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Transcript

Euratom TORE SUPRA Matching ITER-like structures G. Bosia G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Introduction From a power transfer point of view, an IC array can be described as a multi-primary transformer, inductively coupled between themselves and to two secondaries, ( plasma and vessel), also mutually coupled, one of which (the plasma) has variable electrical parameters. The two secondary currents can be “reflected “ in the primaries and the result is a N x N matrix problem of the type : ZL I V where ZL is the so called “plasma impedance matrix”, with elements describing array, plasma and vessel electrical parameters, and including all couplings and asymmetries . The problem of matching the power sources ( Vk = R0 Ik) leads to an eigenvalue problem of the type ZL R0 I Rp Mp Rv Xp Mv Xv 0 where R0 is a diagonal matrix. G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Control of currents flow in a generic IC array ZL R0 I 0 The equation represents an over-constrained system with no general solution, unless: 1) the impedance elements of the primaries are suitably modified by combinations of auxiliary reactances (matching elements). 2) inequalities between the real parts of diagonal and not diagonal terms of the resulting matrix are fulfilled. . This represent the fact that the total RF power within in the vessel must go somewhere, and if it is not dissipated in the plasma or in the vessel it comes back to the sources and, depending of the vectorial relations between sources, may choose one or more of them as a load. The conditions for the solution of the problem are easy to compute for a 2x2 matrix, somewhat difficult already for a 4x4 matrix, overhelming for a 24x24 element matrix describing the ITER array G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Control of currents flow in a generic array The fast wave physics is related to magnetic coupling, i.e. to the pattern of the array currents. Wave damping in the bulk plasma is related to k// and k symmetric spectra and a asymmetric k// spectrum is required CD. The plasma edge response is related to the array current pattern (sheaths) and not so much to the global voltage pattern. RF voltage is however locally important, since the electric field should not exceed the local “ vacuum” dielectric strength and excessive particles acceleration and at the limit voltage breakdowns Single strap In an array where the elements are individually powered, the strap current can be controlled I V V = (Ls+ Lf) I G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA ICH untuned poloidal array elements In most of the present IC systems, two- strap untuned poloidal array are used to reduce the on-plasma voltage Oddly enough, in these systems, the pattern of the currents coupled to the plasma is not controlled. In an untuned poloidal array, an even power division is possible only if both a array and load are symmetric and this on a very limited frequency band. Therefore the radiation spectrum is load and frequency dependent, and it is likely to be affected by local dielectric properties of the “vacuum” at the first wall V V = (Ls+ Lf/2+ Lf/2) I An untuned array is proposed also for ITER V = (Ls+ Lf/3+ Lf/2) I G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA ICH tuned poloidal array elements A good level of control of the poloidal currents is possible in tuned poloidal arrays such as the Resonant Double Loop (RDL) V Here the control of the reactive part of the current is possible by making use of the tuning capacitors. V = (Ls+ Lf) I In the ITER-like (ILS) structure, currents are controlled to be complex conjugate, to optimize load resilience G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Matching and array currents control • • • A primary requirement in IC operation is to match the array, for an efficient power transfer. This is done by adding “tuning” reactances in the primary circuits, in general variable to cope with frequency changes. In a relatively complex array such as the ITER array it is an advantage to minimise the number of tuning components. A R-L isolated load can be perfectly matched to a resistive impedance by using a series/parallel combination of two reactances and, in an array, two more are in principle needed to decouple two neighbour elements. • The number of tuning elements can be reduced if some symmetry can be claimed in the impedance matrix. In most tokamak applications toroidal symmetry is assumed. • A tight control of the currents in the array elements helps in preserving symmetry in the array and reducing the number of tuning elements G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Active array radiation spectrum control, by feedback • Substantial reductions in the number of the tuning components, simplification in matching acquisition and upholding and (in IL structures) load resilience, can be obtained if the array current pattern is feedback controlled. • This has the additional important advantage that the array radiation pattern is preserved against load changes. G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA What plasma impedance matrix should we expect in ITER? To answer this question an accurate description of how the RF power is scattered back from the plasma to the array is needed this is affected : •by the dielectric properties of the scrape off plasma •by the antenna geometry We have for the moment only partial answers : • • . In vacuum On a “ dielectric” plasma (eR = 200 + 200 i) G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA 2X2 array impedance matrix in vacuum G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA 2X2 array impedance matrix with dielectric plasma G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom (As)symmetries of Z matrix induced by the target medium : summary TORE SUPRA •Antenna = 22 array, 4 identical poloidal straps. •All symmetries verified with ICANT. Vacuum = dielectric with toroidal B0 Z11 Z 12 Z13 Z14 Z12 Z11 Z14 Z13 Z13 Z14 Z11 Z12 Z14 Z13 Z12 Z11 4 independant elements / 16 G. Bosia Anisotropic Dielectric, tilted B0 Z11 Z 12 Z13 Z14 Z12 Z13 Z 22 Z 23 Z 23 Z 22 Z13 Z12 Z14 Z13 Z12 Z11 6 independant elements / 16 Magnetized plasma, toroidal B0 Z11 Z 12 Z 31 Z 41 Z12 Z13 Z11 Z14 Z 41 Z11 Z 31 Z12 Z14 Z13 Z12 Z11 6 independant elements / 16. “Matching ITER-like structures” Magnetized plasma, tilted B0 Z11 Z 21 Z 31 Z 41 Z12 Z 22 Z 32 Z 31 Z13 Z 23 Z 22 Z 21 Z14 Z13 Z12 Z11 10 independant elements / 16 Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Reduction of apparent interstrap coupling • 0.2 0.02 0.1 0.01 S12 / S11 (full septum) S12 / S1 (retracted septum) It can be shown that the effects of inter-strap coupling can be reduced by shielding the straps by means of toroidal and poloidal septa. However the currents induced in the septa modify the radiation spectrum of the array with a tendency of reducing the apparent plasma coupling. 0 - 0.1 0.2 0 0.01 0.02 20 40 60 80 40 60 80 Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz) G. Bosia 20 “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA ITER-like structure : Simple (ITER Reference Design) case Rs R0 i X1 R0 i X0. I1 0 R i X R R i X s 0 0 2 I2 0 I1 R0 + i X0 X2 I2 Xs2 X0 XC2 X0 Rs R0 i Xs1 Xsm XC1 R0 1 XCM 2 XCM XM XCM XCM 0 I1 0 Rs2 R0 i Xs2 Xsm XC2 I2 R0 XC1 XC2 1 2 I1M XC1 XC2 0 XM G. Bosia X2 If, in addition, we impose X1 R2 Xs1 X0 XC1 X1 R1 I2M Rs 2 R0 Rs Xs XM Iin V Rs i Rs 2 R0 Rs V Rs i Rs 2 R0 Rs V R0 Xs XM “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Resilience to load variations An “ideal” ITER-like structure is resilient to load variations if it is matched to an input resistance R0 typically 5 times the load resistance Rs 2 Z1 = Rs1+1i Xs1 XC1 Z0 = R0+1i X0 XC2 Z2 = Rs2+1i Xs2 Voltage standing rwave ratio RM XM R0= 30 0 S max 1.75 1 R0= 22 R0= 14 1.5 . S max 1.25 1 1.35 0 R0= 6 2.69 4.03 5.36 6.7 Load resistance (ohm) It was suggested 1) that the load resilience would be impaired by the inductive coupling between straps. 1) G. Bosia A. Messsiaen, 15th Topical Conference on Power Application to Plasmas (2003) “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA ITER-like structure : General case I1 Rm1+i Xm1 R 1 1i X 1 R m2 1i X m2 I 1 0 R m1 1i X m1 R 2 1i X 2 I 2 R1 X1 R0 + i X0 Rm2+i Xm2 Rk Rsk R0 Xk Xsk X0 XCk R2 Rmk Rsm2 R0 Xmk Xsm1 X0 X2 I2 Order of magnitudes: (Rs, Xs Rsm, Xsm are the arithmetic average of Rsk, Xsk Rsmk, Xsmk and Rs, Xs Rsm, Xsm the asymmetries. R0~ 5 G. Bosia X0 ~ 0 Rs< 1 Xs ~ 20 Rsm< Rs<< R0 Xsm< Xs Rsk< Rs<< R0 Xsk<< Xs Rsm< Rs<< R0 Xsm<< Xsmk “Matching ITER-like structures” but not << X0 Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA ITER-like structure: General case (approximate) Rs << R0 , Rsm << R0 , If Xs << Xs , Xsm < Xs but not << X0 Rs R0 i X1 R0 i X0 Xsm I1 0 R i X X R R i X 0 sm s2 0 2 I2 0 Rs 1 2 Rs1 Rs2 1 Rs If, in addition, we impose 2 Xsm X0 Rs R0 i Xs1 Xsm XC1 R0 XCM Xs Xsm XM XCM XCM Rs G. Bosia Xs XM 1 2 1 2 I1M V R0 i Xsm V R0 i Xsm Xs1 X0 XC1 X2 Xs2 X0 XC2 I1 0 R R i X X X s2 0 s2 sm C2 I2 XC1 XC2 0 X1 R0 I2M XC1 XC22 Rs1 Rs2 Iin R0 Rs i Rs 2 R0 Rs R0 Rs i Rs 2 R0 Rs V R0 i Xsm “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Conclusions on matching a single ILS An ILS, however asymmetrically loaded and internally non conductively coupled, can always be perfectly matched in conditions of optimum load resilience, by using less than four tuning reactances (which is the minimum legal number for resonantly tuning two isolated straps). The number of necessary tuning elements is however reduced to three or two if the ILS is symmetrically loaded and internal not-conductive coupling remain within specific limit. 1st message: If you design your ILS with the two half sections heavily coupled, (more than -15dB) it will cost you one more tuner. 2nd message (demonstrated in the appendix of the paper) If you randomly design your ILS it will cost you two tuners per strap 3th message If the ILS mismatch is small, and therefore line voltage and losses are small, re-tuning can be performed at the generator end. G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Preserving load resilience by control of the ILS currents The admittances in the two half sections of an arbitrarily coupled and loaded ILS can be feedback controlled to be complex conjugate, independent of load asymmetry and coupling, by using the two tuning capacitors. The capacitors should be adjusted to: XC XC Xs Xsm tan ( f) Rs Rsm Xs Rs Rs Xsm Rsm Rs tan ( f) Rs Xsm Rs Rsm R0 cos ( f) Rs Rsm sin ( f) Xs XC Xsm where Rs, Xs, Rsm, Xsm XC, and Rs, Xs, Rsm, Xsm XC are arithmetic averages and asymmetries of the matrix elements, f is the conjugate angle and R0 =1/ Y0 is the (real and mismatched ) input resistance . In asymmetrically loaded/coupled circuits, a voltage unbalance is associated with the symmetry of the currents: This is however irrelevant to the heating process with the fast wave, and simply sets a power limit to the operation G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Generic layout of a tuned ILS Main Transmission Line Decoupler Trimmer Pretuner Isolator ILS Load end G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” RF source Decoupler Source end Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Functions of the Pre-tuner • The function of the Pre-tuner is to feedback control the input admittances to be complex conjugated, by using the tuning capacitors. • The control loop conditions are : Re(Yin1) - Re(Yin2) = 0 and Im Yin1)+ Im(Yin2) = 0 Re(I1/Iin)- Re(I2/Iin)=0 and Im(I1/Iin)+Im(I2/Iin)=0 or equivalently • The conjugate angle is load dependent and it increases with the load power factor. This conditions provides the optimum load resilience, independent of loading and coupling, and it corresponds to perfect match for an ideal ILs. • The electrical behaviour of the circuit is uniquely determined, and the feedback controlled ILS behaves as a load dependent resistive impedance Zin ~ R0(Rs, Xs, Rsm, Xsm XC,, Rs, Xs, Rsm, Xsm) .• If the impedance matrix is reasonably diagonal and symmetric (as for example in the case of ITER (R0 = 4 , kp ~ 0.01 and Xs ~ 20 , the mismatch is low and in general compatible with the power source specifications G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Functions of the ILS Pretuner • For higher coupling coefficients and asymmetries, the mismatch is eliminated by a two reactance trimmer • As the both module and phase of the currents are vectorially controlled, adjacent array elements can be phased in self decoupling “dipole” and “monopole” conditions. If this is done with adequate accuracy, the array “phase instability” is avoided. 43.8 |I1|- |I2| = 0 kp = 0.0 43.8 |I1|- |I2| = 0 C2 pF 42 C2 pF42 40 40 38.8 38.8 38 38 36 36 34 33.8 (Arg(I1) - Arg(Iin) + (Arg(I2) - Arg(Iin) = 0 (Arg(I1) - Arg(Iin) + (Arg(I2) - Arg(Iin) = 0 34 m33.8 G. Bosia kp = 0.04 36 38 34 40 38.8 42 C 1 (pF) 43.8 33.8 34 33.8 m “Matching ITER-like structures” 36 38 38.8 40 42 C 1 (pF) 43.8 Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Coupling effects on networks of independently powered elements • This behaviour applies to all linear networks fed by multiple sources. It is not at all typical of ILS arrays, and it has been studied before for the JET A1 phased antennas within the program of ICH minority current dive. F>F F<Fcrit crit XXC1 C1 II11 IaI XXC2 C2 a I2I VVa a RRs1 s1 kkt t XXs1 s1 IbI VVb b RRs2 s2 kkp p b 2 XXs2 s2 XXs3 s3 kkt t kkpp XXs4 s4 RRs3 s3 XXC3 C3 I3I 3 RRs4 s4 I4I 4 XXC4 C4 1) G. Bosia, J.Jacquinot, “Phased Antennas Arrays for Fast Wave Power Generation” , Proc IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Fast Wave Current Drive in Reactor Scale Tokamaks, pp 471- 495 Arles (1991) G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Effects of coupling on independently powered array elements if the the array current pattern is not close to a “monopole” or “dipole” configuration • Source/s) asymmetries are propagated by toroidal and (to less extent) diagonal coupling in both real and imaginary parts of the elements of both matrices and degenerate multiple eigenvalue solutions. As consequence, match acquisition becomes a four-parameter adjustment problem. 0.01 0.023 kt Critical angle for a symmetric structure 0.037 (X = 50 , R = 1, R0= 4, kp = 0.01) 0.05 • If source(s) asymmetries exceed a critical values (dependent on circuit power factor and coupling coefficients), the match is not possible with purely reactive components, Critical phase angle • This was the primary reason for the difficulties encountered in matching the TS profotype in vacuum. 80 60 40 Kt =0.010 kt 20 0 0.1 G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” 0.2 0.01 =0.023 kK t t 0.023 0.3 Load resistance (Rs) Kt =0.037 kt 0.037 kt K0.005 t =0.05 0.4 Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 0.5 Euratom TORE SUPRA Functions of the ILS Trimmer In case of large array coupling/ asymmetries, the pre-tuner input impedance is Zin ~ (R0 + Rs +…) + i (Xsm+ Xs +….) where the additional terms are load dependent.in a complicated way Main Transmission Line Decoupler Trimmer In the most general case, the Trimmer is a two-reactance conventional tuning system operating wit time constant slower than the pre-tuner, so as to track its input impedance For CD purposes depending on inter element couupling and plasma loading decouplers may be or not be needed Isolator Decoupler Source end Isolators may be inserted at the input of the RF source, to make it operating at perfect match in any conditions. G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 RF source Euratom TORE SUPRA Matching the ITER array One of 12 module New layout Symmetric ILS layout Retracted first dielectric First vacuum containement Actuators Reference design Layout VTL ceramic supports G. Bosia Remouvable VTL “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Electrical response of the tuning system Electric field pattern at oerfect match (ideal ILS) G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Tuner EM response Input reactance G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Current distribution in the bridge Current probes Voltage probe G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Vectorial admittance detector C1 V0 I1 V I*k*I2 I*k*I1 I2 V1 V0 L L R R C2 C2 V2 RL Equivalent circuit Measured V1, V V2 The three monitors have very close Thevenin impedances and distorsions in transmission are the same. This makes vectorialmeasurements wideband G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Vectorial admittance detector If R<< L<<1/C2 V1 V i k I1 V2 V i k I2 C2 V 1 2 i k I1 I2 C1 V0 All ILS vectorial input parameters can be deduced by means of linear operations on V, V1 and V2. G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Array Integrated Control 1. The overall array operation is controlled by independently acting in parallel on each ILS, with four closed control loops, operating with equal time constants. The four loops control are : 2. The phase of the of the input currents to be 0 or p toroidally and 0 poloidally ( toroidal “dipole”, poloidal “monopole” 2. The input forward power to the value of P = 1/2R0 I2 by modulating the input forward voltage 3 &4 The admittances of all ILS half sections to be complex conjugate, by acting on asymmetry and average value of the tuning capacitors value and by applying the algorithms : 1. Re(Yin1) - Re(Yin2) = 0 and Im Yin1)+ Im(Yin2) = 0 3. The time constants of the fo ur loops should be selected in descending order. 4. Should a trimmer be necessary, the trimmer reactances should be operated by appying the perfect match algorithms Re(in1) = 0 and Im in1) = 0 5. with time constant(s) equal for each ILS slower then the ones of th pre-tuner, so as the trimmer tracks the pre-tuner 6. Should be decoupler be necessary, they should be operated with time constant(s) equal for each ILS and slower than the ones of the trimmer These combined controls will ensure within the time scale of the slowest loop : i) a load independent array k// spectrum; ii) full load resilience ,iii) a significantly decoupled operation of the array elements, stable control. G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Match acquisition in vacuum and on plasma 1. Low power array electrical characterization Prior to plasma operation the array elements need to be electrically characterized on a reproducible load (air and/ or vacuum) The low losses under this conditions ensure all control loops to operate at their maximum gain and possible servo instabilities can be readily detected. The purpose of the electrical characterization is to establish reproducible initial conditions for the control loops. It is desirable for the characterization to be performed using only monitoring equipment installed in the system and subsequently used on plasma operation, because this allows testing the overall system response The electrical characterization should be performed for all frequencies and array phase patterns used in operations It is assumed that for each ILS the vectorial values of all input currents are measured The input power should be regulated to a value low enough for the power source to accept 100% power reflection without damage and for the measurements to be performed with sufficient accuracy. The phase between input currents should be regulated by feedback loops and using a single phase reference to the desired phase pattern This is assumed to be: 0 p 0 p 0 p 0 p 0 p 0 p All control loops should operate G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA STEP 1: ILS Characterization at no and vacuum radiation losses 1. • • • Match without coupling Each array elements should be shielded from the other ones by conductive walls. This is obtained by covering the Faraday shield by a conductive metal sheet Load resilience conditions should be applied and automatically obtained. The array should also be perfectly matched. It should be noted that in this measurement load resilience is essentially lost because Rs << R0. The ILS no-radiation load (accounting for the copper losses in the resonant part of the circuit) can be deduced from the tuning capacitors calibration curves. 2. Measurement of poloidal coupling coefficient • The shielding should be removed from one array element. Depending of the selected feedback condition, the tuning capacitors will adjust either to a mismatched input admittance. • If the perfect match algorithm is applied the input admittance should adjust to a complex impedance from which the ILS internal coupling coefficient can be readily measured. • If the optimum load resilience algorithm is applied, the input admittance should adjust to a real impedance differing from the nominal one by a small amount depending on coupling and load. • The ILS vacuum radiation load (accounting for radiation and copper losses in the resonant part of the circuit) can be deduced from the tuning capacitors calibration curves. G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Step 2 : Array characterisation in vacuum • • 1. Array characterization at no radiation losses • With all control loops in operation under optimum load resilience condition, the shields covering the array elements should be sequentially removed from the center to the outside. After each removal there will be a re-arrangement of the tuning capacitors which will include the effects of toroidal and poloidal coupling and of array asymmetries.. For geometrically identical ILSs and a symmetric environment, the array matrix will have the pattern below below A B B A C D D C A B B A When the array is inserted in the torus and commissioned in vacuum, the inter elements coupling coefficient may change slightly but, if the match condition in air is entered as initial condition, at power-up the control system will automatically re-match the array. The vacuum match patterns of the array for a certain frequency and array phasing should be memorized, to be re-entered as initial conditions for plasma operation. G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Step 3. Plasma operation • • When the array is applied to the plasma, the vacuum conditions should be imposed as initial conditions. At power up the array will automatic rematch and subsequently continuously adjust to slow plasma load variations plasma, whereas load variations are smeared out by load resilience. G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA System protections As all input admittances of the array are monitored at high frequency and controlled in closed loop, a sophisticated and selective array protection system can be designed by imposing vectorial operation windows to all array elements A fast systematic real time monitoring of the loaded Q of each elements against closed loop values used as reference, will reveal pre – breakdown conditions. Comparative real time monitoring loaded Q asymmetry within the same ILS(again against closed loop values ) provide indication of breakdown. G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005 Euratom TORE SUPRA Conclusions This study demonstrates that: • Controlling an array of ITER-like structures is not different from controlling an equivalent array of singlw straps • Full load resilience can be automatically preserved by controlling all ILS currents to be conjugated with respects to the input currents • Perfect match can be automatically acquired and reserved independent on inter-elements coupling and/or array or load asymmetries. If these are limited to reasonable values, two tuning elements/ ILS are sufficient. For large coupling and/or asymmetries a maximum of four may be required for plasma heating operations. • Current drive operation is possible. Depending on plasma loading and inter elements coupling the use of decoupler may be necessary • The use of isolators is always possible, with the added advantage that loads are resistive, decoupled and insensitive to load variations. • I trust we shall be able to give a demonstration of the method on the TS ITER Proto within 2005 G. Bosia “Matching ITER-like structures” Cadarache, 2-22 - 2005