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Write down as many
of the 6 nutrient
categories as you can
think of on a blank
sheet of paper.
Nutrient Types
Fats (Lipids)
Nutrients and the Food Pyramid
Fill out “Nutrients Supplied by the Food
Pyramid” worksheet as nutrients are being
discussed in class.
Why Nutrients are Important
Food is important for our bodies because it gives us
energy, or calories and nutrients. Nutrients are
substances derived from food that make our bodies
healthy. The only way to get adequate nutrients is to
eat the right amounts of a variety of foods. There are
over 40 different nutrients, but we organize them into
six categories. If you eat a wide variety of foods, you
will automatically be eating all 40 nutrients to help keep
you healthy.
•Made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
•Body’s main source of energy
•Body converts carbs into glucose
•Glucose that is not used is turned into glycogen and is
stored in adipose tissue
•4 calories per gram
•55-65% of daily calories should come from carbs
Carbohydrates: Simple vs.
•Simple Carbohydrates
•sugars – fruits, vegetables, and milk
•Provides quick short lived energy
•Complex Carbohydrates
•starches – chemically more complex – rice, grains,
seeds, nuts and legumes
•Provides long lasting energy
Carbohydrates: Fiber
•Found in tough, stringy part of vegetables, fruits, and
•Special form of complex carbohydrate
•Prevents constipation, appendicitis, and other intestinal
•Reduce risk of some cancers and heart disease and helps
control diabetes.
•Muscle, bone, connective tissue, teeth, skin, blood, and
vital organs all contain protein.
•Build new tissue during important growing parts of life
•New replaces old throughout entire life
•Regulates Body Processes
•4 calories per gram
•Excess protein converted to fat for storage
Protein: Amino Acids
•Made of chains of building blocks called amino acids
•20 total
•9 essential
•body makes all but nine, which we get from food
Fats (Lipids)
•The body needs fat as it is a form of energy
•Fats are made up of fatty acids
•9 calories per gram
•Carry vitamins A, D, E, and K into blood and serve as a
source of linoleic acid
•Add flavor and satisfy hunger
•Surround and cushion vital organs
Fat: Two Types
•There are two types of fats:
•Saturated – fatty acid holds all the hydrogen atoms it
can (animal fats and tropical fats)
•Unsaturated – missing one or more pairs of hydrogen
atoms (olive, canola, soybean, corn, and cottonseed
Needed in small amounts
Do not supply calories
Speed up reactions that produce energy in body cells
Water-Soluble – pass easily into bloodstream in process of
Fat –Soluble – absorbed and transported by fat
Where to find Vitamins
Vitamin A--carrots, sweet potatoes, yellow-orange vegetables,
dark leafy green vegetables, milk, apricots, cantaloupe, mangos,
B. Vitamin D--Vitamin D fortified milk, salmon, tuna, egg yolk,
C. Vitamin B--enriched cereals, enriched bread, fish, lean meat,
liver, milk, pork, poultry, whole grain cereals, eggs
D. Vitamin C--citrus fruits, berries, cherries, watermelon, tomatoes,
cabbage, green vegetables, peppers, potatoes.
E. Calcium--milk, cheese, yogurt, ice cream, cottage cheese
F. Iron--red meat, spinach, eggs, breads and cereals
Each mineral has its own unique function in health
Body requires larger amounts of some minerals than
trace minerals (iron, iodine, copper, and other)
structure to bones
develop and maintain bone strength
aids in muscle contraction and blood clotting
Sodium, chloride, and potassium
known as electrolytes
maintain and balance of fluid within body cells
-greatest percentage of body
-regulator and vital to every body function
-carries nutrients to and transport wastes from cells
-lubricates joints and mucus membranes
-helps body cool down
-body uses 10 cups per day
-recommended to drink 6 – 8 cups a day
-fruits, vegetables, and milk products contain about 75%
Eat a variety of foods!
One's diet should include a variety of foods
because no single food supplies all the
required nutrients. All nutrients are needed
because of the way they work together. They
compliment one another, which means that
one nutrient alone, cannot do its job. It needs
the other nutrients to be able to complete its
Reducing Fat Consumption
1. Use low fat (1 or 2%) or skim milk.
2. Use a vegetable oil spray like PAM for baking.
3. Use oil instead of shortening whenever possible.
4. Eat popcorn that has been made in a hot air popper.
5. Use graham cracker crusts for pies and desserts.
6. Use light or fat-free dressings.
7. When making quick breads, such as pancakes,
waffles, or muffins, use applesauce instead of the
recommended fat.
8. Avoid products listing oil or fat as one of the first three
9. Learn to read labels so you know what you are eating.
10. Avoid frying foods.
The New Dietary Guidelines
Balancing Calories to Manage Weight
Foods To Reduce
Foods and nutrients to increase
Building Healthy Eating Patterns
Helping Americans make healthy choices
Answer Journal Questions 2-5