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Why Be virtuous/good/moral? Plato & hobbes overview - historical parallels - addressing the same Q • Plato’s thought experiment (the ring) • Hobbes’ thought experiment (S of N) - nature & reason argument Historical parallels Plato (~428 bc - 348 bc) Hobbes (1588 - 1679) Why be good? Morality: a Compromise an arrangement Ring of Gyges Hobbes (1588 - 1679) Two Major Influences Galileo Euclidean Geometry Single Scientific Method Physical nature human human society Matter in motion Natural bodies (stones, planets, living organisms) Artificial bodies (societies, political bodies) Causal laws: e is determined by c Conclusion Every event in the universe is necessarily determined by one or more previous cause Scientific explanation of universe/human bodies “For what is the heart, but a spring, and the nerves, but so many strings, and the joints, but so many wheels, giving a motion to the whole body…” Euclidean geometry Axioms --> theorems Basic truths of human nature --> deduce morality/leviathan G + EG + CW => Leviathan morality human reason human nature State of nature State of Nature Equality Equality “Nature hath made men so equal…” Right to anything necessary for survival State of nature Bodies in motion Driven by desire to survive State of Nature Psychology Fear Desire State of Nature Limited Resources --> enmity State of Nature State of War Limited Resources --> enmity --> war “In such condition, there is no place for Industry…and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.” What does Reason then tell us? 1. We do anything necessary to preserve life This Hobbes calls “Right of Nature” natural right What does Reason then tell us? 2. Pursue Peace This Hobbes calls “Law of Nature” How to achieve Peace…? The Social Contract “covenants, without the sword, are but words, and of no strength to secure a man at all” I give up my right to do anything (so long as you do as well) and give that right over to one authority Commonwealth Leviathan The authority must reside in one person and be total and supreme. Problem?