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Transcript
World History
Chapter 4
The Rise of Ancient Greece
5/22/2017
John 3:16
1
Chapter 4, Section 1, Beginnings
Overview
The Aegean Area
 Aegean Civilizations
 Poets and Heroes
 A Family of Deities

5/22/2017
John 3:16
2
Objectives
Understand how being close to the sea
made the Greeks seafarers
 Know where and how the early
civilizations of Greece developed

5/22/2017
John 3:16
3
Terms to Know


Labyrinth: A maze;
e.g. passages or
hallways twisting
and turning in all
directions
Bard: A singing
storyteller. Bards
were used in the
“dark age’” to keep
traditions alive.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
4
People to Meet
Sir Arthur Evans
 The Minoans
 The Mycenaeans
 Homer
 Heinrich Schliemann

5/22/2017
John 3:16
5
Places to Locate
 Crete

Mycenae
5/22/2017
John 3:16
6
Did You Know?

One of the adventures in Homer’s
“Odyssey” involved a one-eyed giant—
called a Cyclops—who shut Odysseus in
his cave and blocked the entrance with a
huge rock. Odysseus made the Cyclops
drunk, blinded him by driving a burning
stake into his eye while he slept, and
escaped by clinging to the belly of a
sheep let out to pasture.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
7
The Aegean Area



Greece is made up largely of low-lying rugged mountains
and a long, indented coastline; the mountains both
protected and isolated Ancient Greeks on the mainland,
who never united under one government.
The Greeks did speak one language and had the same
religion
Many Greeks earned their livings on the sea; the mild
climate allowed Greeks to spend much of their time
outdoors
5/22/2017
John 3:16
8
The Aegean Area


Greeks turned to become fishers, traders
and pirates.
The climate allowed people to spend time
outdoors, assembling for meetings and
performing plays.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
9
Aegean Civilizations


The Minoans
Greek myth referred to the existence of an early
civilization on the island of Crete; archaeologists
have since unearthed remains of this Minoan
civilization, which flourished from about 2500 to
1450 B.C. The Minoans were the first in the
Aegean Region.
British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans who
discovered Minoan remains about 1900 A.D.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
10
The Minoans (cont)

The Minoan civilization, which earned its living from
sea trade, reached its peak around 1600 B.C.; it
collapsed about 250 years later.



Both men and women curled their hair, bedecked themselves
with gold jewelry, set off narrow waists with wide metal
belts.
Minoan woman enjoyed a higher status than many other
civilizations.
Minoan ships help keep the seas free from pirates
5/22/2017
John 3:16
11
The Minoans (cont)



Minoan ships dominated the Mediterranean
Ships protected coast—no need for walls
The destruction or collapse of the Minoan
civilization believed by a tidal wave after an
earthquake or from attack from
Mycenaeans
5/22/2017
John 3:16
12
Aegean Civilizations
The
Mycenaeans


The Mycenaeans, from Indo-European peoples
of central Asia, began moving from their
homeland around 2000 B.C.
When they entered the Balkan Peninsula, the
Mycenaeans intermarried with local people,
known as the Hellenes, and set up a group of
kingdoms.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
13
The Mycenaeans (con’t)



The palaces in the center of Mycenae served
as government offices
The Mycenaeans adopted many Minoan
cultural elements: metalworking,
shipbuilding, and navagation
Each kingdom created centered around a
hilltop. Stone walls circled the fortress.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
14
The Mycenaeans (cont)


Made swords of bronze
Kept good records and collected taxes based on
wealth
Wheat
 Livestock
 Honey

5/22/2017
John 3:16
15
The Mycenaeans and the Dorians


By the mid-1400s B.C.,the Mycenaeans had
conquered the Minoans and controlled the
Aegean area
Soon after 1100 B.C., however, the Greekspeaking Dorians conquered Greece from
the North
Myceneaen walls weakened by civil war
 Dorians had iron weapons

5/22/2017
John 3:16
16
The Mycenaeans, Dorians, and
Ionians


Historians call the next 300 years of Greek history a “dark age”
because overseas trade stopped, people lost skills, and poverty
increased.
Large numbers of Greeks flee the Dorian influence and go to
Aegean islands and across the Aegean Sea to Asian Minor and a
place called Ionia.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
17
The Mycenaeans, Dorians, and
Ionians



By 750 B.C. the Ionians reintroduced
culture, crafts and skills to Greece…mostly
Mycenaean.
New Greek culture called Hellenic
flourished from 700s until 336 B.C.
Ionians introduce Phoenician alphabet and
other cultural elements in Ionia and their
former homeland.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
18
The Mycenaeans, Dorians, and
Ionians


The Phoenician alphabet limits Greek
reading and writing to just 24 letters and
made learning simpler.
The Dorian “Dark Ages” went away and a
new Greek civilization formed from mostly
Mycenaean elements.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
19
Poets and Heroes


During “Dark Ages”, bards—singing story
tellers—kept Mycenaean traditions alive
Now able to write, Greeks began to record bard
stories
5/22/2017
John 3:16
20
The Iliad and the Odyssey

According to tradition, an eighth-century B.C.
blind poet named Homer composed the two
most famous Greek epics
“Iliad” and the “Odyssey”
 Set during and after the legendary Trojan War in the
mid-1200s B.C.
 Mycenaeans fought Trojans mid 1200s A.D.

5/22/2017
John 3:16
21
The Iliad and the Odyssey




Iliad begins with Trojan prince falling in love
with Helen, wife of Mycenaean king
He takes her with him to Troy
Avenging Helen’s kidnapping, Mycenaeans lay
siege to Troy for 10 years
Unable to capture the city, Mycenaeans resort to
trickery, using a wooden horse to gain entry
5/22/2017
John 3:16
22
The Iliad and the Odyssey

According to Illiad
Trojan War lasted 10 years
 Troy in present day Turkey
 Greeks built large wooden horse

Soldiers hid in belly
 Gave to Troy as gift and pretended to sail away
 Once inside gates, Greek soldiers leapt out and conquered
Troy

5/22/2017
John 3:16
23
The Iliad and the Odyssey

The Iliad and the Odyssey are epic poems, not
reliable historic accounts of the Trojan War
5/22/2017
John 3:16
24
The Iliad and the Odyssey


The Odyssey describes the wonderings of the
Mycenaean king, Odysseus, and his return to his
faithful wife
His 10-year journey resulted in people referring to any
long, adventure-filled journey as a odyssey
5/22/2017
John 3:16
25
The Illiad and the Odyssey


Schools in ancient Greece used Homer’s epics to
teach values.
His epics talked about values such as courage
and honor.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
26
Teaching Greek Values

The Iliad and Odyssey also represented of the
things
Love of nature
 Husband and wife relationships
 Tender feelings
 Loyalty between friends
 Strive for excellence
 Meet life with dignity

5/22/2017
John 3:16
27
A Family of Deities




Explained why people behaved like that
Why their lives took a certain direction.
More than other civilizations, the Greeks humanized
their deities
The Greeks didn’t fear their gods, they approached
their gods with dignity




5/22/2017
They humanized their gods
Their gods took human form
Their gods possessed super-human powers
Tried to be like them—striving for excellence
John 3:16
28
Gods and Goddesses




Greeks took features of both Minoan and
Mycenaean gods
Each community took a particular god or
goddess as its patron and protector
Greeks believed 12 most important deities lived
on Mount Olympus
Believed that each controlled a specific part of
the natural world, e.g. Zeus, the chief god
ruled the sky, weather and thunderstorms
5/22/2017
John 3:16
29
Gods and Goddesses


Apollo, god of light, drove the sun across the
sky every day in his chariot
Apollo considered god of prophecy
Brought gifts to oracle at Delphi honoring him
 Asked for hidden knowledge to be revealed
 Priests and priestesses would interpret Apollo’s
answers to questions

5/22/2017
John 3:16
30
Gods and Goddesses

As Hellenic civilization developed, certain
religious festivals became part of Greek life—
including the Olympic Games
Held in city of Olympia
 “For the greater glory of Zeus”
 Drama (a celebration of Dionysus, the god of wine
and fertility).

5/22/2017
John 3:16
31
Gods and Goddesses

Originted the play
Celebrated of Dionysus
 Audience around on hillside
 Told stories and danced to the flute
 Permanent amphitheaters appeared

5/22/2017
John 3:16
32
Chapter 4, Section 2, The Polis
 Greek
Colonies and
Trade
 The Typical Polis
 Political and Social
Change
5/22/2017
John 3:16
33
Objectives
 Know
how economic prosperity
brought significant political and
social changes to the Greek citystates
 Understand that the Greeks
founded colonies throughout the
area of the Mediterranean and
Black Seas
5/22/2017
John 3:16
34
Terms to Know







Polis: a city-state; the basic political unit of the
Hellenic civilization
Citizen: those who take part in government
Aristocrat: nobles; members of the upper class
Phalanx: rows of soldiers using their shields to
form a wall
Tyrant: a person seizing power of a city-state and
controlling it
Oligarchy: where a few wealthy people hold power
Democracy: a government by the people where
power lies in the hands of the people
5/22/2017
John 3:16
35
Places to Locate
 Athens
 Sparta
5/22/2017
John 3:16
36
The Typical Polis

A typical polis included a city and the
surrounding villages, fields, and
orchards; on the top of the acropolis in
the center of the city stood the temple
of the local deity, and at the foot of the
acropolis citizens gathered to carry out
public affairs—the agora.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
37
The Typical Polis




The citizens of a polis had both rights and responsibilities.
 The could vote, hold public office, speak for themselves,
and own property.
 They were expected to serve in government and defend
the polis in war.
Citizens, however, made up only a minority of the residents
of the polis; slaves, foreign-born residents, and women had
no political or legal rights.
Before 500 B.C., men not owning land were excluded
The “agora” served as the polis political center
5/22/2017
John 3:16
38
Greek Colonies and Trade


By 700 B.C. Greek farmers no longer grew
enough grain to feed everyone, so each polis
sent out groups of people to establish
colonies in coastal areas.
Each colony kept close ties with its
mainland metropolis, supplying grain and
exporting the mainland’s excess wine, olive
oil, and other cash crops.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
39
Greek Colonies and Trade

Soon, the Greeks replaced their barter
system with a money economy, and
expanded overseas trade.
Merchants started issuing coins
 Cities soon over this responsibility


The cities of Ionia in Asia Minor assumed
leadership in a growing textile industry;
pottery made in Ionia was the earliest Greek
pottery to be exported.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
40
Political and Social Change



Economic growth changed Greek political life; where once
kings had ruled, landholding aristocrats took power.
 Aristocrats would supply military forces for king’s
ventures
Farmers became indebted to landowners and had difficulty
repaying loans, often selling themselves into slavery
Disputes arose between the aristocrats and farmers, who
demanded political reforms.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
41
Political and Social Change


As Greek armies came to rely on foot soldiers
(generally farmers) more than cavalry (generally
aristocrats), aristocrats began to lose influence.
 Farmers provide the core of the phalanx—
closely arrayed rows of soldiers with solid row
of shields
Merchants and artisans began demanding
change—wanted polis to advance business
interests
5/22/2017
John 3:16
42
Political and Social Change



As a result of the unrest, tyrannies arose, in
which one man seized power and ruled the
polis single-handedly.
Most tyrants ruled fairly, but a few gave the
term “tyrant” a bad name
Tyrants ruled until 500 B.C.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
43
Political and Social Change


After the reign of tyrants, most city-states
become either oligarchies or democracies
The most famous democracy in Greece was
Athens, and the most famous oligarchy was
Sparta
5/22/2017
John 3:16
44
Chapter 4, Section 3, Rivals
 Sparta
 Athens
 Athenian
5/22/2017
Democracy
John 3:16
45
Objectives
 Know
the difference between
the values, cultures, and
achievements represented by
Sparta and those represented
by Athens
5/22/2017
John 3:16
46
Terms to Define
 Constitution:
The plan of
5/22/2017
John 3:16
government
 Rhetoric: The art of public
speaking
47
People to Know
Draco
Solon
Peisistratus
Cleisthenes
5/22/2017
John 3:16
48
Places to Locate
 Peloponnesus
 Attica
5/22/2017
John 3:16
49
Sparta
The descendents of the Dorian
invaders of the dark age founded
Sparta, located in Peloponnesus, a
peninsula of southern Greece.
 Instead of founding overseas colonies,
the Spartans invaded neighboring citystates and enslaved the local people.

5/22/2017
John 3:16
50
Sparta



The Spartans owned many slaves known as helots.
They farmed Spartan estates.
A group of Free individuals called “perioeci” were
artisans and merchants from conquered territories
who worked for the Spartans.
Together, these two groups outnumbered the
Spartans 200,000 to 10,000.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
51
Sparta



Around 650 B.C. the slaves revolted against
their Spartan masters;
Took 30 years to quell the revolt
The Spartans decided to maintain power by
establishing a military society
5/22/2017
John 3:16
52
A Military Society





All life in Sparta revolved around the army.
Men strove to be first-rate soldiers
Women worked to be good mothers of soldiers
Spartans didn’t like other Greeks who chose to
live behind walls for protection
Spartan men provided the best protection.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
53
A Military Society




Spartan women given more freedom than other
Greek women and were brought up to be
healthy like Spartan men.
Women could not take part in government.
Newborn infants were examined by the
government to determine health.
Unhealthy babies were placed on a hillside at
night to die.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
54
A Military Society

At age 7, Boys placed in military training
Taken from home and placed in barracks
 Reading, writing, and use of weapons


At 20, they were soldiers


Sent to frontier areas
At 30, they were expected to marry
But did not maintain households of their own
 Lived in barracks until 60, then retired

5/22/2017
John 3:16
55
Role of Women



Raised to be healthy
Given as much food as men, unlike rest of
Greece
Girls trained
Wrestling
 Gymnastics
 Boxing

5/22/2017
John 3:16
56
Role of Women

Married at age 19, not 14 (Greece)


Increased likelihood of healthy baby
More rights accorded Spartan women
Could shop marketplace
 Attend dinners with non-family members
 Own property in their names
 Express opinions in public


Could not participate in polis government
5/22/2017
John 3:16
57
Sparta’s Government
• There were two Spartan
kings—an oligarchy
• Didn’t have much power
• Primarily religious and
military leadership
5/22/2017
John 3:16
58
Sparta’s Government



The Assembly was made up of all males over 20 and
passed laws and made decisions on war and peace.
Each year, the Assembly elected five ephors who could
veto laws and performed certain administration
functions.
A Council of Elders, 28 men over 60, proposed laws to
Assembly and served as a supreme court.
5/22/2017
John 3:16
59
Result of Militarism





Succeeded in holding power over perioeci and
helots for 250 years
Suspicious of new ideas and lagged behind
other cities in business
Much poorer
Lagged in intellectual development
Exceptional athletes and best protector of
Greece
5/22/2017
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60
Athens
 On
a peninsula of central Greece
named Attica, Mycenaean
descendants established the citystate of Athens. The polis was
named after the goddess, Athena
5/22/2017
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61
Athens



Initially, non-landowning citizens could not participate in
Athens’s Assembly.
Unlike Sparta, Athens gradually expanded its definition of
citizenship to include more people
Eventually, all free men could be members of the Assembly
regardless of what class they belonged to, even the metics—
foreign-born citizens
5/22/2017
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62
Athens


The political change that permitted more people to
participate in government reduced much of the friction
between social classes.
Four successive leaders brought changes
5/22/2017
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63
Draco’s Law Code



Draco issued an improved code of written laws
Aristocrats could no longer dictate what was legal.
 Some of his laws were harsh: e.g.,death for stealing
cabbage.
 Over time, the term “draconian” has come to mean
something cruel and severe.
Positive side—the laws were written down and
aristocrats could no langer take advantage
5/22/2017
John 3:16
64
Solon’s Reforms



Leader of Athens 594 B.C.
Cancelled all debts and freed debtors from
slavery
Solon improved economic conditions, promoted
trade, fostered industry, and introduced political
reforms that moved Athens toward democracy
Ordered fathers to teach sons a trade
 Established 2-house government for political
equality

5/22/2017
John 3:16
65
Radical Reformers

Peistratus (pih*SIHS*truh*tuhs)
divided large estates among landless farmers
 extended citizenship to men who did not own land
 offered the poor loans and jobs.

5/22/2017
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66
Radical Reformers

Cleisthenes came to power in 508 B.C.
Introduced laws that established democracy
 Sought to

End local rivalries
 Break power of aristocracy
 Extend guarantees to more citizens
 Reorganize central government

5/22/2017
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67
Athenian Democracy

Cleisthenes, the fourth leader to help
reform Athens, established democracy for
Athens; under Cleisthenes’ constitution,
the Assembly won increased powers and
fully emerged as the major political body.
5/22/2017
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68
Athenian Democracy


All citizens could become a member of the Assembly.
The Assembly served as a supreme court and appointed
generals to run the military.
5/22/2017
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69
Athenian Democracy

Each year in a lottery, Athenian citizens chose members
of the Council of 500, who carried out daily
government business.
 Citizens favored a lottery believing all citizens were
capable of holding office.
 Elections, in their view, would unfavorably favor the
rich who had the advantage fame and training in
public speaking.
5/22/2017
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70
Athenian Democracy


Although only 20 percent of Athenians were
citizens, ancient Athens laid the foundation for
the Western concept of democratic government.
Because Athens expected every citizen to hold
public office at some time in his life, it required
Athenian citizens to educate their sons; girls
rarely received a formal education.
5/22/2017
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71
Athenian Democracy

Jury system decided court cases
From 201 to 1001 members
 The more jurors, the less likelihood that they would
be bribed, threatened, or show prejudice



Cleisthenes reforms lasted 200 years
Foundation for Western concept of democracy
5/22/2017
John 3:16
72
Athenian Education


Athenian men educated because they were
expected to hold public office
Women rarely educated




Household duties—baking, weaving, etc.
Private tutors educated wealthy boys
Agora was location for much education
Boys entered school at 7, graduate at 18
5/22/2017
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73
Athenian Education

Main textbooks were Iliad and Odyssey


Knew them by heart
Arithmetic, drawing, geometry, art, music
5/22/2017
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74
Discussion: Sparta vs Athens


Sparta represented:
 The military
 Monarchy
 Severe, simple style of living
Athens represented:
 The arts
 Democracy
Which values do you appreciate most? Given the
times, which values would provide for more
security, foreign and domestic, for the given citystates.
5/22/2017
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75

Chapter 4, section 4
War, Glory, and Decline



The Persian Wars
The Golden Age of Athens
The Peloponnesian Wars
5/22/2017
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76
Objectives and Vocabulary


How did the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars
effect democracy in the Greek City States
Terms:
- Symposium: A meeting and social session
about politics and other affairs.
- Mercenary: Hired soldiers
5/22/2017
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77
People to Meet






Darius I
Xerxes
Themistocles
Leonidas
Pericles
Aspasia
5/22/2017
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78
Places to Locate





Ionia
Marathon
Thermopylae
Salamis
Delos
5/22/2017
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79
The Persian Wars

In 546 B.C., Persia, led by Cyrus II, conquered
the Greek city-states in Ionia
Ionians disliked them
 Considered them to be barbarians




Ionians revolted against the Persians
Athens and others helped, but Darius and his
Persians defeated them
Darius decided to punish the Greeks
5/22/2017
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80
Marathon




Darius sent his fleet directly across the Aegean Sea
north of Athens.
The Athenians were outnumbered 20,000 to 10,000.
The Persians decided to pack up and attack Athens
directly, but at the moment of loading their ships back
up, the Athenians attacked.
As the Persian army was standing in knee deep water
waiting to board the ships, the Athenians attacked
downhill and it was a rout—Persians lost 6,400 men;
Athenians lost 192 men.
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Salamis
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The Persians returned 10 years later and leading
the army was Xerxes, son of Darius with
200,000 soldiers. Off shore supply ships
accompanied them.
The Greeks faced the Persians again, this time
under Spartan leadership
The Oracle at Delphi, a few years earlier, had
said Greece would be shielded by a wooden wall
Athenian general Themistocles believed that
meant ships
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Salamis
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To challenge the Persians at sea, a delaying action had
to be established
The Greek army set up a delaying action on land, led by
King Leonidas of Sparta; knowing that a traitor had
showed the Persians a way to attack the Greeks and
realizing that he would soon be surrounded, Leonidas
neverthelsss stayed to face his death.
The Athenians, led by Leonidas, held off the Persians
for three days with his 7,000 Athenian soldiers.
Leonidas sent most of the soldiers to escape to fight
another day but put in a delaying action using 300
Spartans
Thermopylae—The Mountain Pass
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The site where King Leonidas chose to make his
stand.
The pass was narrow allowing the Greeks to
have the advantage against the large force of the
Persians.
King Leonidas chose to fight to the death—as
their polis law called for
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Themistocles—The Battle Near the
Island of Salamis
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The delaying action by King Leonidas allowed another
spartan general, Themistocles, to defeat the Persians in
the Salamis Strait.
He destroyed almost the entire Persian fleet near the
island of Salamis.
Themistocles judged his faster, smaller ships could
defeat the Persians in the narrow Strait of Salamis
After the battle of the Island of Salamis, the Persians
returned to Asia Minor for good, and Athens emerged
a powerful and self-confident city-state.
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The Golden Age of Athens
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The period 461 B.C. to 429 B.C. was the period
most of the Greek achievements in the arts and
sciences took place in Athens during this time.
The Athenian general Pericles rebuilt Athens
into the most beautiful city in Greece; its most
famous structure, the Parthenon, still stands.
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Athenian Daily Life
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Athenian men usually worked in the morning as
farmers, artisans, and merchants, before
attending the Assembly or exercising in the
gymnasium; slaves generally did the heavy work
in craft production and mining, while women
worked at home or in the market.
Athenians kept their homes simple but their
public buildings were very lavish.
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Athenian Daily Life

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Athenian house contained two main rooms with
several smaller ones around a central courtyard.
The dining room for entertaining and frequently
had couches. Athenian wives would not join
their husbands unless there were no guests.
Work for the Men and Women
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Usually worked in the morning then went to the
gymnasium in the afternoon.
Slaves did the heavy work—one third of the
population.
Women spent making time at home, cooking and
making wool cloth.
Upper class Athenian men spent time in the
symposium—basically a drinking session followed by a
banquet. Women were not allowed. The discussed
literature, philosophy, and public issues.
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Aspasia
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As some freedom became allowed for some
classes of women, she invited women into her
home and gave them advice on home,
education, and how to gain more freedom.
Her recommendations to women for more
responsibility in society led to charges against
her
She was charged with “impiety” (disloyalty to
the gods) but was acquitted.
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The Peloponnesian War
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With the ongoing threat of the Persians, Athens
formed the Delian league of city-states for
protection…Sparta would not participate.
The treasury was kept on the sacred island of
Delos.
The League freed the Ionians from Persian rule,
cleared the seas of pirates, and fostered
(promoted and helped) trade.
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The Athenian Empire
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Athens transformed the Delian League into an
Athenian empire.
Athens began to dominate other city-states
The empire required the use of the same coins
and made other changes that were for all citystates to adopt
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The Conflict
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The Peloponnesian War lasted from 431 B.C. to 404
B.C.
Sparta formed an alliance against Athens.
They didn’t have a navy but used money the Persians
gave them for giving Ionia back to the Persians to buy
ships and prep for war.
The Spartan-led alliance eventually destroyed the
Athenian fleet and laid siege to Athens itself. The
Athenians surrendered in 404 B.C.
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The Conflict

Athens developed many problems
A disease—probably typhus--killed a third of its
population
 Pericles died from the disease
 Athens couldn’t come to a decision about making
peace with Sparta
 Athenian allies switched sides and joined the
Spartans

Effects of the War

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
The Peloponnesian War brought disaster to the
Greek city-states, both victors and vanquished
Populations declined, much land was destroyed,
and unemployment caused many men to
become hired soldiers in the Persian army
The Greeks also lost faith in democracy.
The length of the war caused people to think
only of making money.
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Effects of the War


Feelings between aristocrats and commoners
became more strained. People began to look
down on free political discussion.
Rulers came and went. City-states were unable
to join together for ultimate power. Then came
the Macedonians—and someone called
Alexander the Great