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The Trace Minerals
Presented by: Summer
Roles and Functions of Iodine
• Part of thyroxine a form of thyroid hormones
• Thyroxine is the hormone made by the
thyroid gland that helps regulate energy
• Iodine must be present for thyroxine to be
• Also used as a topical antiseptic (such as
injection sites for blood donation)
• Yellowish-brown in color
Recommended Intake of
• Recommended intake is 150 micrograms per day
• The Tolerable Upper Intake Level is 1,100 micrograms
per day for an adult
I = 150
micrograms per
Sources of Iodine
Iodized salt (table salt)
Very little iodine in sea salt
Milk (dairies use iodine to disinfect milking equipment)
Some bakery products (uses iodine-containing dough
• Potassium iodide blocks harms to the thyroid caused by
radioactive iodine released during nuclear reactions
• It can reduce the chance of thyroid cancer when given at
the right time in relation to exposure to radiation
Problems Related to Iodine
• In deficiency, thyroid gland cells grow to try to catch as many
particles of iodine as they can
• Sometimes it grows so much that it causes a visible growth on the
neck called a goiter
• Deficiency can also cause weight gain and energy loss
• During pregnancy, extreme deficiency can cause death of the fetus
and reduce chances of infant
• Survival, can cause drastic mental and physical and mental
retardation in infants (called cretinism)
• Can be treated with in the first six months of the pregnancy
• Is a toxic poison in large amounts
• When given at the wrong time or the wrong amount, potassium
iodide is useless and toxic to the human body
Presented by: Whitney Wyatt
About Iron
Every living cell contains iron
Most of iron is made up of hemoglobin and myoglobin
All the body’s cells need oxygen
Oxygen combines with atoms to form waste products
The body needs fresh oxygen to keep cells going
Iron helps enzymes to use the oxygen
Iron also makes new cells, amino acids, hormones, and
• The liver packs iron
• Irons actions are tightly controlled
People Who Lack Iron
• Iron deficiency and Iron- deficiency
• If iron is low then the body can’t enough
hemoglobin to fill new blood cells
• Low iron levels cause fatigue
• Symptoms related to iron deficiency
• Causes of iron deficiency
Iron Overload
Iron is toxic in large amounts
Iron overload
Dangers of iron overload
Iron supplements
Iron Recommendations and
• Men and women past age 51 need 8
milligrams a day
• Women of childbearing age need 18
• Pregnant women need 27 milligrams
• Adult men rarely experience irondeficiency anemia
• Meeting your iron needs
Absorbing Iron
Hem and non heme
MFP factor
Amounts of iron absorbed from meals
Key Points About Iron
• Most iron is contained in hemoglobin and
• Iron-deficiency anemia is a worldwide problem
• Iron is lost through menstruation
• For maximum iron absorption, use meat, other
iron sources, and vitamin C together
Presented by: Shelia Walker
Roles and Functions of Zinc
• The mineral zinc helps metabolize carbohydrates, protein,
and fat in the human body
• Zinc also affects the way in which humans behave as well as
their mood
• It is an essential mineral to the healing of wounds as well
• Zinc is one of the most important minerals that the body
needs to function
• Another function of zinc is its ability to liberate vitamin A from
storage in the liver
• It is essential for the repair and functioning of DNA
• It is hence, necessary for quick growth of cells and building of
major constituents of the cell during the course of pregnancy
• In males, zinc assists in spermatogenesis and development of
the sex organs. While in females, it aids in all the reproductive
phases, including parturition and lactation stages
• Zinc helps a person to sense the taste and smell
Recommended Intake of Zinc
• The DRI recommends that men receive at least 11mg
a day and women at least 8mg a day
• For a 2,000-calorie diet, the Daily Value is 15mg a day
• Vegetarians may need as much as 50% more zinc
than non-vegetarians because of the lower absorption
of zinc from plant foods, so it is very important for
vegetarians to include good sources of zinc in their
Zn = 8-15mg per day
Sources of Zinc
• Zinc is a naturally occurring element
• Many meats contain the mineral zinc
• Shellfish, poultry, and milk and milk products are all
items that provide much of zinc that is recommended by
the DRI
• Some legumes and whole grains can be sources of zinc
(The zinc in these items is not as easily absorbed as it is
from meats)
Too Little Zinc
• Zinc deficiency affects many parts of the human
• Not having enough zinc effects growth, impairs the
immune system, and disturbs thyroid function
• Delayed sexual maturation, hair loss, eye and skin
lesions, and loss appetite are some affects of zinc
Too Much Zinc
• Large doses of zinc can be harmful
• Zinc supplements can cause serious
illnesses or even death
• High doses of zinc can also interfere with the
concentration of high-density lipoproteins
(HDL) in the blood
• Too much zinc can inhibit iron absorption for
the digestive tract
Problems Related to Zinc
• Some diseases caused by low or no zinc
intake are:
1. Diabetes
2. Chronic liver disease
3. Sickle cell disease
• Conservative estimates suggest that 25% of
the world's population is at risk of zinc
Interesting Facts About Zinc
• Long term use of zinc lozenges for treating colds can
temporarily suppress the immune system, just the
opposite of what you want when fighting off a cold
• Studies have shown zinc to be an effective home
remedy for curing pimples or acne
Presented by: Yuki Kariya
Roles and Functions of
• Trace minerals are essential mineral nutrients found in the
human body in amounts less than 5 grams
• Selenium is a chemical element with the atomic number 34
• It is a nonmetal and chemically related to sulfur and tellurium
• It is an essential element in several metabolic pathways
• Selenium works with an enzyme system to protect body
compounds from oxidation
• Selenium has attracted the attention of the world’s scientists
for its role in protecting vulnerable body chemicals against
oxidative destruction
• Selenium plays roles in activating thyroid hormone, the
hormone that regulates the body’s rate of metabolism
Recommended Intake of
• The Tolerable Upper Intake Level for selenium is
set at 70 micrograms per day
Se = 70 micrograms per
Sources of Selenium
• If you eat healthy food, you do not need to worry
about selenium
• There is a lot of selenium in foods
• Specific dietary sources of selenium include
wheat germ, butter, garlic, grains, sunflower
seeds, brazil nuts, walnuts, raisins, shellfish, and
fresh-water and salt-water fish, such as salmon
• Selenium is also found in, raspberry leaf, radish,
horseradish, onion, and mushrooms
Problems Related to
• Taking too much selenium may result in
selenium toxicity
• Toxicity is possible when people take
selenium supplements over a long period
• Some symptoms such as hair loss, diarrhea,
and nerve abnormalities
Interesting Facts About
• Prostate cancer is the fourth leading cancer in men
worldwide, and black men in the United States suffer the
highest rate of all
• Men who have enough selenium in their bloodstreams
less percentage to get a prostate cancer than men
whose blood measures are low
• People with low blood measures should take the
supplements but there are no benefits to take extra
• Extra selenium will not help them
• Those people who are normal and their blood measures
are not low shouldn’t take the supplement because
taking the supplements may slightly increase the risk of
a skin cancer
Presented by: Brittany
Roles and Functions of
• Found in bones and teeth and replaces the hydroxy portion of
hydroxyapatite, forming the more decay-resistant fluorapatite in
• Is not essential to life, but is beneficial in the diet because of its
ability to inhibit the development of dental caries in both children and
• Helps prevent dental caries once teeth have erupted through the
gum by promoting the remineralization of early lesions of the enamel
that might otherwise progress to form caries
• Also acts directly on the bacteria of plaque, suppressing their
metabolism and reducing the amount of acid they produce
• Sufficient fluoride during the tooth-forming years of infancy and
childhood gives lifetime protection against tooth decay
Recommended Intake of
• The Tolerable Upper Intake Level for
fluoride for all people older than 8 is 10mg
per day
• Kids 6 and under should only use a peasize squeeze of toothpaste and should not
Sources of Fluoride
• Drinking water (not bottled water, unless it
was added at the source)
• Fluoridated toothpaste and mouthwash
• Foods made with fluoridated water
Problems Related to Fluoride
• Too little fluoride helps promote dental decay
– Fluoridation of water, which is a practical,
safe, and cost effective way to help prevent
dental caries in the young, is recommended
for public dental health
Problems Related to Fluoride
• Too much fluoride causes fluorosis, which is the
discoloration of the teeth and is irreversible
– Only occurs during the tooth development, never after
the teeth have formed
• Using fluoridated toothpaste, mouthwash, and eating
foods made with fluoridated water frequently causes a
mild form of fluorosis after tooth development
– Characteristic white spots in the tooth enamel
Conclusion on Fluoride
• Too little fluoride will promote tooth decay
• Too much fluoride will cause fluorosis
• Just the right amount of fluoride prevents
tooth decay
• Know how much fluoride you’re getting to
have healthy teeth!!!
Presented by: Abby Beesley
Roles and Functions of
• Chromium is used as a nutritional enhancement for
glucose metabolism
• It is also used as storage for carbohydrates, fats and
proteins in the body
• Chromium works side by side with the hormone insulin to
regulate and release energy from glucose
• Insulin is a hormone from the pancreas that helps
glucose enter cells from the blood
• When chromium is scarce, insulin action is impaired
resulting in high blood glucose
• High blood glucose reaction is a diabetes-like condition
that is resolved with chromium supplements
Recommended Intake of
• The Tolerable Upper Intake Level for
Chromium is 120 micrograms per day
• Doses larger than 200 micrograms a day
can become toxic and may cause skin
• Eating a variety of whole grains, fruits,
cheeses, and nuts should provide
sufficient chromium
• Chromium is lost during food processing
so heavy dependency on refined foods
(white sugar, white flour, white rice)
causes chromium deficiencies
Sources of Chromium
• Chromium is lost during food processing
• The best chromium sources are whole grains,
nuts, cheese, and liver
• Unrefined foods are also abundant with
Problems Related to
• Certain medications may interact with chromium,
especially when taken on a regular basis
(Antipsychotics, Iron, Zinc)
• Because chromium is poorly absorbed, it is
highly unlikely that excess intake from food or
supplement sources will cause harmful effects
• Some slight side effects are headache,
insomnia, and mood changes
• The National Institutes of Health note that
chromium supplements have not yet been
proven safe or effective, so stick to the
recommended intakes
Common Myths About
• Most scientific evidence does not support taking
chromium as a treatment or prevention of
• Most people with diabetes are not chromiumdeficient
• Chromium-containing supplements will not build
extra muscle tissue, or melt off body fat
• Chromium does not lower blood cholesterol
• It is estimated that 90 percent of U.S adults
consume less than the recommended minimum
intake of 50 micrograms a day
Copper The
Presentation presented by: La’Porcha
 Copper is a trace mineral that plays an important role in our
 It allows many critical enzymes to functions properly.
 Copper’s the third most abundant trace mineral in the body behind
iron and zinc.
 It’s stored in the liver primarily.
 Its needed to make ATP
 Approximately 90% of copper is in the blood .
 Copper is an essential component of
many enzymes.
 It is the functioning of several
 formation of connective tissue
 iron metabolism and blood cell
 Copper deals with the nervous
system, immune system and
cardiovascular system function
 It maintains health of your bones
and connective tissues.
 Help thyroid glands function
 Copper plays a role in a wide range
of physiological processes including
iron utilization, elimination of free
radicals, development of bone and
connective tissue, as well as the
production of the skin along with
hair pigment called melanin.
 Copper helps your body utilize iron
 Reduce tissue damage caused by free
 Preserve the myelin sheath that
surrounds and protects your nerves.
 Copper interacts with Zinc.
Recommended intake for Copper and
Interesting Information
₣ The recommended intake of copper is 1-3 mg per day.
 The toxic effects of high tissue levels of copper are seen in patients with Wilson’s
• Wilson disease is a genetic disorder characterized by copper accumulation in
various organs due to the inadequate synthesis of ceruloplasmin ( the protein that
transports copper through the blood) by the liver.
 The processing of whole grain can dramatically reduce copper content.
• Antacids like Tums may reduce copper absorption by decreasing the amount of
hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
 Vitamin C, Iron, and manganese inhibit copper absorption.
• Calcium and phosphorous increase copper excretion
 Because copper deficiency is known to reduce the activity of selenium-dependent
enzymes, it appears that copper and selenium interact.
Sources of Nutrients for Copper
 Excellent sources of copper
include calf’s liver, crimini
mushrooms, turnip greens
and molasses.
 Very good sources of copper
include chard, spinach,
sesame seeds, mustard
greens, kale, apples, papayas
and yamso potatoes
 Summer squash , asparagus,
eggplant, and cashews,
peppermint, tomatoes,
sunflower seeds, ginger, green
beans, potato and tempeh.
 Cereal, oysters, nuts, dried
legumes, vegetables, meat,
raisins, chocolate, peas,
Problems Associated with Copper
Deficiencies /Toxicities
 Copper Deficiency- anemia, Blood
vessels that rupture easily, bone
problems, joint problems
 Elevated LDL cholesterol
• Reduced HDL cholesterol levels
 Frequent infections
 Fatigue and weakness
• Difficulty breathing and irregular
heart beat
 Skin sores and poor thyroid
• Chronic diarrhea and Crohn’s
disease result in decreased
absorption of Copper.
• Eating a poor diet causes copper
deficiency and improperly take
micronutrient supplements,
 The increase in the amount of
copper found in drinking water
due to the switch in most areas
of the country from galvanized
water pipes to copper water
• Excessive intake in copper
causes abdominal pain and
cramps, nausea, diarrhea,
vomiting, and liver damage.
 When copper is low many
medical conditions including
hypertension, autism fatigue,
muscle and joint pain,
headaches, childhood
hyperactivity, depression,
insomnia, senility, and
premenstrual syndrome.
In conclusions
• As a dietary supplement, copper is primarily found in complex with
organic acids like picolinic acid and gluconic acid.
• Amino acids like glycine and lysine.
• Inorganic forms of copper are available like copper sulfate.
• Copper may play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of health
conditions such as Allergies, Anemia, Baldness, Bedsores, Heart
disease, HIV/AIDS, hypothyroid disease, leukemia, Osteoporosis,
periodontal disease, Rheumatoid arthritis and stomach ulcers.
• Eating a balanced diet from a variety of foods can prevent or avoid
copper deficiency