Wellness II Food and Nutrition Objectives Name the three classes of nutrients that supply your body with energy Explain how the body obtains energy from foods Describe the roles that carbohydrates, fats and proteins play in your body Vocabulary • Nutrient- A substance in foods that the body needs to regulate bodily functions, promote growth, repair body tissue, and obtain energy • Metabolism- The chemical process by which the body breaks down food to release energy • Calorie- Unit for the amount of energy released when nutrients are broken down • Carbohydrate- A nutrient made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that supplies energy • Fiber- A type of complex carbohydrate that is found in plants and is necessary for the proper functioning of the digestive system • Fat- A nutrient made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; supplies energy, forms cells, maintains body temperature, and protects nerves • Unsaturated fat- A fat with at least one unsaturated bond in a place where hydrogen can be added to the molecule • Saturated fat- A fat that has all the hydrogen the carbon atoms can hold • Cholesterol- A waxy, fatlike substance that is found only in animal products • Trans fat- The type of fat produced when manufacturers add hydrogen to the fat molecules in vegetable oils • Protein- A nutrient that contains nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; needed for the growth and repair of body tissue • Amino acid- small units that are bound together chemically to form proteins Carbohydrates Two types: Simple carbohydrates; also known as sugars. • Sugars occur naturally in fruits, vegetables and milk. • They are added to many foods like cookies, candies and soft drinks. • Several types of sugars, but glucose is the most important because it is the major provider of energy for your body’s cells. All other types of sugar are converted to glucose once they are inside your body. Complex carbohydrates • Made up of sugars that are linked together chemically to form long chains, something like beads in a necklace. • Starches are one of the main types of complex carbs. • They are found in many plant foods, including potatoes and grains. Rice, oats, corn and wheat are grains. • Tortillas and whole wheat roles are excellent sources of starch. • When you eat food containing starch, your digestive system breaks the starch into simple sugars that can be absorbed into your bloodstream. Energy Reserves • You usually eat more carbohydrates then your body can immediately use. • This causes extra glucose to be converted into a type of starch called glycogen, which is stored in your body. • When your body needs more glucose, the glycogen is converted back into glucose. • If you eat so many carbs that your body’s glycogen stores are full, the excess carbs are stored as fat. Fats Fat has twice as many calories as carbohydrates Unsaturated Fats (healthier fats): Liquid at room temperature; these fats are found in vegetable oils, nuts and seeds. – Monounsaturated & polyunsaturated fats – Can help fight heart disease Saturated Fats (NOT GOOD): Solid at room temperature; animal fats, such as lard, and dairy products - To much in your diet can lead to heart disease Trans Fats (THE WORST): Found in margarine, chips and commercially baked goods. - Manufactures add hydrogen to the fat molecules in vegetable oils to create trans fat Protein • Most important function of proteins is their role in the growth and repair of your body’s tissues – High protein foods include meats, eggs, poultry, milk and milk products – Nuts, dried beans, dried peas and lentils also contain a lot of protein Name the three classes of nutrients that supply your body with energy • Carbohydrates – supply energy for your body’s functions • Fats- supply you body with energy, form your cells, maintain body temperature, and protect your nerves • Proteins- serve as a source of energy. Most important function is their role in the growth and repair of your body’s tissues Explain how the body obtains energy from foods When your body uses the nutrients in foods, a series of chemical reactions occur inside your cells. As a result, energy is released. Metabolism is the chemical process by which your body breaks down food to release this energy. Metabolism also involves the use of this energy for the growth and repair of body tissue. Describe the roles that carbohydrates, fats and proteins play in your body Carbohydrates, fats and proteins can all be used by the body as a source of energy.