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Korea and Vietnam
Korea: Between China and Japan
 Koreans descended from different group than Chinese. They were
from the Siberian and Manchurian peoples
109 BCE Choson (earliest Korean kingdom) conquered by the
Chinese (Wudi of Han dynasty)
Parts of peninsula
Koguryo (tribal people in the north) – resisted Chinese rule and
established independent state- at war with the southern rivals Silla
and Paekche
When Han dynasty fell, some splinter kingdoms in China
remained in contact with Koguryo and fist wave of Sinification
took place. Buddhism a key link. Chinese writing also introduced.
Tried a Chinese-style bureaucracy.
Tang Alliances and the Conquest of
 Korean division allowed Tang rulers to conquer it by allying
itself with Silla kingdom and going against the other two
 Silla and Chinese arguing over dominance. Silla proves strong
and they agree that it will pay tribute to the Chinese and be a
vassal state- 668 withdrew their armies and the Silla were the
ind. Rulers of Korea
Sinification: The Tributary Link
 Chinese influence peaked during Silla (668-9th century) and the
Koryo dynasty (918-1392)
 Turned into a miniature Tang dynasty
 All sides happy with tribute arrangement- Chinese happy to
receive tribute and kowtow and Koreans happy to have peace
and access to Chinese learning, art, and manufactured goodsso, tribute system became major channel of trade and
intercultural exchange
The Sinification of Korean Elite Culture
 Silla rulers rebuilt their
capital at Kumsong to
look like its Tang
 Favored Buddhism over
Confucianism- led to
patronage of the arts
 Pottery notable- esp.
pale-green glazed
celadon bowls and vases
Civilization for the Few
 Elite dominated by aristocracy, who didn’t intermarry
nor marry outside of class
 All classes beneath aristocracy were oriented towards
their service. Buddhist teachings gave them hope for
bliss in the afterlife
Koryo Collapse, Dynastic Renewal
 Common people rose up, outside invasions (Mongols
in 1231)- led to a century and a half of turmoil
 1392 –Yi dynasty established and ruled Korea until
Between China and Southeast Asia:
The Making of Vietnam
 Preconquest peoples of the south in the red river valley had a
strong cultural identity and did not want to be overtaken by
their strong Chinese neighbors in the north. Partly able to
resist because further away from Chinese center of powerspoken language not related to Chinese- intermarried with
the Khmer (Cambodia today) and Tai gave specific ethnic
 Nam Viet (people in the south)- first mentioned in Qin raids
in 220s BCE as southern barbarians
Conquest and Sinification
 111 BCE Han conquered them. They learned and borrowed
from each other. Viets took cropping and irrigation techniques –
so more food could be produced and it supported a larger
 Elite soon started attending Chinese schools, read Chinese texts
of Confucius
Roots of Resistance
 Failure of Chinese culture to make impression on peasantry
frustrated Chinese hopes of assimilation
 Chinese thought of them as backward
 39 CE Trung sisters- revolt- stronger position of women who
resisted Confucian ideals about women’s roles and status
Winning Independence and Continuing
Chinese Influence
 Distance from China- along with motives for resistance and strong
cultural identity led them to independence
907 after fall of the Tang dynasty mounted massive rebellion to take
advantage of chaos in China
939 won independence but still borrowed heavily from the Chineseadministrative system, civil service exams, Chinese-style palaces
Scholar-bureaucrats never that powerful- competed with welleducated monks
Chinese legacy gave them advantages in southeast Asian struggles
Chams and Khmers- adversaries, which they managed to push out
End of 16th century- rivals and clashes between northern Trinh family
and southern Nguyen family
Next threat would be the French and the Roman Catholic Church