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Who is Philip Of Macedonia? Objective: Using this power point You will complete the blanks and be able to identify where Philip II Is from and how he affected Greece. By 338 B.C. Greece had a new ruler, Philip II of Macedonia. Philip became ruler of Macedonia in 359 B.C. In his youth he was held hostage–a person held by an enemy until certain promises are carried out–for three years in Thebes. Phillip learned to love Greek culture, but also to dislike the weaknesses of the Greek form of government. It took him a little more than 20 years to reach his goal of unifying the Greek city-states. He accomplished this in a number of ways: He changed the Macedonian army from part-time volunteers to a year-round, well-organized group of professionals. Phillip developed an infantry formation called a phalanx, a solid body formed by foot soldiers 16 rows deep. He armed his soldiers with spears that were twice as long as most, and trained some with slingshots and bows and arrows. He flattered Greek officials and provoked disagreements among the Greek city-states. When the city-states were weak from fighting each other, his army conquered them. He used marriage as a way of forming political alliances, or partnerships. Demosthenes, an Athenian orator, or public speaker, tried unsuccessfully to warn the Greeks that Philip was dangerous. Thebes and Athens tried to stop Philip’s invasion into central Greece in 338 B.C. The Greek army was defeated at the Battle of Chaeronea. Philip was killed in 336 B.C. while preparing for a military campaign against Persia. His son, Alexander, took over the throne. Objective: Using this power point You will complete the blanks and be able to identify how he affected Greece Who is Alexander? Why is he Great? Alexander, an army commander since age 16, took over Philip’s throne at age 20. He had studied literature, political science, geography, and biology with Aristotle for three years. Because of this, Alexander included philosophers and scientists in his army. He crushed the Persian Empire and marched as far east as northern India without ever losing a battle. Alexander believed that his dream of a worldwide state of peace could only be achieved by uniting the Macedonians, the Greeks, and the Persians. He married a Persian woman and encouraged his officers to do the same. When he claimed to be a god, the Macedonians and Greeks refused to treat him as such. The Greeks objected to equal treatment for Persians and looked down on people who did not speak Greek or follow Greek customs. They called such people barbaroi, from which the word “barbarians” comes. Alexander’s attempt to achieve unity among the people in his empire was not successful. Alexander founded about 70 cities, 16 of which were named Alexandria after himself. The most important of these cities was Alexandria in Egypt. It quickly became a center of trade and learning. The city had two great harbors dominated by a lighthouse 400 feet tall. The library at Alexandria held the largest collection of books in ancient times. In 323 B.C. Alexander became ill and died at the age of 33. After his death, fighting broke out over who was to rule the empire. The areas in India returned to their original rulers. Three of Alexander’s generals divided the r est of the empire among themselves. Antigonus became king of Macedonia. Ptolemy established the dynasty of the Ptolemies in Egypt. Seleucus formed the Seleucid Empire in Persia. Athens and Sparta again became independent, while other city-states banded together into one of two leagues. Greek cultural influence, however, became stronger than ever. The cities that had been part of Alexander’s empire now existed chiefly for trade. City officials made their law, language, calendar, culture, customs, and coins Greek. The Greek city-states regained their political independence, but could not gain back the power of the past. Great factories, or places where goods are made, had been built in the new Hellenistic cities. Greek manufacturers could not compete with these factories. Many young Greeks emigrated, or left one place to settle in another. By 146 B.C., most of the Greek city-states were under Roman control.