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World History Unit 3
Renaissance
Cultural and Intellectual Thought
Before the Renaissance
• Dominated by Christianity
• Dominated by Feudalism-political, economic, and social
structure
• Greek and Roman culture essentially forgotten
• Dominated by concerns for:
– Salvation
– Territorial disputes
– Black Death
– Lack of Education outside monasteries
– Small scale trade
Factors Influencing Shift Toward
Renaissance
• Crusades exposed Europe to the global world and
advanced civilizations—scholasticism exposure to rest of
world and Europe’s past
• Byzantine and Islamic cultures preserved the past
adding the knowledge of math and science Countries
unified under centralization
• Increased trade fueled further contact and learning
• Universities became centers of learning
• Other major movements emerged in addition to the
Renaissance—the Reformation, Scientific Revolution,
and Enlightenment
Shifts in Thought
• Europe was no longer backward, isolated, self-involved,
self-sufficient region on edge of world
• Desire to become dominant civilization grew
• Exploration and expansion grew from shift in thought
• Not quick or in equal proportions
• Took long time to penetrate all circles
• Guarded jealously by people with power
• Peasants didn’t participate—no education or position to
learn about it—lack of opportunity
RENAISSANCE
• Means the rebirth of Greek and Roman
culture
• Lasted approximately 1300-1600 A.D.
Why the Renaissance?
•
•
•
•
•
Demand for labor high
Demand for products high
Population began to increase after Black Death
People moved to cities
Middle, or Merchant Class, emerged—bankers,
merchants, traders, etc.
• Huge influx of coined money
Why the Renaissance?
• Interactions with Muslim world continued while
Byzantine Empire was severely weakening
• Italian city-states became very rich supplying
and transporting goods (Milan, Venice, and
Florence)
• Increased wealth and new opportunities for
material achievement in growing urban societies
• Scholars uncovered lost and forgotten Greek
and Roman written works
• Located on former ruins
• Would encourage competition amongst growing
European powers
HUMANISM
• Focus on human endeavor—non-religious
thinking and action
• Previously life was useless and goal was
heaven—suck it up now for heaven awaits
• Shift in thinking from afterlife to here and now
• Focus on individuals meant less focus on
institutions such as the Church
HUMANISM
• Historical texts were revisited with focus on
personal accomplishments and personal
happiness—Greek and Roman literature has
tons of examples
• “Renaissance Man” emerged—Leonardo da
Vinci—artist (painter & sculptor), scientist,
musician, architect, engineer, inventor,
mathematician
• Writings and art began to reflect humanism
• Power of church declined during the
Renaissance
Characteristics of Renaissance Art
• Themes became more secular rather than
religious
• Subjects were popes, monarchs,
merchants, Greek and Roman deities,
contemporary events
• Human figures were more realistic due to
increased study of human anatomy
• Used perspective—three dimensional
• Began using oil paints
Rebirth in Arts
• Wealthy families in city-states patronized the
arts
• Human figure is realistic—3 dimensional, use of
shadows to illuminate
• Linear perspective—focal point
• Embraced by Roman Church
– Art adorned palaces and cathedrals
– Huge domes
• Spread northward
• Greater variety of colors—due to trade and
exposure
Renaissance Writing
• Johannes Gutenberg’s Printing Press with moveable
type—made printing books much easier
• Prior to printing press and Renaissance was little
need for books—no one to read them
• Previously invented by Song Dynasty in China who
gained knowledge from Korea—was Gutenberg
aware?
• Ease of printing made it cheaper and able to be mass
produced in other languages other than Latin
• The Bible was the first book mass produced by the
printing press and was spread in other languages
other than Latin for the first time
Renaissance Writing
• Middle class becoming more educated, demanding
more books, increased demand for paper from Arabs
and Chinese
• Helped spread Protestant Reformation views
• Other books printed were mainly for entertainment
purposes focusing on daily lives of people (the
Vernacular)
– The Prince by Machiavelli—self-interest more
important than morals (how to keep political
power)
– Utopia by Sir Thomas Moore—ideal society
– Works of Shakespeare focused on humanism—
human faults, strengths, tragedy, comedy, and
classical world—Julius Caesar, etc.
Visual Renaissance
Florence Cathederal
By: Brunelleschi
St. Marks basilica in
Venice
Tempietto
Florence Baptistry
Sistine Chapel
By: Michelangelo
Tribute Money
By: Masaccio
The Last Supper
By: DaVinci
Mona Lisa
Ventruvian Man
School of Athens
By: Raphael
The parenthetical names are the contemporary characters from whom
Raphael is thought to have drawn his likenesses.
1: Zeno of Citium 2: Epicurus Possibly, the image of two philosophers, who were typically shown in pairs during the
Renaissance: Heraclitus, the "weeping" philosopher, and Democritus, the "laughing" philosopher. 3: unknown (believed to
be Raphael)[14] 4: Boethius or Anaximander or Empedocles? 5: Averroes 6: Pythagoras 7: Alcibiades or Alexander the Great?
8: Antisthenes or Xenophon or Timon? 9: Raphael[15],[14][16] Fornarina as a personification of Love[17] or Francesco Maria
della Rovere? 10: Aeschines or Xenophon? 11: Parmenides? (Leonardo da Vinci) 12: Diogenes of Sinope 13: Heraclitus
(Michelangelo) 14: Plato (Leonardo da Vinci)(Archimedes) (thought to be an amalgamation of the three) 15: Aristotle
(Giuliano da Sangallo) 16: Socrates 17: Plotinus (Donatello?) 18: Euclid or Archimedes with students (Bramante?)
19: Zoroaster (Baldassare Castiglione) 20: Ptolemy? R: Apelles (Raphael) 21: Protogenes (Il Sodoma, Perugino, or Timoteo
Viti)[18]
Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini
and Wife
By Van Eyck
Writers