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Transcript
CHARACTERISTICS of Moral Theories
1. STABILITY: constant, consistent
•
decisions not made on whim or caprice.
2. UNIVERSALITY: Principles or practices
applied fairly/equally [same playing field ]
•
not different rules for different people in the
same situation.
3. IMPARTIALITY: avoid inclinations/each
person counts for one
•
showing favoritism for a friend or yourself.
4. OBJECTIVITY: Make decisions on a
verifiable basis, apart from
inclinations/emotions
•
decisions made on non-verifiable basis, or
according to personal preference.
5. [Compassion?]
How do our philosophers provide for
STABILITY
1. Hobbes: the contract is
irrevocable/absolute ruler.
2. Utilitarianism: decide on the basic of
publicly verifiable consequences – may lack
stability because nothing is absolutely
wrong
How do our philosophers provide for
UNIVERSALITY
1. Hobbes: all men agree to the covenant
made.
2. Utilitarianism: be sure to consider the
consequences for all those affected by an
action
How do our philosophers provide for
IMPARTIALITY
1. Hobbes: the covenant applies to everyone
in society -- no “opt-outs”
2. Utilitarianism: consider the
consequences for all affected by an action,
your interests count for only one in that
calculation
How do our philosophers provide for
OBJECTIVITY
1. Hobbes: individual morality is relative to
our desires & aversions, thus we need the
covenant and the absolute ruler to override
that.
2. Bentham: consequences are publicly
verifiable.
How do our philosophers provide for
COMPASSION
1. Hobbes: nope!
2. Utilitarianism:
• Bentham believed that the nature of the
•
•
human person can be adequately described
without mention of social relationships.
Mill believed that we have sympathy for
others and that our happiness depends on
the well-being of others.
What does Nielsen believe?