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Lesson 1
• 1. The Senate's refusal meant that the United
States could not join the League of Nations,
which made the League too weak to enforce its
decisions regarding its members' conflicts with
each other.
• 2. They shared a feeling of uncertainty and a
recognition that it was impossible to predict or
rely on the future. The root cause was the
destruction and hopelessness caused by World
War I.
Lesson 2
• 3. They were a new form of dictatorship that rejected
individual freedom and aimed to control the political,
economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of their
citizens. Each was led by one leader and one party.
Mass propaganda techniques, high-speed
communication, and modern technology helped
totalitarian states impose their will on their subjects.
• 4. Students may suggest that the propaganda would be
ineffective because Americans are exposed to mass
marketing from a very early age. They would see
through it unless the propaganda was much more subtle.
Also, it is easy to find opposing viewpoints. They would
not believe that even a leader they liked was "always"
Lesson 3
• 5. It was based on racism, especially
against Jews, and extreme nationalism.
• 6. Students may suggest her talent may
have persuaded him to overlook her
gender. Also, he may have decided that
the arts were acceptable pursuits for
women since it would not prevent them
from raising families.
21st Century Skills
• 7. Students' answers will vary based on the country they
chose. Students should pick a country and give
examples explaining why their method of dealing with
the crisis was the most effective.
• 8. He started by declaring that Jews could no longer be
citizens or marry citizens. Then he required them to wear
Stars of David and carry ID cards. Next he barred them
from public buildings and transportation and from
owning, managing, or even working in retail stores.
Ultimately, he murdered millions. Students may suggest
that this escalation shows that mistreating people causes
the perpetrator to think of them as less than human,
which makes it easier to treat them even worse.
Exploring the Essential Question
• 9. Each group's answers should include
several first-person accounts of the impact
of an economic or political change. Visuals
should be relevant to the stories. Students'
answers to questions should show
familiarity with the societies and political
changes discussed.
Document-Based Questions
• 10. Workers, farmers, and honest
businesspeople demand a new deal.
Speculators, big business, and crooked
politicians are happy with the old one.
• 11. Students may suggest wealth was distributed
unfairly. The workers, farmers, and small
businesspeople who actually created the
country's wealth were losing their earnings to
speculators, big business, and crooked
Extended-Response Question
• 12. Students' lists may include prevention
of any five actions of the dictators
discussed in Lessons 2 and 3. Example:
(1) Protect individual freedoms. (2) Don't
let mass media be used for propaganda.
(3) Never suspend the Constitution. (4)
Never scapegoat one group of people as
inferior to everyone else. (5) Keep the
workings of government transparent to the
Chapter Summary
• In the years after World War I, Europe and the
United States experienced the Great
Depression. The resulting waves of social,
political, and economic unrest contributed to
creation of totalitarian governments in many
countries. This chapter discussed the causes of
instability in the West after World War I; how
dictatorial regimes in some European countries
gained popular support after the war; and how
Hitler and the Nazi Party gained power in
Reviewing the Enduring Understanding
How did Germany's inability to pay reparations lead to new problems? (Answers
may include that France sent troops to the Ruhr Valley, Germany's chief industrial
and mining center, which resulted in German workers passively resisting by going on
strike. Runaway inflation made the German mark practically worthless. The Dawes
Plan reduced reparations and granted a $200 million loan for German recovery, which
led to a brief period of prosperity and cooperation.)
What effect did the Great Depression have on the social and political climate in
Europe? (Answers may include that European prosperity between 1924 and 1929
was built on U.S. bank loans to Germany. When the U.S. stock market collapsed in
October 1929, it shook people's confidence in political democracy and paved the way
for fear and the rise of extremist policies that offered solutions to the hardships many
people were experiencing. People began to follow leaders who offered simple
solutions in exchange for dictatorial power. Movements in art and literature, such as
Surrealism and a literary technique known as "stream of consciousness," as well as
new discoveries in physics reflected the uncertainty of the times.)
How was social revolution averted in the United States during the Great
Depression? (Answers may include Franklin D. Roosevelt's policies of social reform,
such as the Works Progress Administration and the Social Security Act, may have
averted social revolution in the United States.)
Reviewing the Enduring Understanding
What effect did economic problems have on politics in Italy and
Russia? (Answers may include that Mussolini's rise to power and his subsequent
establishment of a Fascist state was partly a result of Italy's economic problems. In
the Soviet Union, Stalin's Five-Year Plan to quickly industrialize the country and
expand the labor force resulted in sweeping social and political changes that included
collectivization that eliminated private ownership of farms. Collectivization led to
peasants hoarding food and slaughtering livestock, which resulted in widespread
famine. Those who opposed Stalin's policies were executed or sent to Siberia.)
How did problems in Germany after the war lead to Hitler's rise to
power? (Answers may include that the right-wing German elites—industrial leaders,
landed aristocrats, military officers, and higher-level bureaucrats—looked to Hitler for
leadership and pressured President Hindenburg to allow Hitler to become chancellor
and create a new government. The Reichstag—the German Parliament—passed the
Enabling Act, giving the government the power to ignore the Constitution for four
years while it issued laws to deal with the country's problems. Hitler then had free
reign to carry out his plan of creating a Nazi empire by using terror and murder to
eliminate the Jews. Hitler was able to convince many Germans to accept the Nazis
because he created public works projects and a massive rearmament program to
solve Germany's unemployment problem. Hitler used mass rallies and his
propaganda reached the German people through the new technology of radio and
motion pictures.)