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Transcript
CHAPTER 3
REQUIREMENTS

Smallest amount of nutrient that maintains a
defined level of health
varies: age, sex, general health status, physical
activity, medication, drugs
 Obtaining the required amounts does not equal
optimal nutrition

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE (DRI)

Various energy and nutrients intake standards
for Americans
Intended to help people to reduce their risk of
nutrient deficiencies and excess, prevent damage and
achieve optimal health
 Dietary standards

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE (DRI)





Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): amount
of a nutrient that meets the needs of 50% if healthy
people in a life stage/gender group
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
standards for recommending daily intakes of several
nutrients
Adequate Intake (AI): dietary recommendations
that assume a population’s average daily nutrient
intakes are adequate because no deficiency
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL): standard
representing the highest average amount of a
nutrient that is unlikely to be harmful when
consumed daily
Estimated Energy Requirements (EER): average
daily energy intake that meets the needs of a healthy
person maintaining his/her weight
ACCEPTABLE MACRONUTRIENT
DISTRIBUTION RANGES ( AMDRS)

Macronutrient intake ranges that are
nutritionally adequate and may reduce the risk
of diet related chronic disease
MAJOR FOOD GROUPS
Grains
 Milk and Milk products
 Fruits
 Vegetables
 Meat and meat substitutes

GRAINS
Wheat, rice, oats
 Pasta, noodles, flour tortillas
 Corn, popcorn,
 1oz of grain =1 slice of bread, 1 cup ready to eat
cereal, ½ cup of cooked rice, pasta or cereal
 Carbohydrate is the primary macronutrient in
grain
 Whole grains better then refine grains
 In US grains include vitamins and minerals


Enrichment: addition of iron and B vitamins to
cereal and grain products.
MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS
Milk, yogurt, hard cheese
 Excellent sourced of protein, phosphorus
(mineral), riboflavin (a B vitamin)
 In US, milk usually has vitamins A and D


Fortified: addition of nutrients to food
1 cup of milk=1 cup of yogurt, pudding or 2 cups
of cottage cheese, 1 1/2 oz of cheese
 Cream cheese and butter not included as a milk
product

MEATS AND MEAT SUBSTITUTES
Beef, pork, lamb, fish, shellfish, liver and poultry
 Beans, eggs, nuts, and seeds
 1oz of meat, poultry, fish=1/4 cup cooked dry
beans and peas, I egg, 1 tablespoon or peanut
butter, or ½oz of nuts or seeds
 Protein, iron, zinc, B vitamins


Iron zinc more easily absorbed from meat then plants
Saturated fat, cholesterol
 Lean meats vs. high fat meats

FRUITS
Fresh, dried, frozen, sauced, canned and juice
(100%)
 1 cup =1 cup
 Potassium, vitamin C, foliate, fiber

VEGETABLES
Frozen, cooked, canned, fresh, dried and juice
(100%)
 Dark green, orange, starchy
 1 cup =1 cup raw or cooked
 Fiber, micronutrients, low in fat

OILS
Canola, corn, olive oils, fats that are liquid at
room temperature
 Solid fats: beef fat, butter, lard, shortening,
cream cheese, sour cream, cream


Vegetables oils

Mayo, margarine, salad dressing
DIETARY GUIDELINES FOR AMERICANS
2005
Adequate nutrient within caloric needs
 Weight management
 Physical activity
 Food groups to encourage
 Fats
 Carbohydrates
 Sodium and potassium
 OH
 Food safety

ADEQUATE NUTRIENTS WITHIN CALORIC
NEEDS
Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and
beverages from the basic food groups, while
limiting your intake of added salt and sugars,
OH, cholesterol, saturated fat and trans fats,
type lipids that increase the risk of CVD
 Adopt a nutritionally balanced eating plan that
provides recommended amount of nutrients and
energy

WEIGHT MANAGEMENT
Too mush body fat increases your risk of chronic
disease
 More difficult the older you get
 To avoid gaining unwanted weight over time

Match you caloric intake with the calories your body
uses for its energy
 Gradually reduce energy intake, eat fewer empty
calories
 Increase physical activity

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY


Promotes healthy body weight, psychological well
being, overall good health
To manage your weight as you age:
60 minutes of moderate-vigorous most days
 Maintain caloric intake


Lost body fat and want to maintain:


60-90 minute of moderate
30 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of
the week
Moderate: hiking, gardening, yard work, dancing, walking,
golf, bicycling, walking, weight lifting, stretching
 Vigorous: running, jogging, bicycling, swimming, aerobics,
walking, heavy yard work, weight lifting, basketball.

FOOD GROUPS TO ENCOURAGE
Many Americans do not eat enough fruits,
vegetables, whole-grains, and milk
 According to dietary guidelines you should:

Consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables
 Eat a variety of fruits and vegetable daily
 Consume at least 3oz of whole grain products daily
 Consume 3 cups of fat-free or low-fat milk

FATS
Some are healthier then others
 Fat intake should be 20-35% of calories daily
 Choose unsaturated fat foods: vegetables oils,
fatty fish, most nuts
 Consume <10% of your total calories from
saturated sat and less than 300 mg of cholesterol
daily
 Limit trans fats

CARBOHYDRATES



Some healthier them others
Include fiber-rich fruits, vegetables and whole grain
Choose food and beverages with minimal amounts of
sugar, caloric sweeteners (sugar, honey, corn syrup)
SODIUM AND POTASSIUM


Necessary for life
Too much sodium and not enough potassium can
cause hypertension
 To reduce risk: <1 tsp of salt daily (2300mg)
 Select low sodium foods
 Eat more potassium rich foods
OH
In small amounts can be beneficial
 Moderate OH uses: 1 standard drink at day for
women and no more the 2 drinks for men

FOOD SAFETY

Avoid food bourn illness
 Washing hands, surfaces
 Keep raw, cooked and ready to eat foods apart
 Cook to the correct temperature
 Refrigerate perishables
DIETARY GUIDES
1943: USDA issued the first food guide based on
RDAs for the general public to use.
 1950s: USDA simplified the original food guide
to include only four food groups: milk, meat,
fruit, vegetables and bread and cereal, “Basic
Four.”
 1979: USDA started “Hassel-Free Guide to a
Better Diet,” added 5th food group. Sweet, fats
and OH
 1992: USDA introduced the Food Guide Pyramid
 2005: USDA released the “My-Pyramid Plan.”

MY PYRAMID PLAN
WWW.MYPYRAMID.GOV
12 different nutritionally adequate dietary
patterns that supply from 1000 to 3200 kcal/day
 Emphasis on physical activity
 Discretionary calorie allowance
 Can be individualized by a person’s



Age, Sex, Height, Weight, Physical activity, Food
preference, Stage of life
Problems:
 Computer/internet
 portions