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How was Earth formed?
Big Bang Theory
13.7 billion years ago
Creation of all matter
Hydrogen and Helium the first
More complex elements evolved through
The Expanding Universe
 The Doppler effect is used to document the
expanding universe
Red shift
Hubble’s Law
 Red shift is related to distance
 The farther galaxies are moving faster than the
closer galaxies
The Nebula Hypotheses
The Nebular Hypothesis
 The solar system formed from a collapsed nebula
 1734 by Emanuel Swedenborg
 Observations support this idea
Nebulae: step 1
 Gas (98%) and dust (2%)
 Rotates and is held
together by
gravitational force
Step 2: The Nebula collapses
 The collapsed mass
forms a proto-sun due
to gravitational force
 Contraction increases
speed of rotation:
Step 3: sun is formed, disk cleared
 The disk is “cleared
out” due to the
immense amount of
energy released.
 Sun is formed
 Dust and gases cool
and condense in
defined orbits around
the sun
Nebula hypothesis: step 4- planet
 Temperature differences with respect to distance
from sun
 Closer, where temperatures are higher, iron and
silicates condense
 Farther, cooler, hydrogen, water condense
 material collides and accretes forming planetesimals
(small planets)
Evidence: Orion Nebula
 Third star down on
Orion’s belt
 100 light years
across (1 light year
equals 6 trillion
 Reflection of dust
and hydrogen
Evidence: Collapsed nebulae discs found
in the Orion nebula
 Gaseous disks are
circling proto-suns.
 2-17 times larger than
our solar system
 About 153 protoplanetary
disks found in the Orion
Early Earth
 Homogenous
 Very hot
Segregation of elements: gravitational force
Compositionally distinct
Physically distinct layers
Remember: the liquid outer
core with the Earth’s rotation
produces the magnetic field.