The Renaissance Renaissance--Some basics Means “rebirth” (of Greek ideas, culture, etc.) Where? Italy: city-states When? 1330-1530 Characteristics? Secular Humanism Classical ideas Classical Architecture & Arts Beauty of nature valued Dignity and potential of man Idea of individual valued Origins Begins in the Italian City -States Italy’s geographic location (Point of exchange East/West) Thriving Economy (Wealthy Merchant Families) Banking and finance come to the fore in Italy (Usury) Capitalism usurping Feudalism Rich families benefited from recession in Europe Printing Press widely used in Italy for secular works Hegemony of the Papacy waning Northern Europe consolidating under strong Monarchies Major States Milan, Venice, Florence, Genoa, Naples, Papal States (Think North as opposed to South) City is the center with control of surrounding lands Oligarchies, despots & republics Question Time What might cause the end of the Renaissance in Italy? Class Divisions in Northern City-States Classes Grandi (Nobles & Old Wealth) Popolo Grasso (New Wealth) Medocri (Mid-Burgher level) Popolo Minuto Who ruled? Rich merchant families Signori (Merchant family) Podesta (Republic) Condottieri (Mercenaries) Names to know: Medici, Borgia, Sforza New Attributes Individualism Portraiture Secularism Literacy, & biography wealth, knowledge From Scholasticism to Humanism Begins with notaries What makes a “good” citizen? What makes a “good” life? Petrarch as first major thinker looking closely again at the classics Humanism= rhetoric, Latin, history, grammar, poetry and moral philosophy Humanism is not a new philosophy replacing Christianity Question Time What might be some problems faced by those involved with Humanism? New Virtues Castiglione, in The Courtier, best describes the new virtues of the “universal man” Men: Well educated, charming polite, witty, dance, write poetry, sing & play music, physically strong and graceful, a skilled rider, wrestler & swordsman Women: Know the classics, write well, paint, make music, dance and be charming (not expected to seek fame as men did) New Politics Machiavelli as originator of new (real) diplomacy & ruling Machiavelli the Florentine, diplomat and advisor until removed from office. Advice: Better to be feared than loved (but never hated). A good prince is crafty & shrewd....in politics the ends justify the means A despot is a transition not the ultimate Question Time How did Machiavelli’s political theory reflect the times in Italy? New Art Increase in Quantity Technical proficiency (perspective, chiaroscuro) Change in subject matter Religious monopoly broken Hierarchy of arts change (to stand alone) Artist is known Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Donatello, Raphael, Titian Masaccio, Expulsion– 1426 Botticelli, Birth of Venus– 1485 Donatello’s David, 1430 Botticelli’s Venus and Mars, 1485 Madonna and Child, 1500’s Michelangelo’s, David, 1504 Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa, 1507 Tintoretto, Christ at the Sea of Galilee, 1575 Raphael, Pope Leo X, 1518 & The Prophet Isaiah, 1511 Titian, Bacchus and Ariadne, 1522 Durer, Venetian Woman, 1505 Question Time Was the Renaissance truly an era of rebirth? Downfall As Italian states stop backing each other up when encountering foreign invaders and continually attack each other, Spain and France lead armies in to reoccupy or take over By this time, the Renaissance has spread outside of Italy to areas like Holland with Erasmus and England with Thomas More Other things going on.... Scientific inquiry and medical discoveries Guttenberg’s Printing Press Exploration Question Time What are some of the legacies of the Renaissance in our own times?