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4 Elements of Fitness
1. Cardiovascular – Circulatory system
comprising of heart & blood vessels
which carries nutrients to tissue
2. Flexibility – The range of motion around a joint
3. Strength - Power to carry out demanding tasks
4. Endurance – The ability to exert yourself for a long period of
FITT Formula
– 2 x 3 times per week.
– How hard you work out. You should
work out in your Target Heart Rate Zone
- 25-30 minutes – some people need more.
– Use a variety of workouts and time.
The Muscular System
• Cardic/Smooth – form the heart walls, while
smooth muscle tissue is found in the walls of internal organs
such as the stomach and the blood vessels. Both are
• Skeletal – Skeletal muscles move and support the
skeleton. They make up fifty percent of your body weight.
There are 640 individually named skeletal muscles. A
skeletal muscle links two bones across its connecting joint.
When these muscles contract or shorten, your bone moves.
Muscles are arranged in layers over the bones. Those
nearest to the skin are called superficial muscles. Those
closest to the inside of the body are called deep muscles.
Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles. These are muscles
that we can consciously control.
Major Joint Movement
• Abduction – moving away from the mid-line – Ex. Leg
• Adduction – moving towards the mid-line
• Ex. Leg adduction
• Flexion – Decreasing the angle between two structures
• Ex. Standing barbell curl
• Extension – Increasing the angle between two
• Ex. Downward motion of barbell curl
• Hyperextension – Extending a joint beyond its
normal anatomical position
 Isometric – Contracting a muscle without
significant movement
 Isotonic – Muscle contraction with movement
against a natural resistance
 Concentric – A muscle contraction resulting in
its shorting
 Eccentric – The contraction of a muscle during
its lengthening
 Agonist – A muscle that causes motion
 Antagonistic - A muscle that moves the joint
opposite to the movement produced by the
Stabilizers vs. Mobilizers
 Mobilizers – The muscle primarily responsible for the
movement (ex. Moving the biceps during a biceps curl)
Stabilizer – Muscles whose prime purpose in the body
or in a given movement is to maintain the stability so that the
effective movement can be performed by the mobilizing
(ex. In a standing barbell curl the rotator cuff muscles stabilize and align
the shoulder joint, and the abs maintain the alignment of the spine,
while the biceps perform the isotonic contraction )
Strength Training
Allow time for a proper warm-up
Use compound muscle groups before isolation
Use good form
Learn the difference between good and bad pain
Use full range of motion
Breathe consistently and avoid holding your breath.
Timing – One second exertion, three seconds negative, one
second rest
 Breath out during exertion
 Always use a spotter
 Rack your weight
Benefits of Strength Training
for Women
1) Increased Metabolic Rate- adding muscle increases our
metabolism naturally.
2) Increasing and Restoring Bone Density- prevent and fight
osteoporosis by building strong bones.
3) Increased Lean Muscle Mass- each pound of lean muscle
mass burns 35-50 calories per day.
4) Injury Prevention- a solid foundation strengthens our bones,
ligaments, and tendons.
5) Improved Balance- strong leg and core muscles help stabilize
Benefits of Strength Training
for Women
6) Decreased Risk of Coronary Disease- strength training can reduce
blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
7) Aids Rehabilitation and Recovery- the best way to strengthen and
recover from an injury is to slowly build your strength around the injured
8) Enhanced Performance in Sports and Life In General- climbing
stairs, carrying the kids, or walking with your spouse becomes more
9) Aging Gracefully- strong muscles build a strong body. Strength training
and fitness can help keep aging bodies in well-working condition.
10) Feeling Better and Looking Better- strength training reduces overall
body fat, it tones our muscles and it builds confidence.
Many women shy away from
weight training because they fear
that they'll end up looking like a
muscular bodybuilder. This is
physiologically impossible, since
women lack the high levels of
testosterone needed to "bulk up."
Rather than looking too muscular,
you will become lean and toned.
The muscle that you'll build will
burn far more calories than the
fat you're currently carrying
around, which will result in your
body becoming a calorie burning
machine - even at rest.
Static – Static stretching is slowly elongating the
muscle through its full range of motion, then
holding it at a position where it is at full
extension (but without pain). The stretch is held
for 15 to 30 seconds
PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromusclar Facilitation) –
involves a partner, uses specific technique to
stimulate muscles and tendons for increasing
rage of motion.
Ballistic - incorporates mild bounces in a static
stretch – DO NOT USE!!
Mobilization – stretches that use a full range of
movement around the joint
Lack of Flexibility?
Reduced freedom of movement
Increased risk of muscles tension and
Significant factor in postural
compensation/back pain
Benefits of Stretching
Stretching increases flexibility. Flexible muscles can improve
your daily performance. Tasks such as lifting packages, bending to
tie your shoes or hurrying to catch a bus become easier and less
Stretching improves range of motion of your joints. Good
range of motion keeps you in better balance, which will help keep
you mobile and less prone to injury from falls — especially as you
Stretching improves circulation. Stretching increases blood flow
to your muscles. Improved circulation can speed recovery after
muscle injuries.
Stretching promotes better posture. Frequent stretching keeps
your muscles from getting tight, allowing you to maintain proper
posture and minimize aches and pains.
Stretching can relieve stress. Stretching relaxes the tense
muscles that often accompany stress.
Stretching may help prevent injury. Preparing your muscles and
joints for activity can protect you from injury, especially if your
muscles or joints are tight
Ready, Set, STRETCH
Target major muscle groups. When you're stretching, focus on your calves,
thighs, hips, lower back, neck and shoulders. Also stretch muscles and joints that
you routinely use at work or play.
Warm up first. Stretching muscles when they're cold increases your risk of injury,
including pulled muscles. Warm up by walking while gently pumping your arms, or
do a favorite exercise at low intensity for five minutes. Better yet, stretch after you
exercise — when your muscles are warm and more receptive to stretching.
One caveat: If you plan to stretch only after your workout, increase the intensity of
the activity more slowly than you would if you had stretched your muscles before
Hold each stretch for at least 30 seconds. It takes time to lengthen tissues
safely. Hold your stretches for at least 30 seconds — and up to 60 seconds for a
really tight muscle or problem area. That can seem like a long time, so keep an
eye on the clock or your watch. Then repeat the stretch on the other side. For
most muscle groups, a single stretch is often enough if you hold it long enough.
Don't bounce. Bouncing as you stretch can cause small tears in the muscle.
These tears leave scar tissue as the muscle heals, which tightens the muscle even
further — making you less flexible and more prone to pain.
Focus on a pain-free stretch. Expect to feel tension while you're stretching. If it
hurts, you've gone too far. Back off to the point where you don't feel any pain,
then hold the stretch.
Relax and breathe freely. Don't hold your breath while you're stretching.
Benefits of Exercise
Exercise improves your mood.
Exercise combats chronic diseases.
Exercise helps you manage your
Exercise strengthens your heart and
Exercise promotes better sleep.
Exercise can be — gasp — fun!
Body Mass Index
Measure your height in inches without shoes
 Measure your weight without shoes
 Use the BMI index chart to determine your BMI
BMI Categories:
Underweight = <18.5
Normal weight = 18.5-24.9
Overweight = 25-29.9
Obesity = BMI of 30 or greater
Target Heart Rate
 Directions for calculating the target heart rate range:
First find your resting heart rate – Do this by taking your pulse for
ten seconds and timings that number by six.
Pulse(10secs) ______x6= Resting Heart Rate (RHR)=_________
Subtract your age from 220 ( this number estimates your
maximum heart rate)
Subtract your resting heart rate from the answer in step 1.
Multiply the answer in step 2 by 60% (.60)
Add your resting heart rate to the answer in step 3. This is your
low-end number in the target heart rate range.
To find your high-end number in the range, substitute 85% (.85)
Complete step 4 with your new answer
You know have a range from low 60% to high 85%
Low End
High End
) age
) Maximum heart rate
X 0.6
) Low end of the target
heart rate range
) age
) Maximum heart rate
X 0.85
) High end of the target
heart rate range
Low HR / 6=_________
High HR / 6 = _________