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Transcript
Nutrition
Senior Health-Bauberger
What is a "Healthy Diet"?
– The Dietary Guidelines describe a healthy
diet as one that:
• Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains,
and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products;
• Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs,
and nuts; and
• Is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol,
salt (sodium), and added sugars.
Nutrition
• Nutrition:
– The process by which the body takes in and
uses nutrients
• Nutrients:
– Substances that the body needs to regulate
bodily functions, promote growth, repair
body tissues, and obtain energy.
• Carbohydrates
• Fats
• Proteins
Metabolism
• The chemical process by which the body
breaks down food to release energy.
• Metabolism also involves the use of
energy for the growth and repair of body
tissues.
• When the body uses the nutrients in foods,
a series of chemical reactions occur inside
the cells and energy is released.
Calories
• The amount of energy released when
nutrients are broken down is measured in
calories
• The more calories a food has, the more
energy it contains
• The # of calories in food you eat should
match the calorie needs of your body
3 types of nutrients…
• Carbohydrates:
– Supply energy for the body’s functions
– Two types:
• Simple Carbohydrates: aka sugars, occur naturally in
fruits, vegetables, and milk, but also added to
manufactured goods. Glucose is the most important
simple carb as it is the major provider of energy in the
body.
• Complex Carbohydrates: Made up of sugars linked
together chemically
– Starches (plants- potatoes, grains, rice, cereal, wheat)
– Fiber (helps digestive system function- whole-grain breads,
vegetables, fruits, nuts, beans, seeds)
3 types of nutrients…
• Fats:
– Supply body with energy, form cells, maintain
body temperature, and protect nerves
– Ounce for ounce, fat has twice as many calories
as carbohydrates
– Two Types:
• Saturated fats: (animal fats and dairy products)
– Usually solid at room temp., too much can lead to heart
disease
• Unsaturated fats: (vegetable oils, nuts, seeds)
– Usually liquid at room temperature, can be poly or
monounsaturated, both can help fight heart disease
3 types of nutrients…
• Proteins:
– Serve as a source of energy and play an
important role in the growth and repair of body
tissues
– High protein foods = meat, eggs, poultry, milk
– Amino acids:
• When you eat protein, body breaks it down into
amino acids which are then used to form the kinds of
protein your body needs for growth and function
• Protein in your body is made up of 20 amino acids,
your body can only manufacture 11 of them so your
diet HAS to supply nine of them (these 9=essential
amino acids)
Recommended Daily Intake
• Carbohydrate:
– Nutritionists recommend that 45-65% of daily
calorie intake come from carbs
• Fat:
– Nutritionists recommend that 20-35% of calorie
intake comes from fat (unsaturated)
• Protein:
– Nutritionists recommend that 10-15% of calorie
intake comes from proteins (from both plant and
animal foods)
Cholesterol
• A waxy, fatlike substance that is found only in
animal products
• The body needs a certain amount of
cholesterol to make cell membranes, nerve
tissue, certain hormones, and substances
that aid in the digestion of fat
• HOWEVER, the liver can make all of the
cholesterol that the body needs
Vitamins
• Nutrients that are made by living things,
required only in small amounts, and assist
many chemical reactions in the body
– Fat-soluble: can be stored in the body (liver,
eggs, vegetables)
– Water-soluble: cannot be stored so must be a
more regular part of your diet (fruits, vegetables,
meat, poultry)
– Antioxidants: help protect healthy cells from
aging process and cancer (Vit C & E)
Minerals
• Nutrients that occur naturally in rocks and
soil, body only requires small amounts
• Need 7 in your diet:
– Calcium (85% of teen girls do not get enough)
– Sodium
– Potassium
– Magnesium
– Phosphorous
– Chlorine
– Sulfur
Water
• About 65% of body weight is water
• Water is essential to all processes,
including energy production
• Nearly all of the body’s chemical reactions
take place in a water solution
• Water plays a main role in homeostasis
(steady state inside the body) by regulating
body temperature and providing electrolytes
to the body systems
Water
• Recommended intake for 18 yr olds:
– Girls: at least ten 8-ounce cups per day
– Boys: at least 14 8-ounce cups per day
• Water vs Sports Drinks:
– It is recommended to drink ~2 cups of fluid 2
hours before exercise and to drink fuild about
every 15 minutes during exercise. A sports drink
is not necessary if you are exercising less than
60 minutes (carbohydrates and electrolytes are
not needed by the body during that time)
Eating a Healthy Diet
• Choose foods that are nutrient dense (lean
meats, fish, poultry)
• Limit intake of sweet snacks and soda
• Eat more fruits and vegetables to boost
potassium intake and reduce sodium
intake
• Choose a wide variety of foods
Maintaining a Healthy Weight
• Balance food and physical activity:
– The key to a healthy weight is balancing the
calories you take in with how active you are.
– Health problems can occur if you are
overweight OR underweight
– Professionals recommend that teens be
active for 60 minutes, most days of the week
• Complete with a partner:
–“Reviewing Key Ideas” Section 1, 2,
and 3
• Pg. 216