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Home Health Care and Assisted Living John Stankovic, Sang Son, Kamin Whitehouse A. Wood, Z. He, Y. Wu, T. Hnat, S. Lin, V. Srinivasan Department of Computer Science, University of Virginia We have developed a wireless sensor network (WSN) called “AlarmNet” for smart healthcare that will open up new opportunities for resident health monitoring in the home or in assisted living facilities. Real-time (24/7) access to physiological and environmental data is possible. Results demonstrate a strong potential for improved quality of medical care. Improve Quality of Life • Patient Autonomy and Comfort • Cognitive Assistance • Nutrition and Hygiene Monitoring Improve Health Care • Disease Specific Monitoring • Monitor Compliance with Treatment • Smart Clothes - unobtrusive Resident Health Remote Monitoring • Real-time and wireless (24/7) • Long-term for longitudinal studies Climate Monitoring • Environmental conditions control • Pollution detection Security • Detection of at-risk medical situations • Alert triggering Privacy • Variable depending on medical situation Example of a PDA displaying accelerometer data, patient pulse-rate, and environmental temperature. Pills Video cameras Motion sensors Backbone nodes Motes (emplaced WSN) A body network, embedded in a jacket, records human activities such as walking, eating and stillness using five 2axis accelerometers. It also incorporates a GPS to track outdoor location. Body scale Pulse-oximeter and heart rate sensor Facility map Harvard University EKG sensor MicaZ (Crossbow) Motion sensors. Located in each room, they track the location of the resident Medical Automation Research Center Blood pressure and Bed sensor. Based on an air bladder strip, it heart rate sensor records bed movements, breathing and heart rate (developed by MARC). Wearable Body Networks. Collects physiological data targeted to a particular medical problem. In the back-end of the system, a medical application monitors the Circadian Activity Rhythms (CAR) to extract activity patterns and detect behavioral anomalies. MTS 310 (Crossbow) Indoor temperature dust, and lumidity sensors Wearable Interfaces: LCD Mote Body networks: Pulse, EKG Emplaced Sensor Network. It includes wireless sensor devices deployed in the assisted living environment (rooms, hallways, units, furniture) connected to a more resourceful backbone and the Internet. Emplaced Sensor Network Backbone Backbone. It connects traditional systems, such as PDAs, PCs, and in-network databases, to the emplaced sensor network. Nodes possess significant storage and computation capability, for query processing and location services. A template based query system exists as well as privacy protection. Back-end Databases. Back-end databases are located at the control center for long-term archiving, monitoring and data mining for longitudinal studies. Caregiver Interfaces: PC, PDA Back-end Database Wireless Sensor Networks Technology. Heterogeneous power management depending on the life habits of the resident, topology management, reliable routing, network arbitration, data aggregation. Dynamic Privacy. The system monitors and collects patient data, subject to privacy policies, depending on the current behavioral status of the resident, and detected anomalies. Security. Security mechanisms are present throughout the system. Data association. To know who is doing what in a system where biometric identification is not always accessible and where multiple persons may be present at the same time. Data fusion. Back-end software programs to analyze autonomy, behavior and health status of the resident.