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Transcript
Determination of Methodology Framework
1. Specification of the type of research.
2. Specification of methodology of research.
3. Specification of research field.
4. Specification of means of data collecting and
information.
5. Identification of tools and materials used to collect these
data.
How to Identify Questions to Start a Research
The Application and Explanation of Unemployment
 In studying the problem of unemployment among graduates
identify research questions as follows:
•What are the major factors leading to the problem of
unemployment among university graduates?
•What are the features or characteristics of the problem of
unemployment among university graduates?
•What are the consequences of the problem of unemployment
among university graduates?
•What are the efforts of civil society to address the problem of
unemployment among university graduates?
•What are the governmental efforts to address the problem of
unemployment among university graduates?
HYPOTHESES
1. Usually takes the form of a number of variables.
2. Variables are characteristics of the chosen target to be
studied, such as :
1 - Students degree.
2 – Students attendance.
3 - Waiting time for the bus.
3. It used to indicate changes of social status or an identified
social factor such as :" age, gender, income”.
4. The changing value of a variable is a phenomenon that differs
from ant individual to another and is a key element in the
analysis of :
a-Causation.
B-Process measurement.
C-Research design.
VARIABLES
DEPENDENT
QUANTITATIVE
INDEPENDENT
QUALITATIVE
The independent variable was related to a phenomenon which is based on
facts and evidence.
The dependent variable was the variable that affected occurs or disappears
organ of the independent variable
B
A
The dependent
variable
Independent
variable
independent variables :
Dependent variables :
1.
The housing problem.
2.
The controversy over the children during the
divorce and after the divorce.
Example : the problem of divorce :
1.
Incompatibility in social terms.
2.
The difference in education.
3.
The problem of delayed
3.
Age difference.
4.
The problem of maintenance.
4.
Problems.
Some of the views added a third type of variables and intermediate
variables.
B
Examples:
1 - Feeling concerned.
2 -The degree of stress.
3 - Mental illness.
X
A
Variables
Qualitative
Quantitative
Descriptive:
1. Hair color.
2. Address.
3. Social level.
4. Car’s color.
5. Nationality.
Defined by number :
1. Students grades.
2. General budget
Discrete
Continuous
Possibility of switching between qualitative and
quantitative
Planning of Research
Library research :where these studies rely on a Literature survey on
the subject of research and the use of logic and analysis of the
obtained references, many of these research studies are theoretical
research known as office studies where the researcher reads the
old and modern references on the subject and analyses them
carefully.
Field research: these studies rely on the collection of samples outdoor,
the researcher goes down to the field and collects data from a group
or from a sample of the population using tools such as :
observation , interview and questionnaire.
Exploratory research :is a reconnaissance or scouting as the name
indicates. The researcher explores the circumstances surrounding
the event, and revealed aspects and dimensions. Sometimes this
type of studies is known as “ Formulative " .This type of research
helps the researcher and his colleagues in the formulation of the
problem of research and in preparation of the drafting precise
discussion at a later stage. they also assist researchers in a
research essay to assume hypotheses to solve the problem.
Descriptive Research
• Descriptive studies are those that identify the facts with great
precision through collection and analysis of the data including and
identifies some important concepts that contribute to the work
development.
• these studies, include the study and description of current realities
on the nature of the phenomenon or the position of events or a set
of conditions.
• These are known as "the scanning-Survey" As we survey the
phenomenon in question we try to identify its nature and
characteristics
• Descriptive studies are to qualitative or quantitative or both
• Qualitative studies are concerned with the quality issue of a
problem or search using non-numeric or digital
• concepts and definitions and a
• Quantitative studies deals with the phenomena or the subject as a
problem using figures and percentages and other mathematic
figures and numbers.
Experimental research
• When there are many studies conducted in the
area where the researcher wants to investigate
he uses the empirical research study.
• Empirical research is the research that utilizes
experiments to test the validity of the scientific
hypotheses, and uses relations between
different variables to confirm experiments.
• This type of research is more accurate than the
exploratory researches and descriptive
researches.
Characteristics of Hypotheses
•
•
•
•
Clarity.
Simplicity.
Brief.
Accuracy :through the imposition of relationships
between specific variables.
• Confirmatory tests and models.
• Compatibility with the known facts and theories.
• In the case of a major and wide hypothesis, it
should be divided into a number of sub-specific
assignments.
Hypotheses Types
1 - Directional
•That confirms the existence of statistically significant differences
between variables.
2 - Null
•It denies the existence of a relationship between variables.
3 - Descriptive
•The role of descriptive essay on the assumption of the existence
of a relationship between variables.
4 - Causation
•It presupposes the existence of a causal relationship between
two or more variables.
Determining of Research Methodology
Scientific methodology
research
3. Historical
2. Case study
1. Scientific survey
Concept of Survey
•
•
•
•
•
•
The term "survey" has been borrowed from the field of natural Sciences.
The term survey land is to determine its area and know its characteristics ,
surveying is the phenomenon to determine the nature and characteristics of
knowledge.
Surveying is an important tool used in the exploratory and descriptive
research.
The survey is known as the scientific study of the conditions, needs and
problems in order to provide a program for reform.
Survey research can not be applied in the historical and evolutionary
studies interested in the past or in the link between the past and the
present.
This type does not consider the problem in depth but gives a general idea
about the status and not the deep analysis of each sample ,the survey
adopts in the study questions prepared in advance through questionnaires
and interviews, which could lead to the omission of much of the information
which had not been included in these tools.
One of the advantages of a survey is the accessibility to the data required
for the different variables of the study, and it is an appropriate strategy for
data relied upon relatively large scientific community.
Some examples of Social
Surveys
Some themes can be identified in the survey of social and human
sciences as follows :
• In the study characteristics of the housing and economic
development of societies such as (population , age, sex, type,
family, children ... ).
• Study of the social and economic environment of societies such as
(income and living standards, and the factors affecting the economic
and social levels).
• Study of various activities of a group or society, such as universities
(kind of leisure activities , types of newspapers and magazines read
by them ... ).
• Study people's views and attitudes towards some of the topics and
political issues
• Study of crime in society and the characteristics and types of edges,
and the factors that cause them and their consequences and /or the
study of the best ways of crime prevention and response.
Case Study
•
•
•
A case study is one of the most used and effective
methodology in the Descriptive studies in which the
researcher is interested in the study of a unit
representing the rest of units.
The case study approach, is concerned with all
aspects of the problem adopted on only one unit or
one position.
A case study is the kind of in-depth examination of the
case by collecting information and data on the status
of one existing situation ,and past experience and
relationship with the environment.
Application of Case Study
•
•
•
•
•
When a researcher needs to investigate the different and detailed
characteristics of a certain situation in the field of social, cultural, economic
and scientific
When a researcher wants to study the evolutionary history for something
When a researcher wants to be able to know the truth about the internal life
of a person as representative of a group or community, and wishes to
examine the motives and problems as representative model for people in
the same community (case study of one drug addicts or criminals).
The advantages of a case study is to provide information that may not
provided with other tools.It provides us usually with a fully comprehensive
and accurate diagnosis in depth study of the studied situation.Also can help
the researcher in to understand and study other cases that are in the same
circumstances.
One of the drawback of the case study method is the difficulty of the
selection of the representative unit (case) and the right way of compilation
of data and the sentencing.The difficulty is also to apply all the findings to all
other cases “disseminate the results of one case”.
Historical Methodology
A. The historical approach is one of the oldest methods of scientific
research. From its pioneers we can mention : Ibn Khaldun , San
Simon, Augusts. Sometimes called the documentary approach, due
to the use of documents, records and historical sources that
contain the information, data and ideas and past events .
B. The historical methodology studies accidents and incidents and
events of the past years .
C. The sense that the historic survey focuses on “what was” and
explore the facts and relations in a phenomenon or problem that
occurred in the past .
D. The function of the historical survey is in interpretation and
forecasting .
E. the researcher must use the historical method to determine the
historical period that concerned his study, and looking for the
documents, records and sources associated with this period .
Some of The Advantages of The Historical
Methodology
1. The historic approach could make the results as much as possible
accurate, objective and honest, if the researcher applies the
scientific method .
2. Probability theory can be applied to historical events similar to its
use in the social and natural sciences .
Defects of Historical Methodology
1. The historic events are events that can not be replicated
2. Historical knowledge is not perfect, it even provides a partial
picture of the past, where we cannot obtain a full knowledge of
the past because of the nature of the sources and historical
exposure to loss, damage and fraud .
3. The difficulty of achieving a high degree of objectivity using
historical approach .
4. Lack of discipline.