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The Vikings
• They were the first
real European
• They used a method
known as island
• They sailed to
Iceland, then to
Greenland, then to
North America.
(Canada Today)
Leif Eriksson
• He was the first to
reach North America
by accident.
• The vikings
established a colony
in North America
known as Vinland.
• This colony was
Europeans Look to Expand
Prince Henry the Navigator
• In the 1400s Portugal
will become a leader
in exploration.
• He founded a school
of Navigation.
• He like most
Europeans wanted
Asian Spices.
• They wanted Asian Spices.
• Convert people to Christianity
• He wanted Portugal to become a world
Technology assists Exploration
• The Magnetic
• Astrolabe – Allows
you to navigate using
the stars.
• Caravels – They used
triangular sails to sail
against the winds.
Portugal’s Explorations
• Bartolomeu Dias – He sailed around the
southern tip of Africa, known as the Cape
of Good Hope.
• Vasco da Gama – He sailed around Africa
and was the first to reach India by Sea.
Christopher Columbus
• He believes the shortest
distance to Asia is to sail
west instead of east.
• Queen Isabella and King
Ferdinand of Spain sponsor
his trip west. (Pay for it)
• October 12, 1492 Columbus
finds land.
Columbus has run into the
Western Hemisphere
Columbian Exchange
• This was the transfer (trading) of items
between the two worlds. Plants and
animals from the Americas to Europe, Asia
and Africa.
• Corn, Potatoes, Tobacco and Cocoa.
Other Explorers
• Balboa will sail to Central
America and discoer the
Pacific Ocean
• Vespucci will come to the
conclusion that Columbus
discovered a new continent.
(Later to be named the
The Spanish Conquistadors
• Spain sets out to establish
an empire in the Americas.
• Cortes will conquer the
• Pizarro will conquer the
• This establishes Spain as a
world power.
Magellan Because He was Gell’in
• He and his crew will circumnavigate
(go around) the globe.
The Spanish colonize The New
World (Led by the Catholic Church)
• Plantations (agriculture) are established.
• The Native Americans are forced to work
on the plantations. (Slavery)
• Bartolome de Las Casas tries to get
better treatment for the Native population.
The Race for Empires
• Many nations wanted a
piece of the pie in the New
World. There was money
to be made!
• This will lead to conflict
• Spain vs. England
• King Phillip II will send
the Spanish Armanda
(Navy) to destroy Queen
Elizabeth and England!
• The armada is destroyed,
ending Spain’s control of
the New World.
• The race is on to claim
land in the New World.
The Northwest Passage and
Claims in North America
• The Northwest Passage is
a water route through North
America that would allow
ships to sail through North
America and enter the
• John Cabot- Will sail for
England and claiming land
for England.
• Jacques Cartier – Will sail
for France and claim land
for France.