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WARRIORS,
CONQUISTADORS &
FREEDOM FIGHTERS
How did European colonies in Latin America
and the Caribbean develop their
independence?
Latin America
ESSENTIAL QUESTION
How did European colonies in Latin America
and the Caribbean develop their
independence?
Aztec Review
The Aztec empire was located in
central and southern Mexico. The
Aztecs were the most powerful
civilization at the time of European
exploration.
Capital-Tenochtitlan. Modern day
Mexico City.
The Aztecs were known for their
warriors, engineering, human sacrifice,
artwork and clan social structure.
In 1521, the Aztecs were conquered by
the Spanish, led by Cortes.
Hernan Cortes—Conquistador
Born in 1485 in Spain
•
At 19, he sailed to the Americas to live
and learn how colonies were run. He
became mayor of a town in Cuba.
•
In 1518, he was told to go to Mexico to
defeat the Aztecs. Upon getting there,
other native groups joined them.
•
He was welcomed by the Aztec Leader,
Montezuma II, so the Aztec defeat
started easier than they had planned.
•
Montezuma II—Aztec Ruler
Aztec ruler from 1500 to 1520. Considered
the greatest Aztec ruler.
Expanded the empire—forced conquered
tribes to pay the empire high taxes and give
their people for human sacrifices.
He thought Cortez was a god-like being and
welcomed him with gifts and gold.
Cortez took him hostage and ruled his
empire. In 1520, the Spanish and Aztecs
fought and Montezuma was killed.
The Spanish destroyed Tenochtitlan and built
Mexico City. For the next 300 years, Mexico
was under Spanish control.
Inca Review – Incan Empire
Began in the early 1400’s.
Stretched over 2000 miles in
western South America.
Known for wealth, textiles,
roads, terrace farming,
mathematics and accounting.
Spanish wiped out much of
the culture, but the language
(Quechua), farming
techniques, and textile
making remain a part of the
local culture.
Francisco Pizarro




Born in Spain in 1475
Pig farmer as a boy
In 1502 went to
Hispaniola and learned
about exploring and
conquering
In 1523, he led a
voyage to the west coast
of South America, just
south of Panama
Francisco Pizarro


He was told by Indian
traders that there was
a very rich country to
the south.
In 1531, he became
viceroy (governor) of
the lands and took 3
ships, 200 men, and 3
dozen horses to
conquer the Inca
Atahualpa—The Last Sapa Inca
(ah-tah-wahl-pah)
Fought with his brother
about who would control
the empire.
The Sapa Inca (lnca
leader) was thought to
be a descendant of the
sun god.
Atahualpa was tricked
by the Spanish under
Pizarro in 1532, and this
event made for the last
of the Inca empire.
The Last Encounter with the Inca




A meeting was arranged between Pizarro and
Atahualpa.
When Atahualpa approached, the Spanish
attacked – he was ambushed!
Pizarro captured Atahualpa and demanded
ransom.
He was executed in 1533 by Pizarro. This was the
end of the empire.
Spanish Settlements

Pizarro became wealthy and powerful.
 He
founded Lima, Peru and built a palace.
 Other Spanish were jealous of his wealth.


In 1541, Pizarro was killed in an attack on his
palace.
For the next 300 years, the Spanish continued to
rule the land.
The Columbian Exchange

What is it?





Named after Christopher Columbus.
The exchange of animals, plants, people, and diseases from the
Old World to the New World and New World to Old World
New to Old: potatoes, tomatoes, corn, cacao bean
Old to New: diseases, horses, wheat, coffee beans, sugar cane
How did it affect Latin America?



The goods brought from Europe changed farming—plantations
and slave labor were started.
The indigenous (native) population was defeated because of
disease.
Horses allowed further and faster travel and ideas and goods
spread.
The Columbian Exchange
Slavery in Latin America

Because of the Columbian Exchange, Europeans in
America needed cheap labor.
 Labor
for mining the metals
 Labor for farming the plantations

Why weren't’t the native people the slaves?
 The
natives were dying or weakened from disease,
violence with the Europeans, and harsh conditions.
 Many retreated to the mountains and jungles.
Slavery in Latin America





Brought from Africa by ship.
Most brought to the tropical areas of Latin America
where plantations were large.
Conditions were very similar to the conditions that
slaves in North America endured.
For 300 years slavery grew.
As different countries gained freedom in the
1800’s, slavery ended.
Descendants of Slaves


Many of the descendants of African slaves are part
of the culture today.
Mulattoes - people with both African and European
background.
 People
with only African ancestors and people with
African and European ancestors make up a large part
of the population in the tropics. Cuba-60%, Brazil-50%

Mestizos-A person with mixed Spanish and Native
American background.
Influence on Language and Religion


As the Spanish and Portuguese conquered Latin
America, they spread their language and religion.
Spanish
 Most
of Central America
 Most of South America
 Caribbean Islands

Portuguese
 Brazil-because
it is so large, almost as many people in
Latin America speak Portuguese as Spanish.
Influence on Language and Religion


Important to note that these were the official
languages for government, business and power.
However, many indigenous people still speak their
native languages.
Others blended their native languages with
European languages. For example, Haitians speak
Haitian Creole-a blend of French and native African
languages.
Influence on Language and Religion
When the conquistadors and settlers
came to Latin America, they sent priests,
friars, and monks to set up missions.
 Some native groups were forced to say
they were Christian, others mixed
Christianity and their traditional beliefs.

A Desire for Freedom
The governments of Spain and Portugal ruled most of
Latin America for nearly 300 years. Over time, the
people being ruled by the Europeans became
agitated over their treatment and conditions. The
American Revolution in 1776 gave some in Latin
American the idea that they too could be free. In
1789, the French Revolution showed that the kings
of Europe could be beaten. These events encouraged
Latin Americans in the belief that they might be able
to overcome their European rulers.
ACTIVATOR
Brainstorm:
What conditions make you want to advocate
(stand up) for yourself or others? Why do
those conditions make you want to advocate
for yourself?
Toussaint L’Ouverture (“Opening”)
Born a slave in the mid-1700’s.
Father had been a free African who
was captured and sold into slavery.
Plantation owner allowed him to learn
to read and write.
In 1789 the French Revolution occurred
and the new French government
granted freedom to slaves in Haiti, but
then in 1791, they took back the
freedom.
Toussaint was furious and led a slave
army to defeat the French troops and
win freedom for slaves.
Toussaint L’Ouverture (“Opening”)




1793- French government abolished slavery.
Toussaint led his men against invading British and
Spanish troops.
He became in charge of Saint Dominique (Haiti)
even though it was a French colony.
1802-Napolean, the French emperor, sent troops to
regain control. Toussaint was captured and sent to
France where he died.
By 1804, Haiti gained independence.
Simon Bolivar (“The Liberator”)


Born in 1783 into a wealthy
family in Caracas (Venezuela)
Organized armies and gained
independence from Spain for:
 Bolivia
(named after Bolivar)
 Colombia
 Ecuador
 Panama
 Peru
 Venezuela
Miguel Hidalgo (“Father”)




Known as the Father of
Mexican independence
Born in 1753
Had a good education
Worked among the
native people and
peasants and did not
like how they were
treated
Miguel Hidalgo



He was a priest who led a peasant army against
the Spanish army in Mexico.
He was captured and executed by Spanish soldiers
in 1811, but the war for independence continued.
In 1821, Spain withdrew the last of its troops and
Mexico was independent.
Review
Recall and Respond
Define Mestizos, Criollo and Mulattoes