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Ch. 7, Nutrition
What does food supply?
What is
Hunger – Physical
need to eat – Pangs,
weakness, dizziness,
Appetite – Desire to
eat - WANNIT
What stimulates appetite?
People (i.e.
Places – Movies,
mall, etc.
What technological changes and societal
changes have taken place since 1900 that
affect our diets?
1900 – Lots of grain, some fruit//veg, little
meat or sweets.
2000 – Lots of meat & sweets, some
fruits/veg, less grain.
Changes since 1900.
Working mothers
Convenience – fast food
Frozen foods
Canning industry
Leisure time spent away from
Cultural differences
Key Terms:
Nutrition – the science of the way a body uses
Nutrients – substances that provide energy or
build tissues.
Metabolism – the chemical process that your
body uses to keep you alive and active.
Calorie – unit of energy
Six Essential Nutrients – Carbohydrates, Fats,
Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals, Water
Carbohydrates – 4 calories per
gram. 50% of diet
Simple – Sugar, easily changed to
Complex – Starch, also changed to
Glycogen – Carbohydrates that are stored
by the body for quick energy. Excess is
converted to fat.
Fiber – Indigestible fibers necessary for
the digestive tract (makes you poo).
Fat – 9 calories per gram. 30% or
less of diet
Uses for fat – stored energy, padding,
insulation, ingredient in hormones, storage
of vitamins/minerals.
Lipids or Triglycerides – another name for
fats. Fats are a carbon chain with
hydrogen molecules attached.
Saturated Fat – As many hydrogen atoms
are bonded to the chain as possible. Solid
at room temp. Found in animal meats.
Unsaturated Fat – Less hydrogen atoms.
Mainly found in plant foods. Liquid at
room temp.
Cholesterol – Another type of Lipid found
in animal tissue used to make vitamin D,
cell membranes and coverings on nerve
fibers. Your body makes all you need.
LDL Cholesterol (Low Density
Lipid) – Bad. Mixes with fat to
create plaque in the blood vessels.
Increases risk of heart attack and
stroke. Found in red meat.
HDL Cholesterol (High Density
Lipid) – Good. Carries cholesterol
back to the liver to be removed
from the blood.
Protein – 4 calories per gram. 15%
of diet.
Protein is used to build tissues, hormones
and antibodies.
Amino Acids – 20 different amino acids
make one protein. 9 of them cannot be
made by our body.
Complete Protein – A food containing all 9
amino acids. Meat.
Incomplete Protein – A food containing
less than 9 amino acids. Plants.
Vegetarian Diets – This is a healthy way to
eat if you plan meals to combine plant
foods to create complete proteins.
(Vegetarian is an Indian word that means “Lousy
Example: nuts and seeds with grains create
a complete protein.
A peanut butter sandwich on whole grain
bread is a good example.
Vitamins – Regulate chemical
Fat Soluble – dissolve in fat. Vitamin D is
an example. It promotes absorption of
Water Soluble – dissolves in water.
Vitamin C is a good example. Vitamin C is
an antioxidant.
More examples are on pages 161 and 162.
Minerals – Contribute to normal
function of body and bone
Calcium – building blocks for bone.
Iron – Hemoglobin (red blood cells)
Sodium (salt) – Electrolytes
More examples on page 163.
Water is about 60% - 70% of your body
Functions of water
Medium for chemical reactions
Transport nutrients, gasses and waste
Regulate body temperature
Dehydration – loss of too much water.
May cause headache, nausea,
disorientation and death.
Recommended Daily Allowance as set by
the Food and Drug Administration. This is
only a guideline for nutrition. Personal
body chemistry may vary and require a
different diet.
Food Labels
Serving Size – There may be more than
one serving in a package. Everything else
on the label will pertain to just one serving
relative to a 2000 calorie per day diet.
Ingredient List – Largest amount listed
ABC’s of good health
Dietary Guidelines by the American Heart
Aim for Fitness
Weight and exercise
Build a healthy base
Use the food pyramid
Choose sensibly
Foods low in saturated fat and cholesterol
Drinks and foods low in processed sugar
Low salt foods
Avoid alcohol or limit the intake
Simple steps to healthful diets
Choose foods based on “nutrient density”. A
candy bar, for example, may fill you up and have
over 200 calories, but they are not useable
energy calories.
Choose beverages based on nutritional value.
Soda pop is a liquid candy bar. Diet pop is high
in sodium. Alcohol causes dehydration. Sports
drinks, milk and water are better choices for
hydration and nutrient intake
Snacking – Occasional treats are OK, but
moderation is the key.
Special Dietary Needs
Athletes – Eat and drink to win 24/7.
Carbohydrates give you the energy to perform in
a game or at practice. Protein builds muscle.
Iron builds red blood cells to carry oxygen.
Vitamins and minerals keep away cramps and
enhance the immune system. Water is needed to
transport it all.
Pregnancy – Eat and drink to build a healthy
baby. Increase caloric intake. Protein is
especially important for building the tissues of
the fetus. Vitamins B6 and B12 with zinc and
iron help avoid birth defects. Alcohol intake
goes to the fetus in mass amounts and may
cause birth defects.
Illness – Force yourself to eat and drink so that
the soldiers in your immune system have
enough energy to fight.
Pop Quiz
Carbohydrates provide
a. 4 calories per gram
b. 9 calories per gram
Fat provides
a. 4 calories per gram
b. 9 calories per gram
Protein provides
a. 4 calories per gram
b. 9 calories per gram
4. A change of 500 calories per day will make a
difference of _____ pound(s) at the end of the
Complex carbohydrates are
a. Sugar
b. Starch
Protein calories are used for
a. Immediate energy
b. Building tissues
c. Insulation/padding
Fat is
a. Used to make hormones
b. Used for storage of calories
c. Used for padding
d. All of the above
Saturated fat is
a. Associated with heart disease
b. Comes from plant foods
The good type of cholesterol is
a. LDL
b. HDL
10. Protein is made of Amino Acids. Vegetarian diets can
provide all the Amino Acids to make a complete
a. True
b. False
11. Iron is a mineral that is needed in sufficient amounts to
a. Prevent Osteoporosis
b. Build red blood cells
c. Make electrolytes
12. Water is over 50% of your body weight and needed to
transport nutrients and waste.
a. True
b. False
13. Food labels must show all of the following except
Serving size
Calories per serving
Calories per ingredient
RDA percentages
14. Ingredient lists show what is least in the package first.
a. True
b. False
15. From bottom to top, the food pyramid shows
Bread, fruits/vegetables, sweets, meats
Bread, meats, fruits/vegetables, sweets
Meats, sweets, bread, fruits/vegetables
Bread, fruits/vegetables, meats, sweets
10. A
11. B
12. A
13. C
14. B
15. D