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Transcript
SOAR Fall 2004
The Substance of
Ourselves
Evening Came …
“As the universe expanded
and cooled, darkness
descended,
…And Morning Followed
“Then light dawned anew with
the formation of the first stars.
Each star is a nuclear furnace
where matter is coaxed into releasing a
little of the energy it inherited
from the primordial fireball.”
Timothy Ferris
The Creation of the Universe
Starbirth
Interstellar clouds collapse under
gravity and fragment into a cluster of
denser clouds that continue collapsing.
Starbirth
Interstellar
cloud
fragments
collapse
under
gravity to
form stars.
Starbirth Regions
Orion Nebula
Eagle
Nebula
Pillars Of Creation
Light and
stellar winds
from above
evaporate
gas leaving
dense, starforming
regions …
Evaporating
Gaseous
Globules.
EGGs
EGGs in
Orion
Forming
stars have
surrounding
gas
evaporated …
young stars
may also
evaporate.
Forming
Solar
Systems
Disks of
gas and dust
surrounding
forming
stars form
planets,
moons, etc.
Forming Solar Systems
Disks of gas and dust surrounding
forming stars seen edge-on in Orion
Solar System Formation
Planets form from debris around star.
What Makes A Star?
Nuclear Fusion
 Light elements combine to make heavier
elements.
Hydrogen
fuses to
Helium
What Makes A Star?
Nuclear Fusion
 Light elements combine to make
heavier elements.
Helium
fuses to
Carbon,
Oxygen,
Nitrogen …
Fusion Releases Energy
Mass of 4 H atoms =
=
Mass of 1 He atom =
Difference (loss)
=
=
4 x (1.007940 amu)
4.031760 amu
4.002602 amu
0.029158 amu
0.7 % of H
Where does it go?
E=
2
mc
Energy!
Energy Of Fusion: Solar Power
Convert 1 kg of H to He:
0.7% ( = 7 grams) becomes energy
by E = mc2,
(0.007 kg)x(3.0 x 108 m/s)2 = 630 trillion joules
= 175 million kWhr
= 175 GWhr
US Annual Electrical Use
= 3700 GWhr
Converting 22 kg of H to He would
power the entire US for one year!
Products Of Stellar Fusion
Early universe was
75% H, 25% He
All other elements
are the products
of stars!
Substance Of Life
Life requires H, C, O, & N
 All elements of life came from stars
that lived AND DIED before the sun
formed.
 Sun is a 2nd or 3rd generation star
o 1st stars were pure hydrogen and helium)
“We are the matter of the
cosmos contemplating itself.”
- Carl Sagan
Interstellar Medium
Ancient stars enriched the ISM
with the products of their fusion by
 Stellar Winds
o Stars constantly blow particles into space
o Solar wind & storms cause aurorae on
Earth
 Deaths as Planetary Nebulae
Planetary Nebulae
The source of common heavy elements
(lighter than iron) … C, O, N, Ca, K, P,
etc.
Planetary Nebulae
The
Hourglass
Nebula
Planets
And
Moons
The sun and all
the planets formed
from the same cloud
of “used” star stuff
enriched with heavy elements
by previous generations of stars.
Earth
Life arose on Earth because
 water from volcanoes
& comets condensed
into oceans that
 Absorbed CO2
from the early atmosphere
 Allowed life to arise
protected from sun’s radiation
 Regulate
temperature
of entire
 water
is availablethe
as solid,
liquid, & gas
planet
 oxygen
was freed and formed the ozone layer
Earth
“… then God formed the
earthling from the dust of the
ground, breathed into it the
breath of life, and the earthling
became a living being …”
Genesis 2:7
Earth Mother
“It is in so many ways fruitful.
All creation comes from it.
Yet it forms not only the basic
raw material for humankind,
but also the substance of the
incarnation of God’s son.”
Hildegard of Bingen
There is a Time For Every
Purpose Under Heaven ..
“Lift up your eyes to the
heavens,
and look at the Earth down below
for the heavens
will vanish like smoke,
and the earth will wear out
like a garment.”
Isaiah 51:6
There is a Time For Every
Purpose Under Heaven ..
Stars use up their nuclear fuel and die
Death of a sun-sized star:
Core fusion stops
Star swells to Red Giant
(Betelgeuse, Antares)
Becomes a Planetary Nebula
Ends as a White Dwarf
Star Death
The sun will
become a Red
Giant in about
5 By, a White
Dwarf in about
7 By
Europa 6 Billion AD
The ice of Europa will melt when the sun
becomes a red giant and swells beyond the size
of Earth’s orbit.
And all the elements we are made
of will return to the stars …
Planetary
Nebulae
The elements
we’re made
of were once
part of a
planetary
nebula …
Planetary Nebulae
The
elements
we’re made
of will again
be part of
a planetary
nebula.
Evolution
“Thanks to imperfection, to the
fractured symmetries that produce
differences among the particles and
forces, atoms in their variety could
build themselves up into molecules, and
molecules rise up in alliance as life, and
life give birth to thought, and thought
produce theories about the creation of
the universe.
We see evidence from every direction that
the universe is all of a piece and that it
began as a single seed smaller than an
atom. And in a very real sense, you and I
were there. Every scrap of matter and
energy in our blood and bones, and in the
synapses of our thoughts can trace its
lineage back to the origin of the universe
... as the Koran puts it:
'The universe is as close
as the veins in our necks'"
--Timothy Ferris
The Creation of The Universe