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Transcript
Silabus
■ Nama Matakuliah : Geografi Manusia (Wajib Fak)
Geografi Manusia
OLEH:
DJAKA MARWASTA
FAKULTAS GEOGRAFI UGM
Tujuan Pembelajaran
■ Kredit : 2 SKS (2 jam tatap muka, 2 jam tugas
terstruktur, 2 jam tugas mandiri)
■ Jumlah Tatap Muka : 16 Kali
Metode Pembelajaran
(Course Objectives)
(Class Lectures)
Merupakan mata kuliah pengantar (introduction course),
menjelaskan tentang definisi dan posisi keilmuan geografi
manusia, teori-teori dasar dalam kajian geografi manusia,
cabang-cabang ilmu dan topik-topik penelitian, serta isueisue terkini (state of the arts) penelitian geografi manusia
■ Perkuliahan klasikal (kuliah tatap muka)
■ Diskusi kelompok
■ Tugas terstruktur : membaca referensi (reading
assignment), menganalisis data, membuat paper
■ Tugas mandiri (praktek di lapangan secara berkelompok)
■ Quiz
Kontrak Pembelajaran
■ Kuliah dimulai pukul 7.00 WIB
■ Toleransi keterlambatan selama 15’, setelah 15’
tidak diperkenankan masuk ruang kuliah
■ Tidak diperbolehkan menggunakan HP (telepon,
sms, chatting, dll) selama perkuliahan berlangsung
■ Mematuhi semua peraturan perkuliahan
Penilaian
■ 50% s.d Ujian Mid (materi dari saya)
■ 50% setelah Ujian Mid s.d Ujian Akhir (materi dari
Ibu Kistini)
■ Komponen penilaian antara keduanya bisa
berbeda
1
Komponen Penilaian (50%)
No
1
2
4
5
Komponen Yang Dinilai
Ujian mid semester
Quiz
Tugas Terstruktur
Tugas Mandiri & Diskusi kelompok
Total
Proporsi
35%
10%
30%
25%
100%
Literatur
■ Human geography: an Essential Anthology; Agnew
et al; 1999; Blackwell
■ Geography: a Modern Synthesis, Hagget, P; 1983;
Harper&Row
■ An Introduction to Human Geography; Cox, Kevin
R., 1972; John Wiley
Bab I
Pendekatan & Teori (Minggu II & III)
■ Kedudukan dan Definisi Geografi Manusia
■ Landasan Filosofis, Teori dan Konsep, Pendekatan
dan Analisis
■ Isu-isu mutakhir kajian Geografi Manusia
Literatur
■ Rubenstein, J. 2009. Human Geography. 9th ed.,
Prentice-Hall
■ Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture; de
Blij, H.J. 2007; Wiley
■ Human Geography: Places and Regions in Global
Context. Knox, P & Marston,S. 2004; Prentice Hall
Diktat Kuliah
■ Berisi print out power point materi kuliah lengkap
■ Dapat dipesan dalam bentuk copy cetak di bagian
pelayanan foto copy Fakultas Geografi UGM
seharga Rp. 22.500.000,oo
■ Tidak wajib (menyesuaikan dengan isi dompet
masing-masing)
Bab II
Kependudukan (Minggu IV & V)
■ Aspek-aspek dasar studi kependudukan; ukuran
statis dan dinamis kependudukan
■ Migrasi Penduduk
■ Isu-isu kependudukan terkini
2
Bab III
Proses dan Pola Kebudayaan (Minggu VI&VII)
■ Pendekatan konseptual kebudayaan dan Geografi
Kebudayaan & Perkembangan spasial kebudayaan
■ Identitas: Ras, Etnik, Gender
■ Bahasa & Agama
Bab IV
Organisasi Politik & Ruang (Minggu IX)
■ Konsep Politik, Negara, Bangsa, Pemerintahan
■ Konsep Wilayah
■ Isu Geopolitik Dunia
Bab VI
Pembangunan Ekonomi & Industrialisasi (Minggu XII)
■ Konsep Pembangunan
■ Indikator-indikator pembangunan
■ Revolusi Industri, industrialisasi, dan
perkembangan ekonomi tersier (jasa)
(Minggu VIII)
Ujian Mid Semester
Bab V
Pertanian & Penggunaan Lahan Kedesaan
(Minggu X & XI)
■ Sejarah perkembangan pertanian; Revolusi
pertanian, penggunaan lahan kedesaan
■ Pertanian subsisten, agrobisnis, dan agroindustri
Bab VII
Urbanisasi & Penggunaan Lahan Kekotaan
(Minggu XIII&XIV)
■ Konsep urban & urbanisasi
■ Teori-teori dan pendekatan dalam kajian geografi
perkotaan
3
Bab VIII
Globalisasi & Isu Lingkungan Global (Minggu XV)
■ Konsep globalisasi
■ Isu-isu dan permasalahan global
Pertemuan Minggu II
Kedudukan
(Minggu XVI)
Ujian Akhir Semester
What is Human Geography?
Kedudukan
Geografi memiliki 2 cabang yang saling melengkapi
(Complementary)
1. Geografi Fisik (Hidrosfir, Litosfir, Atmosfir, Biosfir)
2. Geografi Manusia (Antroposfir)
4
Kedudukan
Kedudukan
proses geologi menyusun geografi fisik
dan
aktivitas ekonomi menyusun geografi manusia
What is Human Geography?
■ Human = Manusia  Kemanusiaan
■ Geography = Ilmu yang mempelajari muka bumi
Yang membedakan manusia  budaya
Human Geography = Cultural Geography = Social Geography
What is Human Geography?
■ The study of how people make places, how people organize
space and society, how people interact with each other in
places and across space, and how people make sense of
others and theirselves in their locality, region, and world.
■ ( de Blij, 2007)
What is Human Geography?
What is Human Geography?
Human geography = the study of how societies construct
places, how humans use the surface of the earth, how
social phenomena are distributed spatially, and how we
bring space into consciousness
Human geography is part of GEOGRAPHY
concerned with the spatial analysis of the
human population.
(Encyclopedia of Human Geography:2006)
(A Modern Dictionary of Geography:2001)
5
What is Human Geography?
What is Human Geography?
Human Geography is one of the two main parts of geography
(the other being physical geography) studying the spatial
and temporal distribution of population, their activities,
social organization and culture on a local to global scale.
(Dictionary of Geography:2007)
Geography was no exception to this and gradually, through the
1980s, all of the sub-disciplines of human geography came
to be conscious of the ‘cultural’ dimensions of their field of
study: economic geographers ‘discovered’ embeddedness of
local economies in local social practices; political
geographers became aware of new nationalisms and
notions of identity in boundary formation and exclusion;
urban geographers turned their attention to lifestyle and they
became enthusiastic about cultural regeneration of cities; the
countryside was rethought as a cultural construction, as was
nature itself; retail geographers became enthusiastic about
sites of consumption, as opposed to patterns of distribution.
......Like Geography as a whole, human geography covers
three related themes: (1) spatial analysis – the recording
and description of human phenomena around the earth’s
surface, with special attention to the significance of space
as a variable; (2) the study of the inter-relationships
between human beings and their environment, both natural
and socio-economic; (3) a regional synthesis which
combines the first two themes in specified localities.
(Goodall:1987)
Geograf membiasakan kerja lapangan
(fieldwork) untuk memahami variasi
tempat dan ruang serta kompleksitas
permasalahannya
Contoh
■ Mengapa
Daerah
Lembang
ditanami
teh dan
kopi?
(Social Geography Study Group Institute of British Geographers:1988)
Geographic inquiry
focuses on the spatial:
Key Question:
What are Geographic Questions?
- the spatial arrangement of places and
phenomena (human and physical).
- how are things organized on Earth?
- how do they appear on the landscape?
- why? where? so what?
6
Spatial distribution
What processes create and sustain the pattern of a distribution?
Map of Cholera Victims
in London’s Soho District
in 1854.
Five Themes of Geography
The patterns of victim’s
homes and water pump
locations helped uncover
the source of the disease.
Absolute Location
Theme 1: Location
■ Where is It?
■ Why is It There?
Two Types of
Location
•Absolute
•Relative
North Carolina
Absolute Location
■ North Carolina
36° N Latitude
79° W longitude
■ Chapel Hill
35° 55' N Latitude
79° 05' W Longitude
■ Location
■ Place
■ Human-Environment Interaction
■ Movement
■ Region
■
■
■
■
A specific place on the Earth’s surface
Uses a grid system
Latitude and longitude
A global address
Relative Location
■ Where a place is
in relation to
another place
■ Uses directional
words to describe
• Cardinal and
intermediate
directions
7
Theme 2: Place
Physical Characteristics
North Carolina
■ North Carolina is bordered by Virginia on
the north, South Carolina and Georgia on
the south, and Tennessee on the west.
■ The Atlantic Ocean forms North Carolina's
east coast.
■ North Carolina is one of the Southeastern
States
■ Land Features
■ Mountains, plains,
and plateaus
■ Climate
■ Bodies of Water
Theme 2: Place
Human Characteristics
North Carolina:
Physical
Characteristics
People
Culture
Language
Religion
Buildings and
Landmarks
■ Cities
■
■
■
■
■
Photos above: Steve Pierce
http://www.wetmaap.org/Cape_Hatteras/ch_tm_2.html
North Carolina: Human
Characteristics
Place
Sense of place: infusing a place with meaning and
emotion.
http://www.rivinus.com/camerastuff/charlotte_nc.htm
National Geographic Magazine
Top right:http://graphics.fansonly.com/photos/schools/unc/nonsport/school-bio/unc-oldwell2-lg.jpg
Perception of place: belief or understanding of what a
place is like, often based on books, movies, stories,
or pictures.
8
Perception
of Place
Theme 3: Human
Environment Interaction
How People Interact With Their
Environment
People . . .
■ Adapt to Their Environment
■ Modify Their Environment
■ Depend on Their Environment
http://www.fotosearch.com/comp/corbis/DGT119/BAG0017.jpg
North Carolina: Human
Environment Interaction
Human - Environment
Spatial interaction
Human Ecology
Biogeography
Sociology
http://aam.wcu.edu/grant/images/Fontana%20Dam%20Shirley.jpg
http://www.dukemagazine.duke.edu/dukemag/issues/091002/images/mallc.jpg
http://www.ee.duke.edu/~sag8/Duke/02-03/PiKA/Fall%20Break/Fall_Break_02.htm
Theme 4: Movement
The Mobility of
■ People
■ Goods
■ Ideas
How Places are
linked to one
another and the
world
Movement
Spatial interaction: the interconnectedness between places
depends upon:
Distance
Accessibility
Connectivity
9
North Carolina: Movement
Theme 5: Regions
What Places Have in Common
■ Political Regions
■ Landform Regions
■ Agricultural Regions
■ Cultural Regions
http://www.marad.dot.gov/Gallery/MoreheadCity/pages/Ming%20Europe.htm
http://www.evertize.com/land/images/I-40-64%20interchange.JPG
Regions
Formal region: defined by a commonality, typically a cultural
linkage or a physical characteristic.
e.g. German speaking region of Europe
Region
Functional region: defined by a set of social, political, or
economic activities or the interactions that occur within it.
e.g. an urban area
 Formal
 Fungsional
 Perseptual
Regions
Perceptual Region: ideas in our minds, based on
accumulated knowledge of places and regions, that define
an area of “sameness” or “connectedness.”
e.g. the South
the Mid-Atlantic
the Middle East
10
North Carolina: Regions
Any Questions?
Steve Pierce
http://home.neo.rr.com/rodsphotogallery/NaturalWonders/SeaSand/Images/JockeysRidge.jpg
http://www.ncbbi.org/images/piedmont-images/piedmont-nc-heartland-golf.jpg
http://www.homestead.com/pncfa/files/piedmontmap.jpg
http://www.shorebirdworld.org/fromthefield/Images/Hatteras%20Light.JPG
Quiz 10’
Auf Wiedersehen
See U Next Week
Pertemuan Minggu III
1. Jelaskan apa yang anda pahami tentang
geografi manusia!
2. Jelaskan permasalahan di sekitar anda
yang terkait dengan geografi manusia!
Key Words:
Geographic Concepts and Approach
11
Old Approaches to
Human-Environment Questions:
■ Environmental Determinism (has been rejected by almost
all geographers)
■ Possibilism (less accepted today)
New Approaches to
Human-Environment Questions:
■ Cultural ecology
■ Political ecology
Key Word:
Geographers Concerned with Scale
Local
Regional
National
Global
Scale
Scale is a powerful concept because:
- Processes operating at different scales influence
one another.
- What is occurring across scales provides
context for us to understand a
phenomenon.
- People can use scale politically to change
who is involved or how an issue is
perceived.
Four Branch of Human Geography
■ Cultural (social) Geography
■ Population Geography
■ Political Geography
■ Economic Geography
12
An in-depth Social Science
Thinking
Geographically
Where we find Geography?
■ Geography exist in the global
issues receiving attention at
this time things such as
• Population growth
• Terrorism
• Cultural diffusion.
• Diffusion is defined as the spread
of linguistic or cultural practices
or innovations within a
community or from one
community to another.
Thinking Geographically
■ In addition to political rule, boundaries can be drawn based on
various components of culture including language, religion,
values.
■ Many people have
misconceptions about
geography and think of the
discipline as simply an
exercise in memorizing
place names.
Location, Location, Location
■ Geography's importance can
also be established by looking
at community issues, such as:
•
•
•
•
•
Water supply
Pollution
Growth management
Housing
Retail
• Openings
• Closures
Questions to Ponder
■ Where would the most
desirable places to live be
located?
■ What impacts would this
population increase
cause?
13
Every Story Can be approached from a
Geographers Perspective
Spatial analysis
■ Geography by its nature is a spatial science.
Geographers therefore study space in order to locate
the distribution of people and objects. Geographers ask
two main questions, “where” and “why.” Spatial analysis
is concerned with analyzing regularities achieved
through interaction. Regularities result in a distinctive
distribution of a feature. Distribution has three
properties:
■ Consider natural events and
natural disasters. Do humans
choose to live in harm’s way?
World Political Boundaries (2004)
•
•
•
Density
Concentration
Pattern
How Geographers Address
Location
■ Maps
•
•
•
•
Early mapmaking
Map scale
Projection
Land Ordinance of 1785
■ Contemporary Tools
• GIS
• Remote sensing
• GPS
Fig. 1-1: National political boundaries are among the most significant
elements of the cultural landscape
Ptolemy’s view of the world c150AD
Old Islamic Maps
Fulfilling the duties of formal prayers and the pilgrimage, Muslims need
to find the direction and routes leading to al Ka'ba from virtually any
spot on the globe. The Ka'ba is the house of Abraham in Mecca. And it
is the point at which Muslims must face when they perform prayers.
Left - map of
the world in
1154 by
Idrissi
Right - map
of the world
made by the
Muslim
geographer
Jihani in the
10th century
of the
Christian era.
14
Maps of the Marshall Islands
Fig. 1-2: A Polynesian “stick chart” depicts patterns of waves on the sea route
between two South Pacific islands. Modern maps show the locations of
these Marshall Islands.
Examples of Map Projections
Scale Differences: Maps of Florida
Fig. 1-3: The effects of scale in maps of Florida.
(Scales from 1:10 million to 1:10,000)
Township and Range System in the U.S.
Mollweid - Equal Area Map
http://www.nationalatlas.gov/articles/
mapping/a_projections.html
Layers of a GIS
Fig. 1-4: Principal meridians and east-west baselines of the township system.
Townships in northwest Mississippi and topographic map of the area.
GPS
Fig. 1-5: A geographic information system (GIS) stores information about a
location in several layers. Each layer represents a different
category of information.
15
Uniqueness of Places and Regions
Site: Lower Manhattan Island
■ Place: Unique location of a feature
•
•
•
•
Place names
Site
Situation
Mathematical location
■ Regions: Areas of unique characteristics
•
•
•
•
Cultural landscape
Types of regions
Regional integration of culture
Cultural ecology
Fig. 1-6: Site of lower Manhattan Island, New York City. There have been many
changes to the area over the last 200 years.
Situation: Singapore
Djibouti & Lahore
Fig. 1-7: Singapore is situated at a key location for international trade.
World Geographic Grid
Fig. 1-8: The world geographic grid consists of meridians of longitude and
parallels of latitude. The prime meridian (0º) passes through
Greenwich, England.
World Time Zones
Fig. 1-9: The world’s 24 standard time zones are often depicted using the
Mercator projection.
16
Election 2000: Regional Differences
Fig. 1-10: Presidential election results by county and state illustrate differences
in regional voting patterns.
Vernacular Regions
Formal and Functional Regions
Fig. 1-11: The state of Iowa is an example of a formal region; the areas of
influence of various television stations are examples of functional
regions.
Vernacular Region - Kurdistan
Fig. 1-12: A number of factors are often used to define the South as a
vernacular region, each of which identifies somewhat different
boundaries.
Spatial Association at Various Scales
What is Culture?
■ Your book defines culture as a
body of customary believes,
material trades, and social
forms that together constitute
the distinct tradition of a group
of people.
■ The Latin root of culture is
cultus, which means to care
for. Example Agriculture (term
for growing things)
Fig. 1-13: Death rates from cancer in the U.S., Maryland, and
Baltimore show different patterns that can identify
associations with different factors.
17
World Climate Regions
Cultural Ecology
■ Geographers also consider environmental factors as well as cultural
factors, when looking at regions.
■ This is cultural ecology.
• Basically, this is the geographic study of human-environmental relations.
■ In the 19th Century – some geographers said that human actions were
caused by environmental conditions. (environmental determinism)
■ This is rejected by modern geographers that say some environmental
conditions limit human actions. (possibilism)
■ Of course now we are realizing that humans can actually adjust their
environment. (For good or bad)
Fig. 1-14: The modified Köppen system divides the world
into five main climate regions.
Geomorphology
Environmental Modification in the Netherlands
■ This is the branch of
geology that studies the
characteristics and
configuration and evolution
of rocks and land forms.
Fig. 1-15: Polders and dikes have been
used for extensive
environmental modification in
the Netherlands.
Environmental Modification in Florida
Similarity of Different Places
■ Scale: From local to global
View
of
Miami
Beach
• Globalization of economy
• Globalization of culture
■ Space: Distribution of features
• Distribution
• Gender and ethnic diversity in space
Fig. 1-16: Straightening the
Kissimmee River has had many
unintended side effects.
The
barrier
Island Orchid
Island –
in the
town I
grew up
in.
■ Connections between places
• Spatial interaction
• Diffusion
18
Globalization of the Economy
Globalization of culture
■ What are the major Elements of culture?
• Customary beliefs
• Social customs
• Material traits
■ Affects of globalization of culture
•
•
•
•
Fewer local differences
Enhanced communications
Unequal access
Difficulty in maintaining of local traditions
■ There is also globalization of environment
•
Sensitive and insensitive environmental modification
Fig. 1-17: The Denso corporation is headquartered in Japan, but it has
regional headquarters and other facilities in North America and
Western Europe.
Density, Concentration, and Pattern
Density and Concentration of Baseball Teams,
1952–2000
Fig. 1-19: The changing distribution of North American baseball teams
illustrates the differences between density and concentration.
Housing density in Hong
Kong
Fig. 1-18: The density, concentration, and
pattern (of houses in this
example) may each vary in an
area or landscape.
Space-Time Compression, 1492–1962
Spatial Interaction
■ Interdependence exists among places based upon the degree of spatial
interaction.
• Spatial interaction is established through the movement of people, ideas, and
objects between regions.
• For example, Travel has changed considerably over the last 500 years.
■ In the past, most forms of interaction among cultural groups required
the physical movement of settlers, explores, and plunders from one
place to another.
• Today travel by car or plane is much faster and communication is instantaneous.
• When places are connected to each other through a network, geographers say
there is a spatial interaction between them.
Fig. 1-20: The times required to cross the Atlantic, or orbit the Earth,
illustrate how transport improvements have shrunk the world.
19
Airline Route Networks
Diffusion
■ Diffusion is the process by which a characteristic spreads
across space from one place to another over time.
• The place of origin of the characteristic is called the hearth.
• For example – US, Canadian, and many Latin cultures can be traced back to
the European Hearth.
■ There are two basic types of diffusion:
•
•
Relocation diffusion
Expansion diffusion
•
•
•
Hierarchical diffusion
Contagious diffusion
Stimulus diffusion
■ Expansion Diffusion includes-
Fig. 1-21: Delta Airlines, like many others, has configured its route
network in a “hub and spoke” system.
AIDS Diffusion in the U.S., 1981–2001
Any Questions?
Fig. 1-22: New AIDS cases were concentrated in three nodes in 1981. They
spread through the country in the 1980s, but declined in the original
nodes in the late 1990s.
Tugas Mandiri
Give one Elementery Student a blank piece of paper.
Ask the person to draw a detailed map of how he or
she gets from home to the school where most of his
or her weekdays are spent. Note the age of the
person and the length of time he or she has lived in
the place and traveled the route. Analyze the map.
Tugas Terstruktur (kelompok)
Buat resume dari artikel tersebut
20
Auf Wiedersehen
See U Next Week
21