. Population Now nearing 320 million Net gain of one person every 13 seconds 8/20 36 2012 World GDP (PPP) and Population World 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. European Union United States China India Japan Russia Germany France Brazil UK Mexico Italy South Korea $85,538 billion 16,805 15,685 12,471 4,793 4,487 3,373 3,349 2,372 2,366 2,333 2,022 2,017 1,540 PPP 8/20 is Purchasing Power Parity 7,104 million 320 (3) 1,359 (1) 1,232 (2) 127 (10) 143 (9) 80 (16) 65 (21) 194 (5) 63 (22) 117 (11) 59 (23) 50 (26) 37 2012 World GDP Per Capita (PPP) 8/25 38 4 Categories of Financial Intermedaries Assets Liabilities 39 11 Types of Financial Intermediaries Total assets of financial intermediaries ≈ 3 × GDP 40 Deposits at FDIC-insured Institutions Standard insurance amount is $250,000 per depositor/per institution (through 2013) as follows: Single Accounts (owned by one person) $250,000 per owner Joint Accounts (two or more persons) $250,000 per co-owner Revocable Trust Accounts $250,000 per owner per beneficiary up to 5* What happens if a married couple has $1 million to deposit? Can do at one bank, but must open 3 accounts. Can go over $1 million, but that involves accounts with non-spousal beneficiaries. Probably best to open additional accounts at additional institutions. *can do more than 5 but rules get more strict. 41 Comments 1. Credit unions are non-profit, cooperative organizations. They take in money via checking and savings accounts with the idea of making consumer installment loans to members. 2. Life and casualty insurance companies: Since casualty claims less predictable, a greater proportion of a casualty insurance company’s investments must be in highly marketable securities. 3. Thrift institutions also known as “Savings and Loans.” Like a bank, but chartered under different set of rules. Still some around, but not as many since the S&L crisis 1986-1995. Mopping up S&L crisis cost Government $150 billion. 42 Comments (con’t) 4. Since inflow and outflows of pension funds can be predicted with a considerable accuracy, can invest in very long-term projects (like private equity, hedge funds, venture capital). Private equity: idea is to buy all shares of a company, restructure company, then sell in later at a higher price 5. Money Market Mutual Funds: Uninsured substitutes for deposit accounts. They usually buy money market instruments. SSUs usually get slightly higher rate of interest. 43 Money Market Instruments Used by financial institutions and businesses to adjust their liquidity positions. Three characeristics of money market instruments (a) maturities < one year, (b) active secondary markets (c) low risk of default. 44 Disintermediation when SSUs take money out of a financial intermediary to invest in financial claims via direct financing. 45