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Transcript
Local Universe Supernovae
and Their Host Galaxies
Artashes Petrosian
Byurakan Observatory, Armenia
The Team
Byurakan Observatory (Armenia): A. Hakobyan
Catania Observatory (Italy): M. Turatto
CNR-IRA (Italy): F. Mannucci
IAP (Paris, France): D. Kunth, G. Mamon
INAF-OAC (Italy): M. Della Valle
Padova Observatory (Italy): E. Cappellaro, H. Navasardyan,
STScI: R. Allen, C. Leitherer, J. MacKenty, B. McLean,
N. Panagia
Historical Milky Way Supernovae
• The earliest recorded
•
•
•
•
SN185 in 185AD.
The Crab Nebula
associated with the 
1054 supernova
Tyco’s Nova SN1572
Kepler's supernova
Remnant, SN 1604 
G1.9+0.3: Youngest
(~140 yr) known SN
Extragalactic Supernovae
SN 1998S
• First extragalactic SNe (S
Andromedae) was discovered in
Andromeda galaxy in 1885.
• In 1934 Baade & Zwicky (1934)
define supernovae as separate
class of objects.
• First systematic SN search was
initiated by Zwicky in 1936.
• Currently the number of
discovered SNe is approaching
to 5000 from which about 50%
have been discovered in 21st
century.
Why studying SNe
Physics of the explosion:
• Energetics
• Nucleosynthesis
• Compact remnants
• …
SNe as tools:
• Distance indicators
• Probes of (late) evolution of stars and
progenitors systems (mass loss, …)
• Probes of extinction in external galaxies
• Probes of Star Formation History
• …
Taxonomy 2003
Turatto 2003
Classification of Supernovae
Turatto 2003
SNIa: Light curves
Light curves are homogeneous (!)
Spectra are
homogeneous
1994D
1996X
1992A
Summary of SNIa
Observational properties:
•fairly homogeneous
• MB≈MV=-19.5
• show O,Mg,S,Si,Ca near maximum, Fe at late phases
• no hydrogen
• no radio or X-ray emission
• occur in all type of galaxies (E included)
• in spirals, not strongly associated with HII regions
Interpretation: Thermonuclear disruption of CO WDs which
accreted their mass up to the Chandrasekhar limit via mass transfer
from a companion in binary systems.
SN II: Light curves
Patat et al. 1994
SNII: Spectral variety
IIP
1987A
IIL
1980K
IIn
1988Z
IIpec
1997cy
IIb
1993J
SN Ib/c: Light curves
Elmhamdi et al. 2004
56Ni56Co56Fe
SN 1993J
Barbon et al. 1995
type II
type Ib
Summary of CC SNe
Observational properties
•NOT homogeneous
• show H, He, O, Ca …...
• from small to huge radio and X-ray emission
Interpretation: The core collapse in massive
• occur only (!!)
stars
in spiral
(M≥8Mgalaxies
endare
of aassociated
series central
) at theand
with star forming
nuclear
regions
burnings which end up with the
formation of an iron core.
• leave collapsed remnant (NS or BH) [Crab]
• variable envelope size and mass
• emit neutrinos and gravitational waves
• variable 56Ni mass
• variable CSM density and distribution
SN classification II
Fields of study of SNe and their host galaxies
• SNe in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxies
(Petrosian & Turatto 1995, Navasardyan et al. 2001)
• SNe in active and star forming galaxies (Turatto et al. 1989,
Petrosian & Turatto 1990, 1992, Petrosian et al. 2005, Hakobyan
2008)
• Radial distribution of CC SNe in spiral galaxies (Hakobyan et al.
2008a)
• Early type galaxies with CC SNe (Hakobyan et al. 2008b)
SNe in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of
galaxies. Navasardyan et al. (2001)
• The aim: To investigate
•
•
•
the influence of
environment on SN
production.
22 SNe in 18 isolated
galaxies
48 SNe in 40 galaxies
members of 37 pairs
211 SNe in 170 galaxies
members of 116 groups.
SNe in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxies
Conclusions:
• Radial distributions of CC SNe in galaxies located in different
environments are similar.
• SNe discovered in pairs show isotropic azimuthal distributions
and do not favor a particular direction with respect to the
companion galaxy.
• SN rate in galaxies members of pairs is ̴ 40% higher than in
average galaxy and ̴ 60% higher than in members of groups.
• With the possible exception of strongly interacting systems the
host environment has no influence of SN production.
SNe in active and star forming (A/SF) galaxies.
List of the problems addressed
• To what extent does the nuclear A/SF affect the host.
• To determine the rates of SNe in A/SF and normal galaxies.
• To compare integral properties (morphology, luminosity etc.) of the
hosts of SNe.
• To determine the radial distribution of SNe in spiral galaxies.
• To determine SNe and spiral arms connection.
• To study association of SNe with SF regions.
The samples of galaxies for SNe search
•
•
•
•
Markarian galaxies (Petrosian et al. 2007)
Second Byurakan Survey galaxies
NGP +30o zone A/SF galaxies (Petrosian et al. 2008)
NGP +30o zone Normal galaxies (Petrosian et al. 2008)
1544
1401
303
878
Discovered SNe
•
•
•
•
In Markarian galaxies
SBS galaxies
A/SF NGP galaxies
Normal NGP galaxies
47 SNe in 41 galaxies
10 SNe in 6 galaxies (5 Mrks)
26 SNe in 23 galaxies
32 SNe in 29 galaxies
The rate of SNe in A/SF and Normal galaxies.
Previous results
• The rate of SNe in Markarian galaxies does not differ from the
•
•
•
•
corresponding value of normal galaxies (Turatto et al. 1989).
The rate of SNe in the hosts of AGNs does not differ from the
corresponding value of normal galaxies (Petrosian & Turatto
1992).
The rates of SNe Ia, II and Ib/c in SB galaxies are similar to those
measured in normal galaxies (Richmond et al. 1998).
SNe rates in the hosts of AGNs are not enhanced (Cappellaro et
al. 1999).
The rate of SNe Ia is increasing toward galaxies with higher
activity of star formation (Mannucci et al. 2003).
The rate of SNe in A/SF and Normal galaxies
Petrosian et al. (2005)
Frequency per luminosity unit (SNu)a with standard errors:
__________________________________________________________________
Mrk
A/SF
Normal Cappellaro et al. (1999)
__________________________________________________________________
Ntot
316
483
354
9246
Ia
0.47±0.23(4)
0.33±0.15(4.6) 0.49±0.16(9)
0.20±0.06(69.6)
II+Ib/c 0.85±0.60(2)
0.67±0.36(3.4) < 0.15(0)
0.48±0.19(67.4)
All
1.32±0.64(6)
1.00±0.39(8) 0.49±0.16(9)
0.68±0.20(137)
__________________________________________________________________
a
1SNu = 1SN(100Yr) -1 (1010Lo(B)) -1
The rate of SNe in A/SF and Normal galaxies.
Conclusions
• The rates of SN Ia and CC SN in A/SF
galaxies are higher than in the galaxies of the
control sample.
• The rate of CC SN in A/SF galaxies is higher
than in normal galaxies.
Morphologies of SNe hosts
12
Mean values:
SNIa –
2.5±2.1(28)
SNII+Ib/c – 4.2±2.5(32)
SNe Ia
SNe HII+Ib/c
10
K-S Probability of
Morphology Distribution
(distributions are the
same) : - 12%
N
8
6
4
2
0
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
Morphology
5
6
7
8
9
10
Morphologies of SNe hosts.
Conclusions
• SNe Ia have been discovered in all galaxy
types.
• CC SNe are discovered only in spiral and
irregular galaxies.
Radial distribution of SNe
Previous results
• The radial distributions of SNe Ia and SNe II are similar (Bartunov
et al. 1992).
• SNe Ia are more centrally concentrated than SNe II (Howell &
Wheeler 1999 ).
• The radial distribution of SNe Ia is in general different from those of
CC SNe (Wang et al. 1997):
 There is no indication that SNe Ia are more centrally distributed than SNe II.
 There is a relative excess of SNe II compared to SNe Ia near the very center.
 SNe Ib/c are more centrally concentrated than SNe Ia and probably SNe II.
• SNe Ib/c may be more centrally concentrated than SNe II (van den
Bergh 1997).
Radial distribution of SNe
8
SNe II
Mean values:
SNe Ia
SNIa – 0.49±0.26(24)
SNII – 0.59±0.31(22)
SNIb/c – 0.31±0.18(10)
6
5
N
K-S Probability of
Radial Distribution
(distributions are
the same) :
SNe Ia/II - 20%
SNe Ib/c
7
4
3
2
1
0
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
[R(SN)/R(25)]corr
1.20
1.40
Radial distribution of SNe.
Conclusions
• The radial distribution of SNe Ia is in general different
from those of CC SNe.
• There is a relative excess of SNe II compared to SNe Ia
events near the very center of the galaxy.
• SNe Ib/c are more centrally concentrated than SNe Ia.
• SNe Ib/c are more centrally concentrated than SNe II.
Distribution of SNe relative to spiral arms and HII
regions. Previous results
• SNe of all types are concentrated towards spiral arms
•
•
•
(Bartunov et al. 1994).
CC SNe are tightly concentrated in spiral arms; SNe Ia
show looser concentration (Maza & van den Bergh
1996).
SNe Ia are not correlated with the HII regions (Bartunov
et al. 1994).
SNe II and Ib/c show strong and not significantly
different association with HII regions (e.g. Van Dyk et al.
1996).
Distribution of SNe relative to spiral arms and
HII regions. Conclusions
• 39% of SNe Ia and 72% of CC SNe are concentrated to
the spiral arms.
• There is no SNe Ia associated with HII region.
• 68% of CC SNe are associated with the HII regions
(71% Van Dyk et al. 1996).
• 20% of CC SNe are close to the nuclear regions (< 0.17).
Multivariate Factor Analysis (MFA)
• SNe total sample N = 59
• SNe Ia sample N= 22
• CC SNe N = 32
• Parameters in use:
Morph, AL, M(B), R(Kpc), Inc, R(SN)/R(25), SN type
Multivariate Factor Analysis (MFA).
Conclusions
• SNe Ib/c more prefer to be discovered in A/SF hosts than
SNe II and significantly more than SNe Ia.
• SNe II are found preferentially in barred galaxies.
• SNe Ia are closer to the nuclei of A/SF galaxies than to
the nuclei of normal galaxies!!!!!
• Closest to the nuclei of the hosts are Ib/c type SNe.
ASC: CC SNe and their host galaxies.
Hakobyan (2008)
• The aim: Correlation between CC SNe properties and
integral parameters of their hosts.
• The ASC sample: 271 SNe (203 SNe II & 68 SNe
Ib/c) in 243 hosts.
• The method: MFA with parameters – Morph, Bar, AL,
M(B), R(Kpc), Inc, SN type & R(SN)/R(25).
ASC: CC SNe and their host galaxies
Conclusions:
– SNe Ib/c are more
centrally concentrated
than SNe II.
– CC SNe in A/SF hosts
are more centrally
concentrated than in
normal hosts.
– Latter effect is
stronger for SNe Ib/c.
The radial distribution of CC SNe in spiral
hosts
Hakobyan et al. (2008a)
• The aim: Comparative study of relative radial
distribution of CC SNe in spiral galaxies with the
distribution of stars and ionized gas in spiral
disks.
• The ASC sample: 219 CC SNe (160 SNe II and
59 SN Ib/c) in 198 spiral hosts (I < 50°;
v< 10000 km s-1).
The radial distribution of CC SNe in host spiral
galaxies
• Conclusions:
– The scale length of CC SNe
distribution is significantly smaller
than that of the stars, but
consistent with that of HII regions.
– SNe Ib/c have significantly smaller
scale length than SNe II.
– These tendencies have no
significant correlations with
galaxies integral parameters.
Summary of conclusions of our studies
•
With the exception of strongly interacting systems the host environment has no
influence of SN production.
•
The rate of CC SN in A/SF galaxies is higher than in normal galaxies.
•
SNe Ib/c more often discovered in A/SF hosts than SNe II.
•
The radial distribution of SNe Ia is different from that of CC SNe.
•
SNe Ia are closer to the nuclei of A/SF galaxies than to the nuclei of normal galaxies.
•
SNe Ib/c are more centrally concentrated than SNe II.
•
CC SNe in A/SF hosts are more centrally concentrated than in normal hosts. Latter
effect is stronger for SNe Ib/c.
•
Above tendencies have no significant correlations with the integral parameters of host
galaxies.
Early type galaxies with CC SNe
Hakobyan et al. (2008b)
• Among morphologically
classified hosts of CC SNe 22
have been classified as E or
S0 (van den Bergh et al.
2002, 2003, 2005; ASC).
• Results of our study:
–
–
–
–
–
17 are misclassified spirals
1 is misclassified irregular
1 is misclassified ring galaxy
2 are mergers
NGC2768 is Elliptical galaxy in
close interaction.
SN Ia rate calibrated to the
unit mass (Mannucci et al.
2005).
→
The rate of SN Ia in radio-loud
galaxies is ~ 4 times higher
than that in radio-quiet
galaxies (Della Valle et al.
2005).
SNe Ia are closer to the nuclei
of A/SF hosts than to nuclei to
normal hosts.
↓
“Prompt” and “Tardy” SNe Ia
populations (Mannucci et al.
2006; Greggio et al. 2008).
Projects in Progress: Multipurpose study of 3838
galaxies selected from the common southern field of Five
SNe, DENIS, 2MASS, POSS-II and SERC surveys
• The particular aim of the study: To determine the rates of
SN Ia and CC SNe calibrated to the unit mass and stellar
population and relation to integral and nuclear properties of the
host galaxies and their local and far environment.
• The sample: 3838 galaxies in common field of five SNe,
DENIS, 2MASS, POSS-II and SERC surveys. Newly
determined morphologies and measured optical and near-IR
parameters.
Projects in Progress: Multipurpose study of 3838 galaxies
selected from the common southern field of Five SNe, DENIS,
2MASS, POSS-II and SERC surveys
Samples in different photometric bands
Galaxies monitored SNe discovered In hosts
U
1080
55
35
B
3723
73
52
R
3697
73
52
I
3702
71
51
J
3339
73
52
H
3098
72
51
K
3263
72
51
Projects in Progress: SNe in corotation rings
of spiral galaxies
• Corotation radius: The radius in
which angular velocity of
forming spiral arm density wave
and the galactic disk are equal.
• Enhanced SF in corotation ring.
• The aim: Enhanced SF and
nature of different type of SNe.
• The sample: 77 SNe (53
CCSN; 9 SNIa) in 37 hosts.
NGC4579 (SABb; Sy1.9)
Projects in Progress: Optical and near-IR surface photometry of
SNe environments
The motivations:
– Surrounding stellar population can provide information about nature of SNe
progenitors.
– Possible detection of SNe light echoes (Sparks 1994, Boffi et al. 1999).
The sample: 158 (v < 10000 km s-1; i < 50°) spiral hosts with 183 SNe (53 SN Ia, 95 SN II,
35 SN Ib/c).
SN1990K (IIP) in NGC150 (vr = 1584km s-1)