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Transcript
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
The Digestive System
• Function
• Parts
• How the parts work together
Function of
Digestive System
•Break down food
into bloodstream
• Absorption
of food
to get nutrients to cells
• Removal of waste
Organs
Breaking down food
• Mouth
• Stomach
• Small intestines
• Large intestines
• Rectum
• Peripheral organs
Mechanical Digestion
• Physically breaking
something apart
–Teeth
–Muscles of the stomach
Chemical
• Enzymes and acids added
–break down big food molecules
Enzyme
Mouth
• Teeth
• Salivary glands- starts breaking down and
starts digestion
• Tongue
Mouth
•Mechanical
•Chemical
Mouth - Mechanical
• Teeth
– Incisor
– Canine
– Molar
– Pre-Molar
Mouth - Chemical
• Saliva
– Salivary amylase
•Breaks down starches into
sugars
Mouth
• Teeth
• Salivary glands- starts breaking down and
starts digestion
• Tongue
Esophagus
Stomach
• Grinds and dissolves food
• Main part of digestion
Stomach
• J- shaped organ
• Can hold 2 liters of food
• Most mechanical digestion
occurs here
Stomach - Mechanical
• Strong muscles grind up
food particles
Stomach - Chemical
• Pepsin
– proteins
amino acids
•Hydrochloric Acid
-Kills bacteria
- Provides good environment for
pepsin
Small Intestine
• ~ 6 meters (20 feet) long
• ~ 2 or 3 cm (1 inch) wide
• Almost all chemical digestion
occurs here
Small Intestine
• Most chemical digestion occurs
here.
• Absorption of nutrients occurs
here.
Intestines (Bowel)
• Large
• Stores, Compacts, and Eliminates
indigestible material
Fast Facts About Villi
• Stretch out- 18ft
• Flatten surface- larger than a tennis court
Villi absorb nutrients
Small intestine - Chemical
• Bile
– breaks fats into small
particles
– made in liver
Small intestine - Chemical
• Trypsin – made by pancrease
–breaks down proteins
Large intestine
• Bacteria – cellulose - vitamin K
• Absorbs water
• Compacts stool
Rectum
• Stores feces
• Leaves rectum and body
through the anus
Salivary Glands
• Produce – salivary amylase
– starches
simple sugars
Pancreas
• Produces trypsin and other
enzymes to break down proteins
Liver
• Produces bile to break down
fats
Gall Bladder
• Stores bile from liver
• Controls release of bile
small intestine.
How the Digestive
System works
• Break down food
• Absorption of food
• Getting rid of waste
Organs
Breaking down food
• Mouth
• Stomach
• Small intestines
• Large intestines
• Rectum
• Peripheral organs
Mechanical Digestion
• Physically breaking
something apart
–Teeth
–Muscles of the stomach
Chemical
• Enzymes and acids added
–break down big food molecules
Mouth
• Teeth
• Salivary glands- produce salivary
amylase
• Tongue
Mouth
• Teeth
• Salivary glands- starts breaking down and
starts digestion
• Tongue
Esophagus
• Connects mouth to
stomach
• Peristalsis – muscles
move food to stomach.
Esophagus
Stomach
• mechanical digestion grinding
• chemical digestion
–pepsin - proteins amino acids
–amylase - starches sugars
Stomach
• Grinds and dissolves food
• Main part of digestion
Small Intestine
• ~ 6 meters (20 feet) long
• ~ 2 or 3 cm (1 inch) wide
Small Intestine
• Absorption of nutrients occurs
here.
Small intestine - Chemical
• Bile
– breaks fats into small
particles
– made in liver
Fast Facts About Villi
• Stretch out- 18ft
• Flatten surface- larger than a tennis court
Gall Bladder
Small intestine - chemical
• Trypsin – made by pancreas
–breaks down proteins
Large intestine
• Bacteria – cellulose - vitamin K
• Absorbs water
• Compacts stool
Intestines (Bowel)
• Large
• Stores, Compacts, and Eliminates
indigestible material
Rectum
• Stores feces
• Leaves rectum and body
through the anus
The Digestive System
• Function
• Parts
• How the parts work together