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The Vikings • They were the first real European explorers. • They used a method known as island hopping. • They sailed to Iceland, then to Greenland, then to North America. (Canada Today) Leif Eriksson • He was the first to reach North America by accident. • The vikings established a colony in North America known as Vinland. • This colony was eventually abandoned. Europeans Look to Expand Empires Portugal Spain Italy Prince Henry the Navigator • In the 1400s Portugal will become a leader in exploration. • He founded a school of Navigation. • He like most Europeans wanted Asian Spices. Reasons • They wanted Asian Spices. • Convert people to Christianity • He wanted Portugal to become a world power. Technology assists Exploration • The Magnetic Compass • Astrolabe – Allows you to navigate using the stars. • Caravels – They used triangular sails to sail against the winds. Portugal’s Explorations • Bartolomeu Dias – He sailed around the southern tip of Africa, known as the Cape of Good Hope. • Vasco da Gama – He sailed around Africa and was the first to reach India by Sea. Christopher Columbus • He believes the shortest distance to Asia is to sail west instead of east. • Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain sponsor his trip west. (Pay for it) • October 12, 1492 Columbus finds land. • IT IS NOT ASIA!!!! Columbus has run into the Western Hemisphere Columbian Exchange • This was the transfer (trading) of items between the two worlds. Plants and animals from the Americas to Europe, Asia and Africa. • Corn, Potatoes, Tobacco and Cocoa. Other Explorers • Balboa will sail to Central America and discoer the Pacific Ocean • Vespucci will come to the conclusion that Columbus discovered a new continent. (Later to be named the Americas) The Spanish Conquistadors • Spain sets out to establish an empire in the Americas. • Cortes will conquer the Aztecs. • Pizarro will conquer the Incas. • This establishes Spain as a world power. Magellan Because He was Gell’in • He and his crew will circumnavigate (go around) the globe. The Spanish colonize The New World (Led by the Catholic Church) • Plantations (agriculture) are established. • The Native Americans are forced to work on the plantations. (Slavery) • Bartolome de Las Casas tries to get better treatment for the Native population. The Race for Empires • Many nations wanted a piece of the pie in the New World. There was money to be made! • This will lead to conflict • Spain vs. England • King Phillip II will send the Spanish Armanda (Navy) to destroy Queen Elizabeth and England! • The armada is destroyed, ending Spain’s control of the New World. • The race is on to claim land in the New World. The Northwest Passage and Claims in North America • The Northwest Passage is a water route through North America that would allow ships to sail through North America and enter the Pacific. • John Cabot- Will sail for England and claiming land for England. • Jacques Cartier – Will sail for France and claim land for France.