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Cosmology -- the Origin and Structure of the Universe
Cosmological Principle – the Universe appears the same from all directions .
There is no preferred location.
(The physical laws apply to the whole Universe).
Is there a preferred time ?
The Distance – Redshift Relation (Hubble Law)
The Distribution of Matter – Large Scale Structure
Implications of the finite velocity of light
Consequences of star birth and death
Cosmological models -- “world views”
How we perceive our Universe and our relation to it
Historical models --
By mid 20th century -- 3 models or theories
Big Bang -- Father LeMaitre, George Gamow
Oscillating Universe
Steady State -- Fred Hoyle
Early 21st century – Big Bang cosmology firmly established
3 degree background radiation
or cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB)
Nobel Prize 1978
Subsequent work -- numerous measurements, balloon, satellites
The Big Bang -- the standard model -- ~14 x 109 yrs
The Early Universe –
the Hubble Deep Field (HDF)
Deepest exposure with
HST 10 consecutive
days , 342 exposures,
Reaching > 30th mag
Small irregular galaxies
- among first objects
Glow from first stars ?
Other considerations -- the critical density of matter, finite or
infinite ? and the shape of space
Type Ia supernovae, the accelerating Universe and dark energy
Nobel Prize 2011
Saul Perlmutter
Adam Reiss
Brian Schmidt
At the beginning of the 21st century:
The Universe began in a superdense state; it is flat, expanding,
the expansion is accelerating, it is dominated by dark energy, and
will expand forever.
What about the future ?