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Wellness II
Food and Nutrition
Objectives
 Name the three classes of nutrients that
supply your body with energy
 Explain how the body obtains energy
from foods
 Describe the roles that carbohydrates,
fats and proteins play in your body
Vocabulary
• Nutrient- A substance in foods that the body
needs to regulate bodily functions, promote
growth, repair body tissue, and obtain
energy
• Metabolism- The chemical process by which
the body breaks down food to release energy
• Calorie- Unit for the amount of energy
released when nutrients are broken down
• Carbohydrate- A nutrient made of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen that supplies energy
• Fiber- A type of complex carbohydrate that is
found in plants and is necessary for the
proper functioning of the digestive system
• Fat- A nutrient made of carbon, hydrogen,
and oxygen; supplies energy, forms cells,
maintains body temperature, and protects
nerves
• Unsaturated fat- A fat with at least one
unsaturated bond in a place where hydrogen
can be added to the molecule
• Saturated fat- A fat that has all the hydrogen
the carbon atoms can hold
• Cholesterol- A waxy, fatlike substance that
is found only in animal products
• Trans fat- The type of fat produced when
manufacturers add hydrogen to the fat
molecules in vegetable oils
• Protein- A nutrient that contains nitrogen
as well as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen;
needed for the growth and repair of body
tissue
• Amino acid- small units that are bound
together chemically to form proteins
Carbohydrates
Two types:
Simple carbohydrates; also known as sugars.
• Sugars occur naturally in fruits, vegetables and
milk.
• They are added to many foods like cookies,
candies and soft drinks.
• Several types of sugars, but glucose is the most
important because it is the major provider of
energy for your body’s cells. All other types of
sugar are converted to glucose once they are
inside your body.
Complex carbohydrates
• Made up of sugars that are linked together chemically
to form long chains, something like beads in a
necklace.
• Starches are one of the main types of complex carbs.
• They are found in many plant foods, including potatoes
and grains. Rice, oats, corn and wheat are grains.
• Tortillas and whole wheat roles are excellent sources of
starch.
• When you eat food containing starch, your digestive
system breaks the starch into simple sugars that can be
absorbed into your bloodstream.
Energy Reserves
• You usually eat more carbohydrates then your
body can immediately use.
• This causes extra glucose to be converted into a
type of starch called glycogen, which is stored in
your body.
• When your body needs more glucose, the
glycogen is converted back into glucose.
• If you eat so many carbs that your body’s
glycogen stores are full, the excess carbs are
stored as fat.
Fats
 Fat has twice as many calories as carbohydrates
Unsaturated Fats (healthier fats): Liquid at room
temperature; these fats are found in vegetable oils, nuts and
seeds.
– Monounsaturated & polyunsaturated fats
– Can help fight heart disease
Saturated Fats (NOT GOOD): Solid at room temperature;
animal fats, such as lard, and dairy products
- To much in your diet can lead to heart disease
Trans Fats (THE WORST): Found in margarine, chips and
commercially baked goods.
- Manufactures add hydrogen to the fat molecules in
vegetable oils to create trans fat
Protein
• Most important function of proteins is their
role in the growth and repair of your body’s
tissues
– High protein foods include meats, eggs, poultry,
milk and milk products
– Nuts, dried beans, dried peas and lentils also
contain a lot of protein
Name the three classes of nutrients
that supply your body with energy
• Carbohydrates – supply energy for your body’s
functions
• Fats- supply you body with energy, form your
cells, maintain body temperature, and protect
your nerves
• Proteins- serve as a source of energy. Most
important function is their role in the growth
and repair of your body’s tissues
Explain how the body obtains energy
from foods
When your body uses the nutrients in foods, a
series of chemical reactions occur inside your
cells. As a result, energy is released.
Metabolism is the chemical process by which
your body breaks down food to release this
energy. Metabolism also involves the use of
this energy for the growth and repair of body
tissue.
Describe the roles that
carbohydrates, fats and proteins
play in your body
Carbohydrates, fats and proteins
can all be used by the body as a
source of energy.