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Who is Philip
Of Macedonia?
Objective: Using this power point
You will complete the blanks and
be able to identify where Philip II
Is from and how he affected
By 338 B.C. Greece had a new ruler, Philip II of
Macedonia. Philip became ruler of Macedonia in 359
In his youth he was held hostage–a person held by an
enemy until certain promises are carried out–for three
years in Thebes.
Phillip learned to love Greek culture, but also to dislike
the weaknesses of the Greek form of government.
It took him a little more than 20 years to reach
his goal of unifying the Greek city-states. He
accomplished this in a number of ways:
He changed the Macedonian army from part-time
volunteers to a year-round, well-organized group
of professionals.
Phillip developed an infantry formation called a phalanx, a solid body formed by
foot soldiers 16 rows deep. He armed his soldiers with spears that were twice as
long as most, and trained some with slingshots and bows and arrows.
He flattered Greek officials and provoked
disagreements among the Greek city-states.
When the city-states were weak from fighting
each other, his army conquered them.
He used marriage as a way of forming
political alliances, or partnerships.
Demosthenes, an Athenian orator, or public speaker, tried unsuccessfully to
warn the Greeks that Philip was dangerous.
Thebes and Athens tried to stop Philip’s invasion
into central Greece in 338 B.C. The Greek army
was defeated at the Battle of Chaeronea. Philip
was killed in 336 B.C. while preparing for a military
campaign against Persia.
His son, Alexander, took over the throne.
Objective: Using this power point
You will complete the blanks and
be able to identify how he affected
Who is Alexander?
Why is he Great?
Alexander, an army commander since age 16,
took over Philip’s throne at age 20.
He had studied literature, political science,
geography, and biology with Aristotle for three
years. Because of this, Alexander included
philosophers and scientists in his army.
He crushed the Persian Empire and marched
as far east as northern India without ever
losing a battle.
Alexander believed that his dream of a
worldwide state of peace could only be
achieved by uniting the Macedonians,
the Greeks, and the Persians.
He married a Persian woman and encouraged
his officers to do the same.
When he claimed to be a god, the Macedonians
and Greeks refused to treat him as such.
The Greeks objected to equal treatment
for Persians and looked down on people
who did not speak Greek or follow Greek
customs. They called such people barbaroi,
from which the word “barbarians” comes.
Alexander’s attempt to achieve unity among
the people in his empire was not successful.
Alexander founded about 70 cities, 16 of which
were named Alexandria after himself.
The most important of these cities was
Alexandria in Egypt. It quickly became a center
of trade and learning.
The city had two great harbors dominated by a
lighthouse 400 feet tall.
The library at Alexandria held the largest
collection of books in ancient times.
In 323 B.C. Alexander became ill and died at
the age of 33.
After his death, fighting broke out over who
was to rule the empire.
The areas in India returned to their original
Three of Alexander’s generals divided the r
est of the empire among themselves.
Antigonus became king of Macedonia.
Ptolemy established the dynasty of the
Ptolemies in Egypt.
Seleucus formed the Seleucid Empire in
Athens and Sparta again became independent, while other city-states banded
together into one of two leagues. Greek cultural influence, however, became
stronger than ever.
The cities that had been part of Alexander’s
empire now existed chiefly for trade.
City officials made their law, language,
calendar, culture, customs, and coins
The Greek city-states regained their political
independence, but could not gain back the power
of the past.
Great factories, or places where goods are
made, had been built in the new Hellenistic
cities. Greek manufacturers could not
compete with these factories.
Many young Greeks emigrated, or left one
place to settle in another.
By 146 B.C., most of the Greek city-states were under Roman control.