Download The Conference Programme and abstracts is now available

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Citizens' Climate Lobby wikipedia, lookup

Early 2014 North American cold wave wikipedia, lookup

Climate change and agriculture wikipedia, lookup

Attribution of recent climate change wikipedia, lookup

General circulation model wikipedia, lookup

Media coverage of global warming wikipedia, lookup

Global warming wikipedia, lookup

Instrumental temperature record wikipedia, lookup

Public opinion on global warming wikipedia, lookup

Effects of global warming on human health wikipedia, lookup

Scientific opinion on climate change wikipedia, lookup

Climate change in Tuvalu wikipedia, lookup

Climate change, industry and society wikipedia, lookup

Effects of global warming on humans wikipedia, lookup

Climate change in Canada wikipedia, lookup

Years of Living Dangerously wikipedia, lookup

Climate change and poverty wikipedia, lookup

IPCC Fourth Assessment Report wikipedia, lookup

Surveys of scientists' views on climate change wikipedia, lookup

Hotspot Ecosystem Research and Man's Impact On European Seas wikipedia, lookup

Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment wikipedia, lookup

Effects of global warming on Australia wikipedia, lookup

Climate change feedback wikipedia, lookup

Physical impacts of climate change wikipedia, lookup

Climate change in the Arctic wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Conference Programme and Abstracts
Programme et résumés de la conférence
Québec (Qc)
9-12 December, 2008 • 9-12 décembre 2008
a
WELCOME TO ARCTIC CHANGE 2008
With climate change and Arctic issues moving to the forefront of national and international agendas, circumpolar nations face
an increased urgency to expand the observational basis needed to formulate strategies and policies that will minimize the negative impacts and maximize the positive outcomes of the on-going transformation of the Arctic. Building on the success of its
annual scientific meeting, the ArcticNet Network of Centres of Excellence and its national and international partners welcome
the international Arctic research community to Quebec City for the International Arctic Change 2008 Conference. Coinciding
with the pinnacle of the Fourth International Polar Year (IPY), Arctic Change 2008 welcomes over 700 researchers, students,
policy makers and stakeholders from 16 countries and from all fields of Arctic research to address the global challenges and opportunities brought by climate change in the circum-Arctic.
ArcticNet is supported by the Government of Canada through the Networks of Centres of Excellence (NCE) programs.
Additional support for the Arctic Change 2008 conference was provided through NCE’s International Partnership Initiatives
program.
BIENVENUE À ARCTIC CHANGE 2008
Les changements climatiques et les enjeux entourant l’Arctique se retrouvent au premier plan des priorités nationales et internationales. Les nations circumpolaires doivent maintenant élaborer des stratégies et des politiques visant à réduire les impacts
négatifs et maximiser les répercussions positives des changements en cours dans l’Arctique. Le Réseau de centres d’excellence
ArcticNet et ses partenaires nationaux et internationaux invitent la communauté internationale de recherche arctique à participer à la conférence internationale Arctic Change 2008. Coïncidant avec la quatrième Année polaire internationale (API), Arctic
Change 2008 invite plus de 700 chercheurs, étudiants et décideurs de 16 pays et de tous les champs de la recherche arctique à
venir aborder les défis et les opportunités amenés par les changements climatiques dans la région circumarctique.
ArcticNet est appuyé par un programme des Réseaux de centres d’excellence (RCE) du Gouvernement du Canada.
Arctic Change 2008 a reçu un soutien additionnel des RCE par l’entremise de son Initiative de partenariats internationaux.
PARTNERS / PARTENAIRES
a
TABLE OF CONTENTS
International Organizing Committee
p. 2
Local Organizing Committee
p. 2
General Conference Programme
p. 3
Student Day Programme
p. 4
Plenary Session Programme
p. 6
Topical Session Programme
Schedule
p. 8
Co-Chairs and Description
p. 23
Student Day Oral Abstracts
p. 33
Plenary Session Oral Abstracts
p. 36
Topical Session Oral Abstracts
p. 42
Poster Abstracts
p. 169
Participants
p. 325
Sponsors
p. 340
Exhibitors
p. 343
Sponsor Advertisements
p. 347
Conference Floor Plan
p. 350
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
Prof. Jody Deming
Chair, International Arctic Polynya Programme (IAPP)
University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
Prof. Louis Fortier
Scientific Director, ArcticNet
Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
Dr. Martin Fortier, Chair
Executive Director, ArcticNet
Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
Prof. Chris Furgal
Co-Director, Nasivvik Centre
Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada
Prof. Jean-Claude Gascard
Project leader, Developing Arctic Modeling and Observing
Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies (DAMOCLES)
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France
Dr. Lars-Otto Reiersen
Executive Secretary, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment
Programme (AMAP)
Oslo, Norway
Prof. Peter Schlosser
Chair of the Scientific Steering Committee, Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH)
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, New York,
USA
Ms. Mary Simon
President, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK)
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Mr. Duane Smith
President, Inuit Circumpolar Council-Canada (ICC)
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Prof. Paul Wassmann
Leader, ARCTic marine ecOSystem research network (ARCTOS)
University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway
LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
Ms. Christine Barnard
Data Manager, ArcticNet
Ms. Suzette Forget
Finance Coordinator, ArcticNet
Ms. Jaime Dawson
Communications Officer, ArcticNet
Prof. Louis Fortier
Scientific Director, ArcticNet
Ms. Christine Demers
Administrative Assistant, ArcticNet
Dr. Martin Fortier
Executive Director, ArcticNet
Ms. Natalie Desmarais
Executive Assistant, ArcticNet
M. Keith Levesque
Ship-based Research Coordinator, ArcticNet
M. Sylvain Tougas
Website Developer, ArcticNet
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
GENERAL CONFERENCE PROGRAMME
TUESDAY,
9 DECEMBER
WEDNESDAY,
10 DECEMBER
THURSDAY,
11 DECEMBER
08:30 - 10:00
Student Day
Plenary Session
Plenary Session
10:00 - 10:30
Coffee Break
Coffee Break
Coffee Break
Coffee Break
10:30 - 12:00
Student Day
Topical Sessions
Topical Sessions
Topical Sessions
12:00 - 13:30
(Hilton Ballroom)
(Hilton Ballroom)
(Hilton Ballroom)
(Hilton Ballroom)
13:30 - 15:00
Student Day
Topical Sessions
Topical Sessions
Topical Sessions
15:00 - 15:30
Coffee Break
Coffee Break
Coffee Break
Coffee Break
15:30 - 17:00
Student Day
Plenary Session
Plenary Session
Meeting Adjourns
17:00 - 19:00
Registration/Reception
Poster Session
Poster Session
19:00 - 23:00
Dinner on your own
Dinner on your own
Lunch
(Room 2000AB)
Lunch
(Room 2000AB)
(Room 2000CD)
FRIDAY,
12 DECEMBER
(Room 2000AB)
Lunch
(Room 2000AB)
Lunch
(Room 2000CD)
Banquet
(Hilton Ballroom)
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
STUDENT DAY PROGRAMME
TUESDAY, 9 DECEMBER
Arctic Change International Student Day (Room 2000AB)
Celebrating Partnership and Collaboration in Arctic Research
07:30
Registration
Breakout Session assignment confirmation
08:30
Sonja Ostertag
Welcome Message from the ASA President
08:35
Danielle Dubien
Student Day Objectives and Agenda
08:40
Louis Fortier
Opening Remarks from the ArcticNet Scientific Director
08:50
Mary Simon
Keynote Speech from the President of Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami
10:00
Break
10:30
Cassandra Cameron
Free love in the far north: reproductive strategies used by arctic foxes on Bylot
Island, Nunavut, Canada
10:45
Émilie Counil
Trans-polar fat 2008: An update on atherogenic effects and regulatory issues in
Nunavik
11:00
Hugues Lantuit
Permafrost young researchers gets their hands dirty: The PYRN-Thermal State of
Permafrost IPY project
11:15
Daniel Vogedes
Digital image analyses of oil sacs in copepods as a fast and cost efficient method to
determine total lipid
11:30
Felicia Kolonjari
Spring Measurements of Stratospheric Composition from PEARL in 2007 and
2008 using the Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer for the
Infrared (PARIS-IR)
11:45
Karen Flaherty
Kerri Tattuinee
Kiah Hachey
Janice Grey-Scott
Ann-Marie Aitchison
Abbygail Noah
Arctic research from the perspectives of six participants in Nunavut Sivuniksavut
12:00
Lunch
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
STUDENT DAY PROGRAMME
12:00
Lunch
13:15
Lara Mountain
Introduction to Student Breakout Sessions
Room
Topic
Facilitators
205C
Keys to success for young researchers
G. Gilchrist, M. Mallory, I. Laurion
205B
Designing a dynamic research proposal
L. Brathwaite
2000AB
Communication and outreach
E. Loring
I. Myers-Smith
206A
Northern training and involvement
M. McKenna and Inuit Research
Advisors
206B
Arctic Research on the international
stage
J. Baeseman
H. Lantuit
13:30
15:00
Break
15:30
Jenny Baeseman
International circumpolar research opportunities
15:40
Vicki Sahanatian
Circumpolar training opportunities
15:50
Lucette Barber
Review of Arctic Climate Change Youth Forum
16:00
Ryan Brooks
Engaging undergraduate university students in climate change
research
16:15
ASA Update and General Assembly
17:00
Arctic Change Registration and Reception
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
PLENARY SESSION PROGRAMME
WEDNESDAY, 10 DECEMBER - 8:30 TO 10:00
OPENING PLENARY
Chair: Martin Fortier, Chair of the Arctic Change 2008 International Organizing Committee
08:30
Louis Fortier
Scientific Director, ArcticNet
Welcome from ArcticNet and Introduction
08:40
Martin Fortier
Executive Director, ArcticNet
Welcome from IOC and Meeting Logistics
08:45
Edwin Bourget
Vice Rector, Research and Creation, Université Laval
Welcome from Université Laval
08:50
Duane Smith
President, Inuit Circumpolar Council-Canada
Opening Remarks
09:00
Patrick Borbey
Assistant Deputy Minister, Northern Affairs Organization,
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
The Northern Strategy and Science
David Carlson
The IPY 2007-2009: An Update
09:15
Director, International Programme Office, International Polar Year
09:45
Questions & Discussions
WEDNESDAY, 10 DECEMBER - 15:30 TO 17:00
PANEL: THE FUTURE OF CIRCUMPOLAR RESEARCH AND POLICY
Chairs: Duane Smith, President, Inuit Circumpolar Council-Canada & Lars-Otto Reiersen, Executive
Secretary, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP)
15:30
David Hik
Vice-President, International Arctic Science Committee (IASC)
15:40
Carl Christian Olsen
Executive Council Member, Inuit Circumpolar Council-Greenland
15:50
Marybeth Murray
Executive Director, International Study of Arctic Change (ISAC)
16:00
Caleb Pungawly
Inuit Circumpolar Council-Alaska
16:10
Lene Kielsen Holm
Director of International Sustainable Development, Inuit Circumpolar Council-Greenland
16:20
Lars-Otto Reiersen
Chair, Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks (SAON) Initiating Group
16:30
Presentation of SAON recommendations to the Arctic Council
16:40
Questions & Discussions
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
PLENARY SESSION PROGRAMME
THURSDAY, 11 DECEMBER - 8:30 TO 10:10
EXPLORING EARTH’S LAST OCEAN FRONTIER
Chair: Jody Deming, Chair, International Arctic Polynya Program
08:30
David Grimes
Thriving in the North – Canadian Arctic Environmental Prediction Services
08:50
Wieslaw Maslowski
On limits and uncertainties of predictions of Arctic warming
09:10
Larry Mayer
Mapping the High Arctic: The Challenges and the Joys
09:30
Benoit Beauchamp
Hydrocarbon Energy from the Arctic: Holy Grail or Pipe Dream?
09:50
Don Rothwell
A New Legal Regime for the Arctic
THURSDAY, 11 DECEMBER - 15:30 to 17:30
MAJOR INTERNATIONAL ARCTIC RESEARCH PROGRAMS: HIGHLIGHTS AND RESULTS
Chair: Peter Schlosser, Chair, Study of Environmental Arctic change (SEARCH) Science Steering
Committee
15:30
Barry Smit
Climate Adaptation & Vulnerability in Arctic Regions (CAVIAR)
15:50
Kue Young
Is Cancer Increasing among the Circumpolar Inuit?
16:10
Gilles Gauthier &
Dominique Berteaux
Arctic Wildlife Observatories Linking Vulnerable EcoSystems
(ArcticWOLVES)
16:30
Paul Wassmann
Arctic Tipping Points (ATP): a new EU project on marine ecosystems
dynamics in the European Arctic sector?
16:50
Jean-Claude Gascard
Developing Arctic Modelling and Observing Capabilities for Longterm / Environmental Studies (DAMOCLES)
17:10
David Barber
The International Polar Year (IPY) Circumpolar Flaw Lead (CFL)
system study
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
TOPICAL SESSION PROGRAMME
(Schedule)
WEDNESDAY, 10 DECEMBER -- 10:30 - 12:00 AM
T01A. Impacts of Climate Change on Arctic Trophic Interactions and Ecosystem Services?
Room 206A
10:30
Lecomte, Nicolas
10:45
Gauthier, Gilles
11:00
11:15
Doiron, Madeleine
Hofgaard, Annika
11:30
Therrien, Jean-François
11:45
Smith, Paul
Metamorphosis of the Arctic Terrestrial Food Webs: between Collapse of Native Species
and Explosion of Exotic Predators?
Impact of climate change on arctic terrestrial food webs: examples from the Bylot Island
long term study
Plant-herbivore interactions and climate change: The Case of the Greater Snow Goose
Land use and climate driven alteration of trophic interactions in tundra systems: an alpine
example from 62N
Reproductive success and long-distance movements of Snowy Owls: is this top arctic
predator vulnerable to climate change?
Seabirds Indicate Change in the Arctic Marine Environment
T04A. Community-Based Research Initiatives as an Interface for Inuit and Scientific Knowledge
Exchange
Room 2000AB
10:30
10:45
Simon, Mary & Smith, Duane
Mate, David
11:00
Huntington, Henry
11:15
Furgal, Chris
11:30
11:45
Aatami, Pita
Opening remarks by co-chairs
More Talk, More Action : Cooperative Approaches for Addressing Climate Change
Adaptation at the Community Level in Nunavut
Siku-Inuit-Hila: Connecting Communities and Scientists through Community Exchanges,
Experts Groups, and Measurements
Methods and Approaches to Linking Inuit Knowledge and Science for the Understanding
of Climate Change in Arctic Regions
The inuit of Nunavik (Northern Quebec): successes and challenges
T06A. IPY 2007-2008 Research: Cryosphere / Hydrosphere / Atmosphere
Room 206B
10:30
10:45
Bernier, Monique
Chung, Yi-Ching
11:00
11:15
Gyakum, John
Shiklomanov, Nikolay
11:30
11:45
Peterson, Ingrid
Myers, Paul
RADARSAT based river ice mapping in the Nunavik context
Evaluation of a Coupled Sea Ice System Including Blowing Snow Processes Over Arctic
Sea-Ice
Trends in Canadian Surface Temperature Anomaly Intensity
Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) Program: Accomplishments and Future
Directions
Variability of oceanographic and ice properties in the eastern Canadian Arctic Archipelago
West Greenland Current Variability
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
T12. The Law and Politics of Canadian Jurisdiction on the Arctic Ocean Seabed
Room 205A
10:30
Byers, Michael
10:45
Schofield, Clive
11:00
Baker, Betsy
11:15
11:30
11:45
Kennair, John
Macnab, Ronald
Boundaries, Biodiversity, Resources and Increasing Maritime Activities: Emerging Governance Challenges for Canada in the Arctic Ocean
Science-driven cooperation and policy: Addressing Canadian/US diplomatic concerns in
the Arctic
An Inconsistent Truth: The Arctic in Canadian foreign policy
Use it or lose it: Action agenda or election slogan?
Questions ans dicussion
T16A. River-Ocean Interactions and Fluvial-Marine Mass Transfer in the North: Past, Present, and Future
Room 205B
10:30
Peckham, Scott
11:00
Hall, Roland
11:15
Solomon, Steven
11:30
Lafreniere, Melissa
11:45
Hughes Clarke, John
Sediment Transport in a Changing Arctic: River Plumes, Longshore Transport and Coastal
Erosion
Climate-driven shifts in quantity and seasonality of river discharge from the headwaters of
the Mackenzie River Basin over the past millennium: Implications for river-ocean interactions and natural resource management in the North
Interactions between water, ice and sediment during spring breakup at the mouth of the
Mackenzie River, Northwest Territories
Impact of climate variability and permafrost landscape disturbances on runoff generation
and solute loads at Cape Bounty, Melville Island, 2006-200
Mapping and monitoring sedimentary processes and fluxes across fjord deltas - Baffin
Island
T20. Land Surface Processes and their Climate Interactions in High-Latitude Regions
Room 205C
10:30
Samuelsson, Patrick
10:45
Savary, Stéphane
11:00
11:15
Minwei, Qian
McLennan, Donald
11:30
11:45
Martynov, Andrey
Bhatti, Jagtar
Experiences from RCM simulations over high latitude regions coupled to lake, snow and
forest processes
Comparison of snowpack evolution on the Necopastic River basin (Northern Quebec)
using HYDROTEL and CROCUS
Difficulties of Climate Simulation over the Arctic Using a Regional Climate Model
Developing Terrestrial Ecological Inventory Methods that Link Land Surface Processes to
Tundra Ecosystems in Torngat Mountain National Park Reserve
Lakes in the Canadian Regional Climate Model
Modeling the potential hydrothermal response impact of climate change on permafrost of
within the South Mackenzie Plain, Northwest Territories, Canada
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
T23A. Education, Communication and Outreach: Linking Research to Public Policy and Environmental
Awareness
Room 208AB
10:30
10:45
Barber, Lucette & Carlson, David Opening remarks by co-chairs
Gislason, Robin
The 2008 Schools on Board Circumpolar Inuit Field Program
11:00
11:15
11:30
11:45
Macdonald, Robie
Illasiak, Velma
Klinkhammer, Ruth
Pulsifer, Peter L.
From field work to publication: ensnaring a future scientist
Dietary Choices in Aklavik, Northwest Territories, Youth and Elders Promoting Change
Popularizing Arctic science: a media relations program to promote northern research
Representing Inuit Sea Ice Knowledge and Use for Education and Outreach: Creating an
IPY legacy using emerging data management strategies
WEDNESDAY, 10 DECEMBER -- 13:30 - 15:00 PM
T01B. Impacts of Climate Change on Arctic Trophic Interactions and Ecosystem Services?
Room 206A
13:30
Bolduc, Elise
13:45
Dick, Terry
14:00
Karnovsky, Nina
14:15
Divoky, George
14:30
Wiklund, Christer G.
14:45
Hendrichsen, Ditte
Terrestrial arthropod abundance and phenology in the Canadian Arctic; modeling the
variation in resources available to arctic-nesting insectivores
Using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to predict trophic structure in deep-sea
Arctic fish communities
Warming in the Greenland Sea: Implications for Energy Transfer to Higher Trophic
Levels
Annual and seasonal variation in nearshore fish availability associated with the record
Arctic pack ice minimum of 2007
Global warming affects the timing of the breeding season in a top predator, the merlin
Falco columbarius, on the mountain tundra in N Sweden
Sex-specific climatic effects on the spatial distribution of a northern ungulate
T04B. Community-Based Research Initiatives as an Interface for Inuit and Scientific Knowledge
Exchange
Room 2000AB
13:30
Nasogaluak, Shelia
14:00
Sheldon, Tom
14:15
Friesen, Max
14:30
14:45
Laidler, Gita
Gearheard, Shari
Integrating Science and Traditional Knowledge in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region:
Perspectives from a Beluga Community Based Monitoring Program
Building a Base Camp: Building an IPY legacy in Nunatsiavut (Northern Labrador): Inuit
Students and scientists and a new way of knowing
Community-Based Inuit Heritage Research: Lessons from a Nine-Year Partnership
between an Inuit Community Group and a Southern University
Connecting Community Observations and Expertise with the Floe Edge Service
Inuit Led Research in Nunavut: Lessons from the Ittaq Heritage and Research Centre,
Clyde River, Nunavut
10
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
T06B. IPY 2007-2008 Research: Cryosphere / Hydrosphere / Atmosphere
Room 206B
13:30
13:45
Maslowski, Wieslaw
Langlois, Alexandre
14:00
14:15
Shiklomanov, Nickolay
Smith, Sharon
14:30
Zheng, Jiancheng
14:45
Turner, Kevin
Oceanic forcing of recent warming in the western Arctic
Latitudinal variations of snow properties using passive microwave brightness temperature
and in-situ measurements over Eastern Canada
A snapshot of permafrost temperatures during the International Polar Year
Thermal State of Permafrost in Canada: a snapshot of current conditions and recent
trends
Variations in atmospheric Cd deposition in the Arctic since AD 1840, and preliminary
assessment of predominant sources
Characterizing the Diversity of Lake Water Balances in the Old Crow Flats, YT, Using
Water Isotope Tracers
T14. Quantifying the Carbon Balance of Arctic Ecosystems at Various Scales
Room 207
13:30
Atkinson, Dave
13:45
Hayne, Shari
14:00
Startsev, Natalia
14:15
Lansard, Bruno
14:30
Shadwick, Elizabeth
14:45
Kos, Gregor
Estimating CO2 flux measurements from the integration of high spatial resolution remotely sensed data and biophysical variables
Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from tundra environments at Daring Lake, NWT:
examination of carbon cycling mechanisms and spatial and temporal flux variation
Spatial and temporal changes in net ecosystem exchange and soil respiration rate in in four
northern ecoregions
Water mass distribution on the Mackenzie Shelf and the Amundsen Gulf as determined
by total alkalinity and δ18O data
Dissolved Inorganic Carbon in the Canadian Archipelago of the Arctic Ocean: The
Export of Pacific Carbon to the North Atlantic Via Baffin Bay
(Semi)volatile Organic Compounds at Alert, Nunavut - Snow Pack and Boundary Layer
Composition
T16B. River-Ocean Interactions and Fluvial-Marine Mass Transfer in the North: Past, Present, and Future
Room 205B
13:30
13:45
14:00
Déry, Stephen
Gratton, Yves
Kuzyk, Zou Zou
14:15
14:30
Kirk, Jane
Lorrain, Stéphane
14:45
Leclair, Suzanne
Recent trends and variability of river discharge in northern Canada
Structure and dynamics of the Amundsen Gulf Eddies
Sources, pathways and sinks of particulate organic matter in Hudson Bay: evidence from
lignin distributions
Inputs of Mercury to Hudson Bay from Nelson and Churchill River Discharge 2003-2006
Water turbidity and suspended sediment characteristics in the Nelson river estuary,
Hudson Bay, Manitoba, Canada
Seabed sediment characteristics, processes, and landforms in the Nelson river estuary,
Hudson Bay, Manitoba, Canada
11
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
T17. Observing Pan-Arctic Environmental Change
Room 205A
13:30
Murray, Maribeth
13:45
Svoboda, Michael
14:00
14:15
14:30
14:45
Olthof, Ian
Dahle, Salve
Adamowicz, Sarah
Haas, Christian
The International Study of Arctic Change: Towards improving pan-arctic observations
and understanding of change
The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program: Towards Integrated Arctic Biodiversity
Monitoring
Approaches to monitoring northern vegetation change with satellite remote sensing
Climate and anthropogenic studies on food webs of the Arctic marginal seas
The biota of Churchill: barcoding as a tool for biodiversity assessment and monitoring
Pan-Arctic sea ice mass balance observations - status and challenges
T23B. Education, Communication and Outreach: Linking Research to Public Policy and Environmental
Awareness
Room 208AB
13:30
13:45
14:00
14:15
Green, Geoff
Walker, Kaley
Ostiguy, Diane
Roburn, Shirley
14:30
West, Peter
14:45
Passing the Torch - Engaging Youth in Global Issues through experiential learning
CANDAC Outreach in the High Arctic: A Chilly Endeavour for IPY
Nunavik wildlife and you, wildlife education program
The Being Caribou Project : Local stories, international policy, and grassroots civil society
-- a case study
A Successful Experiment in Collaboration: U.S. Science Agencies Forge Major Joint
International Polar Year (IPY) Outreach Efforts
Closing remarks co-chairs
THURSDAY, 11 DECEMBER -- 10:30 - 12:00 AM
T03A. Climate Change and Arctic Contaminants
Room 2000AB
10:30
11:00
Wang, Feiyue
Berg, Torunn
11:15
Kallenborn, Roland
11:30
11:45
Cole, Amanda
Zheng, Jiancheng
Mercury cycling in the Arctic Ocean: The role of the sea ice environment
Norwegian measurements of atmospheric mercury depletion events at Antarctica,
Svalbard and the mainland of Norway
Atmospheric monitoring of persistent organic pollutants at the zeppelin mountain
research station (Ny-Aalesun, Svalbard: Indications for climate change influences?
Effects of climate change on atmospheric mercury depletion in the Canadian Arctic
Climate and decreasing levels of sulphate aerosols in the high Arctic: an update of
continues studies
12
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
T07. IPY 2007-2008 Research: Health and Well-Being of Northerners
Room 205C
10:30
10:45
Mäkinen, Tiina
Counil, Émilie
11:00
Noël, Martin
11:15
Li, Y. Anita
11:30
11:45
Simard, Manon
Climate change and human health-how does cold exposure trouble us?
Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Components of the Metabolic
Syndrome in Inuit adults of Northern Québec (Nunavik)
Are Inuit Protected Against Deleterious Effect of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors
for Atherosclerosis?
The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus and Its Impact on Cervical Dysplasia in
Northern Canada
Engaging northern communities in the monitoring of country food safety
Questions and discussions
T10A. Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Arctic Regions
Room 206A
10:30
Hovelsrud, Grete
10:45
Berkes, Fikret
11:00
Armitage, Derek
11:15
11:30
Duerden, Frank
Matthews, Ralph
11:45
Bradshaw, Ben
Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in northern Norway: Some preliminary CAVIAR
findings
Co-Management Institutions and the Use of Knowledge: Adapting to Change in the
Arctic
From Adaptation to Learning and the Potential of Adaptive Co-Management to Reduce
Vulnerability in Arctic Communities
Dawson City. A Community on the Edge?
Climate Change and Institutional Capacity in an Arctic Gateway Community: A CAVIAR
case study of the City of Whitehorse
Assessing Community Vulnerabilities in light of Climate Change: To what end?
T18A. Marine Productivity and Biogeochemical Fluxes in the Changing Arctic
Room 206B
10:30
11:00
Arrigo, Kevin
Belanger, Simon
11:15
Tremblay, Jean-Éric
11:30
11:45
Rivkin, Richard
Maranger, Roxane
Changes in Arctic Ocean Primary Production from 1998-2008
Satellite-based assessment of the light-driven components of the modern Arctic Ocean
biogeochemical carbon cycle
Nutrient dynamics in the southeast Beaufort Sea during the CFL, CASES and ArcticNet
campaigns: implications for primary productivity
Microbial dynamics and response to a changing polar ocean climate
Nitrous Oxide concentrations in the Amundsen Gulf of the Arctic Ocean
13
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
T19. Sea-Ice-Atmosphere Interactions and Climate in a Changing Arctic
Room 205B
10:30
10:45
11:00
Scarratt, Michael
Luce, Myriam
Norman, Ann-Lise
11:15
11:30
11:45
Miller, Lisa
Steiner, Nadja
Willmott, Andrew
Distributions of the natural greenhouse gas N2O in Canadian arctic waters
Microbial production of dimethylsulfide in the Arctic
Relationships between sulphur dioxide, sulphate aerosols and dimethylsulphide in the
Arctic atmosphere
A winter carbon flux time series in land-fast sea ice
Modelling biogeochemical cycling and interfacial exchange of climatically important gases
The effect of tides on dense water formation in arctic shelf seas
T26A. Role of Arctic Marine Mammals in Northern Ecosystems and Cultures
Room 205A
10:30
10:45
11:00
11:15
Ferguson, Steven
Marcoux, Marianne
Chmelnitsky, Elly
Strandberg, Ursula
11:30
11:45
Dunn, J. Lawrence
Simard, Yvan
Loss of chaos in the Arctic: what it means to ice-adapted marine mammals
Characteristics of narwhal vocalizations for acoustic mornitoring
Photo-identification of eastern Arctic killer whales, Orcinus orca
Functional layering of marine mammal blubber influences the stratification of lipophilic
compounds in the blubber
Brucella c-elisa serosurveys in Arctic marine mammal populations
The opening of Arctic shipping routes: underwater noise pollution consequences on
marine mammal habitats as measured on a nearby southern seaway, the St. Lawrence
T34. Seafloor Mapping of the Arctic Ocean, Continental Shelves and Margins
Room 207
10:30
10:45
Ryan, William
Brown, Tanya
11:00
Beaudoin, Jonathan
11:15
11:30
11:45
Lajeunesse, Patrick
Ferguson, James
Mosher, David
A Web Mapping Service for Multi-Resolution Bathymetry of the Arctic Ocean
Benthic habitat maps for Nachvak and Saglek fiords: A contribution to Nunatsiavut
Nuluak, northern Labrador, Canada
Mapping Canada’s Arctic Seabed: Data Processing, Management and Distribution
Strategies
Rapid early Holocene deglaciation of Hudson Bay
Using Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in Under-ice Scientific Missions
Seafloor mapping of the central Labrador margin: near surface geology and geohazards
14
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
THURSDAY, 11 DECEMBER -- 13:30 - 15:00 PM
T03B. Climate Change and Arctic Contaminants
Room 2000AB
13:30
13:45
Borga, Katrine
Chételat, John
14:00
Ross, Peter
14:15
Dietz, Rune
14:30
McKinney, Melissa
14:45
Knott, Katrina
Predicting climate change-induced alteration in food web accumulation of contaminants
Shifts in Zooplankton Composition Driven by Climate Change Could Alter
Methylmercury Transfer to Fish in High Arctic Lakes
A changing climate may increase the risk of contaminant-related health risks in Beaufort
Sea beluga whales
Contaminant linkages to climate parameters in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from
Greenland and Svalbard
Does sea ice-associated variation in diet influence the temporal trends of organohalogen
concentrations in Western Hudson Bay polar bears?
Annual and individual variations in feeding ecology of Southern Beaufort Sea polar bears
by stable isotope analysis: Interactions with blood PCBs and Hg
T10B. Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Arctic Regions
Room 206A
13:30
Huntington, Henry
13:45
Ford, James
14:00
Boudreau, Stéphane
14:15
14:30
Fleming, Laura
Malone, Leslie
14:45
Numminen, Lotta
Demographics and Environmental Conditions are Uncoupled in the Pribilof Islands Social
Ecological System
Opportunities for policy to support Inuit adaptation to climate change
Le développement de pratiques de restauration appliquées au milieu nordique : l’exemple
de Whapmagoostui-Kuujuarapik au Québec subarctique
Changing Governance and the Governance of Change
Polar Climate Outlook Forum: A mechanism for improved adaptation strategies and
outcomes
Climate change in the Arctic: perspectives to adaptation
T15. Freshwater Ecosystems, Aquatic Biodiversity and Sensitivity to Climate Change
Room 205C
13:30
Wrona, Fred
13:45
Balasubramaniam, Ann
14:00
Retamal, Leira
14:15
Wiklund, Johan
14:30
Swanson, Heidi
14:45
Reist, Jim
Hydro-ecological Responses of Arctic Tundra Lakes to Climate Change and Landscape
Perturbation: Highlights and Preliminary Results
Developing a framework of baseline data in a complex thermokarst lake system using
relationships between hydrological processes and limnological conditions
Aquatic processes controlling greenhouse gas exchanges in thaw ponds: the role of
microbial production at Bylot Island, Nunavut
Limnological approaches to track climate- and human-induced hydrological changes in
northern floodplain landscapes: Experiments from the Peace-Athabasca Delta
Transients in the north: interactions of migratory fish, climate change, and contaminant
accumulation in coastal Arctic lakes
An Overview and Integration of IPY Research on Chars
15
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
T18B. Marine Productivity and Biogeochemical Fluxes in the Changing Arctic
Room 206B
13:30
13:45
Juul-Pedersen, Thomas
Reigstad, Marit
14:00
Tamelander, Tobias
14:15
Lalande, Catherine
14:30
Sampei, Makoto
14:45
Ringuette, Marc
Marine monitoring and research studies in Greenland
Vertical export or retention? The fate of organic carbon in open and ice-covered regions
of the Barents Sea
Vertical export of organic matter from sea ice in the Barents Sea and Nansen Basin (Arctic
Ocean)
Variations in annual cycles of vertical particulate organic carbon export on Arctic shelves:
A comparison between the Laptev Sea, Northern Baffin Bay and the Beaufort Sea
Significant contribution of passively sinking copepods to downward export flux in
Canadian Arctic waters.
Phytoplankton biomass, sea surface temperature and cannibalism/predation and their
antagonist effects on the North Water Polynya copepods population dynamics
T26B. Role of Arctic Marine Mammals in Northern Ecosystems and Cultures
Room 205A
13:30
Petersen, Stephen
13:45
14:00
14:15
Obbard, Martyn
Loseto, Lisa
Higdon, Jeff
14:30
Bortoluzzi, Tara
14:45
Barrett-Lennard, Lance
Population genetics of Canadian ringed seals: probing deeper into nature’s approximation
of panmixia
Current Status of the Southern Hudson Bay Polar Bear Population
Beluga contaminant levels: An ecosystem approach to a species specific question
Exploitation and recovery of bowhead whales in northwest Hudson Bay: implications for
ecosystem dynamics
Global Warming and Arctic Marine Mammals (GWAMM): The development of a
Community-Based Monitoring (CBM) network within the Hudson Bay region of Canada
Fostering stewardship of marine mammals in coastal communities: Insights from the B.C.
Cetacean Sightings Network
T29. Impacts of Severe Arctic Storms and Climate Change on Arctic Coastal Oceanographic Processes
Room 205B
13:30
Cooke, Melanie
13:45
Zhang, Shunli
14:00
14:15
14:30
14:45
Zhang, Lujun
Hay, Carling
Hoque, Md. Azharul
Small, David
The synoptic and planetary scale environment associated with significant wind events
along the Beaufort Sea coast
A Numerical Study of Hurricane Noel (2007). Model Verification and Extratropical
Transition
Impacts of Air-Sea Fluxes on the Evolution of an Arctic ’Bomb’
Flying into the Eye of a Polar Low
Modeling Arctic storm waves by SWAN in the southern Beaufort Sea
Meteorological conditions associated with significant storm surge activity along the
Beaufort Sea coast
16
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
T32. Arctic Climate Feedbacks: Atmospheric Composition and Long Range Transport of Chemical Constituents
Room 208AB
13:30
Blanchet, Jean-Pierre
13:45
Gong, Sunling
14:00
14:15
Grenier, Patrick
Girard, Éric
14:30
Munoz-Alpizar, Rodrigo
14:45
Walker, Thomas
On the Role of Anthropogenic Aerosols in Thin Ice Clouds Formation during Winter:
Implications for Arctic Climate and Decision Makers
Identification of Natural and Human Induced Trends and Variability of 30 Year Canadian
Arctic Aerosols
Investigation of the dehydration-greenhouse feedback trigger using satellite measurements
Modelling of the effects of acidic aerosols on arctic cloud microstructure and surface
radiative budget during winter
Vertical transport and mixing of aerosols and moisture in Polar Regions by Cold lows
systems
Integrated analysis of the impact of long-range transport of midlatitude pollution on
ozone abundances in the Arctic troposphere
T35. Measurements and Numerical Modelling of Precipitations in Cold Climates
Room 207
13:30
13:45
14:00
14:15
14:30
Rasmussen, Roy
Cherry, Jessica
Gultepe, Ismail
Morrison, Hugh
Milbrandt, Jason
14:45
Chosson, Frederick
Snowfall Measurements at Exposed, High Wind Sites
Performance of the Experimental Total Precipitation Sensor in Barrow, Alaska
Light precipitation at cold temperatures during april of 2008 in barrow alaska
Observations and modeling of snow microphysics in Arctic mixed-phase clouds
Forecasting the Solid-to-Liquid Ratio of Snow Precipitation in High-Resolution NWP
Models
Simulation of precipitations over the Arctic basin: a sensitivity study with polar-gem
modelling system
FRIDAY, 12 DECEMBER -- 10:30 - 12:00 AM
T02. Climate Change, Natural Hazards, Health and Well-being in the Arctic
Room 205B
10:30
Ford, James
10:45
Breton-Honeyman, Kaitlin
11:00
Boucher, Étienne
11:15
Edge, Victoria
11:30
11:45
Huntington, Henry
Climate change, natural hazards, and vulnerability in small Inuit communities: A
comparison between Igloolik, Nunavut, and Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland
Climate change, search and rescue and human vulnerability in the Canadian Arctic
Impacts of Recurring Ice-Jams on Channel Geometry and Geomorphology in a Small
High-Boreal Watershed
Risk Perception and Mitigation Related to ’Safe’ Food and Water: Impacts on Human
Health
Risk and Reward: Hazards of Hunting the Bowhead Whale
Closing remarks co-chairs
17
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
T11A. The Role of Sea Ice in Arctic Marine Ecosystem Processes
Room 2000AB
10:30
10:45
Falk-Petersen, Stig
Benoit, Delphine
11:00
11:15
Berge, Jørgen
Collins, Kate
11:30
Kramer, Maike
11:45
Aitken, Alec
The Calanus complex in a pan-Arctic perspective
Seasonal and daily scale behaviour of Arctic cod winter aggregations under the sea-ice
cover at a fixed station in Franklin Bay (Beaufort Sea)
Ups and downs all year round: DVM patterns in Arctic zooplankton
Zooplankton communities in Barrow Strait as estimated from moored Acoustic Doppler
Current Profiler (ADCP) data
The role of sympagic meiofauna for the flow of organic matter in Arctic sea-ice food
webs
Distribution Patterns of Canadian Beaufort Shelf Macrobenthos
T21A. Climate Change and Quaternary Evolution of the Arctic
Room 205C
10:30
10:45
Rochon, André
Lisé-Pronovost, Agathe
Marine paleoenvironments in the Canadian Arctic: what have we learned in recent years?
Postglacial Sedimentation and Environmental Magnetism in the Arctic Alaskan Margin
11:00
Ledu, David
11:15
Scott, David
11:30
11:45
St-Onge, Guillaume
Bonnet, Sophie
Holocene Climate Changes in the Main Axis of the Northwest Passage inferred from
dinocyst Assemblages: a Possible Influence of the Arctic Oscillation at the Millennial time
scale
Isotopic and sedimentological evidence for sea ice conditions and paleoceanography of
the 15,000 years on the Beaufort sea slope and Amundsen Gulf, Canada
Evidence of Lake Agassiz final outburst flood from Hudson Bay to offshore Labrador
Variability of Sea-Surface Temperature and Sea-Ice Cover in the Fram Strait over the last
Two Millennia
T22A. CANDAC, PEARL, and Atmospheric Measurements in the Canadian High Arctic
Room 205A
10:30
Drummond, James
11:00
Bacak, Asan
11:15
11:30
Duck, Thomas
Ayash, Tarek
11:45
Strong, Kimberly
The Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Nunavut
CANADA
Long range atmospheric transport of Aerosols: First Arctic measurements using Aerosol
Mass Spectrometer
CANDAC Arctic Radiative Environment Theme
Arctic-Winter Climatology and Radiative Effects of Clouds and Aerosols Based on Lidar
and Radar Measurements at PEARL
Measuring Atmospheric Composition at PEARL: An Overview of the First Two Years
18
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
T24A. Hudson Bay: New Findings and Directions for Future Study
Room 206B
10:30
10:45
Macdonald, Robie
Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko
Hudson Bay: New Findings and Future Directions
Freshwater and carbon dynamics in Hudson Bay: Results from MERICA 2003-2006
11:00
Granskog, Mats
11:15
Briand, Marie-Hélène
11:30
Mundy, C.J.
11:45
Sibert, Virginie
Recent observations on the distribution and dynamics of freshwater in the Hudson Bay
system
Exploring the Physical Environment of a Subarctic Estuary, the Nelson River Estuary,
Hudson Bay, Canada
Riverine export and the effects of circulation on dissolved organic carbon in the Hudson
Bay system, Canada
Understanding the spatial and temporal variability of primary production over the Hudson
Bay, Foxe Basin and Hudson Strait marine system via coupled bio-physical models
T25. Changes in Tundra Ecosystems: Impacts and Implications
Room 206A
10:30
Fréchette, Bianca
10:45
Henry, Greg
11:00
11:15
11:30
11:45
Grogan, Paul
Myers-Smith, Isla
Buckeridge, Kate
Lévesque, Esther
Sunshine: an important bioclimatic control on Holocene and Last Interglacial vegetational
development in eastern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada
Trends in tundra vegetation over the past 20 years: analysis of long-term data sets from
the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX)
Birch shrubs in the Canadian low arctic may respond relatively quickly to climate warming
How do natural and artificial tall shrub canopies alter tundra soil temperatures?
Snow depth controls the spring nutrient flush in arctic tundra
Towards an Understanding of the Implications of Shrub cover Change in Nunavik
T27. Environmental change in Arctic coastal regions: biophysical processes and community adaptation
Room 207
10:30
10:45
Forbes, Don
Lantuit, Hugues
Arctic coastal research: recent developments in Canada and the circumpolar world
Comparing the last fifty years of erosion in the Canadian and Russian Arctic
11:00
11:15
11:30
Manson, Gavin
Irvine, Melanie
Hovelsrud, Grete K.
11:45
Parewick, Kathleen
Climate-change impacts on an emergent Arctic shoreline, Hall Beach, NU
Linking Landscape Conditions and Community Planning in Arctic Communities
Exploring the implications of climate variability and change for coastal fisheries in
Northern Norway: the case of Lebesby municipality
Climate Change and the Built Community: Practical Lessons for Adaptation Governance
19
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
FRIDAY, 12 DECEMBER -- 13:30 - 15:00 PM
T08. The Northern Biodiversity Paradox: Global Crisis yet Local Enrichment
Room 206A
13:30
13:45
Berteaux, Dominique
Vincent, Warwick
The Northern biodiversity paradox: global crisis yet local enrichment
Extreme warming, habitat loss and abrupt ecosystem change at Canada’s northern edge
14:00
McKinnon, Laura
14:15
Fernandez-Triana, Jose
14:30
Danby, Ryan
14:45
Kutz, Susan
Latitudinal trends in predation pressure: investigating the vulnerability of shorebirds to
climate induced shifts in predator composition
Combining barcoding and traditional taxonomy to study the diversity of Microgastrinae
wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Arctic North America
Up, Up and Away? Biodiversity and Climate Change in the Alpine Ecosystems of
Southwest Yukon
Parasite Biodiversity, Climate Change, and Arctic Ecosystems: Why Should We Care?
T09. Climate Change Studies in the Arctic: Perspectives from Young Scientists
Room 205B
13:30
13:45
Goldhar, Christina
Food security in Western Greenland: A case study from Qeqertarsuaq
14:00
Pearce, Tristan
14:15
Wesche, Sonia
14:30
Moshøj, Charlotte
14:45
Donaldson, Shawn
Adaptation to Climate Change in the Arctic: knowledge transmission and information
exchange among Inuit in an arctic community
Impacts of Climate Change on Inuit Diet in the Western Arctic: Links Between Climate
Change, Food Security and Nutritional Health
The effect of climate, environment and man on variations in wildlife population
fluctuations in Greenland over 200 years
Community-based health research in the Arctic: A case study from Nunavut, Canada
T11B. The Role of Sea Ice in Arctic Marine Ecosystem Processes
Room 2000AB
13:30
13:45
Deming, Jody
Leu, Eva
Winter frost flowers on sea ice: vectors for upward transport of microbes and viruses?
Seasonal changes in pelagic and sympagic algal food quality
14:00
14:15
Link, Heike
Margaux, Noyon
14:30
Narcy, Fanny
14:45
Søreide, Janne Elin
Relationship between sea ice-cover and benthic carbon turnover in the Amundsen Gulf
Lipid classes metabolism of the arctic amphipod Themisto libellula: growth and
environmental influences
Seasonal and individual variability of lipid reserves in Oithona similis (Cyclopoida) in an
Arctic fjord
Importance of ice algae for Calanus glacialis in the high-Arctic
20
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
T21B. Climate Change and Quaternary Evolution of the Arctic
Room 205C
13:30
13:45
Ross, Martin
Finkelstein, Sarah
New constraints on the deglaciation of Foxe Channel and Southampton Island, Nunavut
Spatial patterns of Holocene paleoclimatic change in the Canadian Arctic Islands
14:00
Rolland, Nicolas
14:15
Pienitz, Reinhard
14:30
Salonen, Veli-Pekka
14:45
Fritz, Michael
Chironomids as indicators of postglacial paleoclimates of the Foxe Peninsula, Nunavut,
Canada
The Crystal Eye of Nunavik: (Pingualuit): New insights from one of the deepest crater
lakes and one of the oldest sediment records of the Northern Hemisphere
Weichselian glacial sedimentology and stratigraphy in Murchisonfjorden area,
Nordaustlandet, Svalbard
Ground ice studies on Herschel Island in the western Canadian Arctic: a useful
paleoenvironmental proxy tool
T22B. CANDAC, PEARL, and Atmospheric Measurements in the Canadian High Arctic
Room 205A
13:30
14:00
Harvey, Lynn
Walker, Kaley
14:15
Moss, Andrea
14:30
Ward, William
14:45
Shepherd, Marianna
The Arctic polar stratosphere and mesosphere during IPY
Canadian Arctic Validation Campaigns for the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)
satellite mission: 2004-2008 and beyond
Polar Sunrise 2008 Comparison of Lidar Water Vapor Measurements From the IASOA
PEARL Observatory in Eureka, Canada and the ACE Satellite
Instrumentation, Observations and Science associate with the Waves and Coupling
Processes Theme at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL)
Wave perturbations in optical airglow observations at high Northern latitudes
T24B. Hudson Bay: New Findings and Directions for Future Study
Room 206B
13:30
Else, Brent
13:45
Lapoussière, Amandine
14:00
14:15
Chambellant, Magaly
Wilson, Paul
14:30
14:45
Ferland, Joannie
Hoover, Carie
Estimation of Air-Sea CO2 Flux in Hudson Bay During the Ice-Free Season Using Field
and Satellite Remote Sensing Data
Phytoplankton biomass, primary production and export in the Hudson Bay system
Abundance and distribution of ringed seals in western Hudson Bay 1995-2008
Population genetic structure in polar bears(Ursus maritimus) from Hudson Bay, Canada:
Implications of future climate change
Spatial Variability of Summer Primary Production in the Hudson Bay Complex
Preliminary Results of the Hudson Bay Ecosystem Mode
21
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
T33. Linking Communities and Scientists in Monitoring Long-Term Environmental Change
Room 208AB
13:30
Berkes, Fikret
13:45
Huntington, Henry
14:00
Rouillard, Remy
14:15
Lee, David
14:30
Brook, Ryan
14:45
Curry, Pat
Community-based Monitoring: Expanding the Range of the Kinds of Changes to Be
Assessed
Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge in the Arctic: Data Management
Support for Community-Based Arctic Observing Network
One Island, different Views: The Nenets Reindeer Herders of the Kolguev Island (Nenets
Autonomous Okrug, Russia), and Oil Workers and Scientists
Linking communities and scientists: Identifying Challenges and Common Goals of
Wildlife Related Research in Nunavut
Linking Scientists and Communities in Wildlife Health Monitoring and Education: An
overview and assessment of the Sahtu Wildlife Health Outreach and Monitoring
Putting Our Heads and Skills Together: Hunters and Scientists and Caribou Health
Monitoring
22
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
TOPICAL SESSION PROGRAMME
(Co-Chairs and Description)
T01. Impacts of Climate Change on Arctic Trophic Interactions and Ecosystem Services?
Co-chairs
Gilles Gauthier, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, [email protected]
Nigel Gilles Yoccoz, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway
Climate change is strongly affecting Arctic ecosystems, as the distribution, abundance, and interactions of species are altered. Changes in
species assemblage, either through the decrease or disappearance of Arctic species or the invasion of new ones, will interact with trophic
interactions such as herbivory, predation and parasitism, leading to cascading effects on ecosystem services such as hunting, reindeer herding
or tourism. The speed of response to changing conditions will also vary among trophic levels, which may cause a mismatch in the timing of
seasonal events between herbivore and their food plants or predator and their prey, leading to further disruption of the trophic dynamics.
Arctic ecosystems, where food webs include a relatively small number of species, are especially sensitive to these changes. Although some of
these changes are already apparent, predicting their outcome on ecosystem services is exceedingly complex due the paucity of information on
the functioning of arctic food webs. As several International Polar Year projects attempt to fill this knowledge gap at numerous sites in the
circumpolar world, this session provides an opportunity to review progress made to date and to identify challenges still ahead. The session
will focus primarily on terrestrial ecosystems and will encompass a large diversity of human communities, ecosystem services and terrestrial
food webs throughout the circumpolar world. Contributions from aquatic ecosystems are also welcome.
T02. Climate Change, Natural Hazards, Health and Well-being in the Arctic
Co-chairs
James D. Ford, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, [email protected]
Chris Furgal, Trent University, Ontario, Canada, [email protected]
Natural hazards are part of life in the Arctic. Oral histories recollect stories of hunters who drifted away on ice floes in dangerous sea ice environments, who suffered significant hardship when access to traditional food was constrained, and of communities destroyed by storms. At
the same time, stories exist of Arctic peoples enduring exceptional environmental conditions and developing innovative and unique methods
for adapting to variable and threatening conditions. While exposure to hazardous conditions has been somewhat moderated in a contemporary setting, indigenous residents throughout the circumpolar north have noted changes in the magnitude and frequency of natural hazards
in recent years. These changes have had implications for safety while hunting and traveling, and in some instances have compromised food
security and other components of individual and community well-being. To date, the majority of hazards research in the Arctic has focused
on the nature of, and change in, biophysical conditions themselves in terms of their magnitude, frequency, and spatial distribution. Notwithstanding the physical focus of hazards research, recent years have witnessed the emergence of new approaches which focus on how human
interaction with biophysical conditions shapes hazard exposure and change. This is consistent with broader trends in hazards research. This
session will focus on how the interaction between the environment and human behaviour shapes hazard exposure in the circumpolar north,
and how this interaction is changing over time as a consequence of climatic and societal change. In particular, papers will focus on physical
risks associated with such things as hunting and traveling, hazards posed to communities, food security, and approaches to assessing hazard
vulnerability.
T03. Climate Change and Arctic Contaminants
Co-chairs
Gary Stern, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Canada, [email protected]
Peter Outridge, Natural Resources Canada, Canada, [email protected]
Climate change has already had measurable impacts on key environmental processes and characteristics in the Arctic, including sea-ice cover,
precipitation, permafrost melt, aquatic productivity, and new species introductions. Only within the last decade has it has been realized that
these changes may, in turn, significantly impact the pathways, fate, bioaccumulation and toxicity of chemical contaminants in the Arctic.
These impacts can affect human contaminant exposure, by altering bioaccumulation in traditional wild foods.
23
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
This session will showcase the newly-realized science exploring the linkages between recent climate warming and major contaminants. The
focus will be on understanding the pathways, fate and mechanisms involved, the magnitude of climate’s influence compared to changing
emissions, and the likely future consequences of further warming for contaminants in Arctic food chains.
T04. Community-Based Research Initiatives as an Interface for Inuit and Scientific Knowledge Exchange
Co-chairs
Mary Simon, President, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Ottawa, Canada
Duane Smith, President, Inuit Circumpolar Council, Ottawa, Canada
Community involvement in arctic research, including the incorporation or consideration for Indigenous Knowledge, has become a goal and
expectation among many northern research organizations, governments, Inuit organizations, research networks, funding agencies, and northerners themselves. Significant progress has been seen in terms of improving community-researcher relationships, and developing unique
approaches to community-based and community-driven research in the past decade. However, many of the lessons learned regarding the
processes of engaging communities and methods used to bring together or exchange knowledge between Inuit and non-Inuit researchers
remain underreported. Many researchers and policy makers alike, argue that only through truly cooperative approaches to work, drawing on
the best available knowledge at hand, can many of the increasingly complex arctic environmental and health issues be adequately addressed.
This session will showcase community-based projects or initiatives that have successfully developed an interface for knowledge exchange
between Inuit and non-Inuit scientists. We invite abstract submissions not based on research topic, but rather with a request to focus on issues
of community-based research approaches, methods employed, lessons learned, and recommendations to ensure practical outputs that benefit
both the northern and research communities. We propose this session in an effort to contribute to objectives within both ArcticNet and the
International Polar Year to facilitate discussion on: i) engaging communities and scientists in research that helps to answer complex questions;
ii) communicating and applying research results to benefit northern communities and decision-making; and, iii) ways that Inuit knowledge can
inform national and international science and policy.
T06. IPY 2007-2008 Research: Cryosphere / Hydrosphere / Atmosphere
Co-chairs
David Barber, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, [email protected]
Jean-Claude Gascard, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, [email protected]
International Polar Year 2007-2008 is the largest ever international program of polar research. Working with our circumpolar partners,
Canada’s IPY funding is supporting projects and activities to advance the understanding of the physical, natural and human processes and
changes taking place in the Arctic. The results of this work will provide a greater understanding of how to manage the impacts of climate
change on health, well-being, traditions, culture and economic development in the north.
This proposed session arises from one of the priority issues for the north - climate change impacts and adaptation. The focus of this session
will be on the physical sciences associated with the broad IPY research areas “cryosphere / hydrosphere / atmosphere.” The Government of
Canada Program for IPY and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) invite Canadian and international researchers
to present the early results of their IPY research projects involving snow and ice, glaciers, permafrost, oceans, freshwater systems, weather,
air pollution, etc.
T07. IPY 2007-2008 Research: Health and Well-Being of Northerners
Co-chairs
Kue Young, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, [email protected]
Tiina Makinen, University of Oulu, Finland, [email protected]
International Polar Year 2007-2008 is the largest ever international program of polar research. Working with our circumpolar partners,
Canada’s IPY funding is supporting projects and activities to advance the understanding of the physical, natural and human processes and
changes taking place in the Arctic. The results of this work will provide a greater understanding of how to manage the impacts of climate
change on health, well-being, traditions, culture and economic development in the north.
This proposed session highlights one of the priority issues for the north - health and well-being of northern communities. The focus of this
session will be on the broad IPY research area “health and well-being of northerners.” The Government of Canada Program for IPY and
the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) invite Canadian and international researchers to present the early results of
24
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
their IPY research projects involving such topics as health disparity elimination, factors contributing to the health of Northerners, the health
effects linked to climate variability, chronic and infectious diseases, etc.
T08. The Northern Biodiversity Paradox: Global Crisis yet Local Enrichment
Co-chairs
Dominique Berteaux, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Canada, [email protected]
Warwick Vincent, Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, [email protected]
The Arctic is the end-member of a declining biodiversity gradient that runs from the tropics to the North Pole. Climate warming is currently
shifting this gradient to the North, with a predicted acceleration of biodiversity erosion at the global level. Local patterns, however, will be
heterogeneous. Whereas the Arctic will lose its ice-dependent habitats and some of its species most adapted to low temperatures and short
growing seasons, biodiversity in the Arctic will generally increase with the augmentation of primary productivity and the arrival of new species from the South. The speed and details of local impacts on ecosystem services are unknown and difficult to predict, especially on islands
where contingence will have large effects. It is already clear, however, that biodiversity conservation in the 21st century Arctic will have to
deal at least as much with invading Southern species as with declining Arctic species, in a context where adaptation strategies for habitat and
biodiversity conservation may be limited. This session will examine some of the theoretical and practical facets of the Northern biodiversity
paradox described above. The session will encompass terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems, and will consider a variety of biological
communities in the North, from microbes to plants and animals.
T09. Climate Change Studies in the Arctic: Perspectives from Young Scientists
Co-chairs
James D. Ford, McGill University, Ontario, Canada, [email protected]
Tristan Pearce, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada
The last five years have witnessed a proliferation of studies characterizing the speed and magnitude of climate change in Arctic regions,
documenting impacts, modeling future climate change, assessing vulnerability of human communities, and exploring policy options to promote sustainable development in the context of a changing climate. Large national and international initiatives such as ArcticNet and the
International Polar Year have added new impetus to climate change studies in Arctic regions. Young scientists - including undergraduate
and graduate students as well as young faculty - are at the forefront of efforts to advance our understanding of climate change impacts and
vulnerabilities in northern regions. Moreover, many young scientists are in the vanguard of efforts to involve communities and build bridges
between disciplines to address pressing scientific questions. This special session will provide a venue for young scientists working on climate
change issues in the human, physical and health sciences to profile their work. A variety of papers will be accepted, including: empirical
findings, conceptual overviews, discussion pieces, and policy reviews. In particular, the session will seek to recruit provocative papers which
challenge conventional wisdom and research approaches, make linkages between scientific disciplines, and provide insights into the direction
tomorrow’s scientific leaders will take us.
T10. Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Arctic Regions
Co-chairs
Barry Smit, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, [email protected]
Isabelle Champagne-Shields, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Ottawa, Canada, [email protected]
Grete Hovelsrud, CICERO, Oslo, Norway, [email protected]
This session will bring together researchers, northerners, government representatives and others who are interested in the implications of climate change for people in Arctic communities. Presentations and discussion will address the ways that resources and livelihoods are affected
by changing conditions and the adaptation strategies available to communities and governments.
25
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
T11. The Role of Sea Ice in Arctic Marine Ecosystem Processes
Co-chairs
David Barber, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, [email protected]
Louis Fortier, Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, [email protected]
Stig Falk-Petersen, Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromso, Norway, [email protected]
The arctic marine ecosystem has evolved over millions of years to take advantage of the timing and presence of sea ice. The dramatic reduction in the summer extent of sea ice affects sea ice dynamic and thermodynamic processes throughout the annual cycle. These changes
in turn affect biological, chemical and geophysical processes operating across the ocean-sea ice –atmosphere (OSA) interface at a variety of
time and space scales.
This session will examine the role which sea ice has on controlling light and heat in the marine system and the commensurate effects on trophic structure and interrelationships. We are particularly interested in papers which examine the way in which sea ice affects marine ecosystem
function at a variety of trophic levels (e.g., microbes up through to mammals) across various benthic, pelagic, sympagic and sea ice habitats.
T12. The Law and Politics of Canadian Jurisdiction on the Arctic Ocean Seabed
Co-chairs
Michael Byers, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, [email protected]
Ron Macnab, Canadian Polar Commission, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
The definition and exercise of seabed sovereignty are characterized by several facets, e.g. the construction of territorial sea baselines, the
delimitation of maritime zones that circumscribe the seaward reaches of coastal state jurisdiction, the development of bilateral boundaries
between neighboring states, and the rights and obligations of coastal and other states within different classes of maritime zones. In principle,
the procedures for dealing with these matters are enshrined in international law, but in practice, their effective realization often entails political
tradeoffs and adjustments.
T14. Quantifying the Carbon Balance of Arctic Ecosystems at Various Scales
Co-chairs
David Atkinson, Ryerson University, [email protected]
Neal Scott, Queen’s University
Paul Treitz, Queen’s University
With vast amounts of the global carbon pool stored in northern latitudes, climate-related changes to this reservoir could have major impacts
on the global climate system. The release of this carbon could substantially increase the concentration of radiatively active gases, such as
carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), possibly generating a positive feedback to climate change. The distribution of carbon within arctic ecosystems, and the potential for that carbon to be converted to CO2, may depend on the distribution of plant community types. These
plant communities are often organized across the arctic landscape in response to climate-related factors (e.g. precipitation). In spite of the
importance of arctic ecosystems to the earth system, impacts from arctic warming on carbon reservoirs and land/atmosphere exchanges of
carbon are poorly quantified. Studies examining components of the arctic carbon balance are often few and sporadic in the circumpolar north
and regularly reveal large inter-annual and inter-site variability, making it difficult to generalize about the current status and future of the arctic
carbon reservoirs. This session will examine efforts to improve our ability to quantify and monitor carbon reservoirs in the arctic at various
spatial scales, and explore methods for scaling up site-specific studies to larger arctic regions. Topics can include measurement of terrestrial
and aquatic carbon storage and fluxes, biophysical remote sensing, scaling of carbon cycle processes, modeling, and others.
T15. Freshwater Ecosystems, Aquatic Biodiversity and Sensitivity to Climate Change
Co-chairs
Scot Lamoureux, Queen’s University, Ontario, Canada, [email protected]
Warwick Vincent, Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, [email protected]
Fred Wrona, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada, [email protected]
Jim Reist, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, [email protected]
Two linked multi-disciplinary Canadian IPY projects, Arctic BioNet investigating aquatic biodiversity and landscape processes, and Climate
Change Effects on Arctic Chars, are examining the effects of climate change on key aquatic habitats and biota through a combination of
primary research, monitoring across landscapes (particularly latitude) as a proxy for possible climate responses, and the establishment of
26
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
national and international networks to promote long-term observation of change. Project activities include establishing climate linkages to
organismal biology and ecology (e.g., fishes and invertebrates), effects on habitats (e.g., permafrost degradation and tundra lake infilling), effects on key nodes and pathways in aquatic ecosystems (e.g., trophic structure shifts and accumulation of metals), and establishing appropriate
baselines regarding aquatic biodiversity as the foundation for monitoring climate change effects throughout the Arctic. These research themes
link ongoing activities involving government, university and northern native groups and are aimed to address needs identified in the Arctic
Climate Impact Assessment, International Conference on Arctic Research Planning II, and the Sustained Arctic Observation Network.
T16. River-Ocean Interactions and Fluvial-Marine Mass Transfer in the North: Past, Present, and Future
Co-chairs
Sam Bentley, Memorial University, [email protected]
Steve Solomon, Geological Survey of Canada
Scott Lamoureux, Queens University, [email protected]
Rivers deliver water, nutrients, carbon, and sediment to the coastal ocean. This mass transfer is a major control on the dynamics of coastal
currents, ecosystems, ice, shorelines, and seabeds, both close to the source, and farther afield. In northern settings, the effects of ice on both
land and sea near the time of peak river flow can strongly steer and regulate transfer of water and dissolved and particulate material, yielding
dispersal patterns that contrast strongly with the dynamics of more temperate rivers, which have been more widely studied, and are better understood. Temperature and runoff patterns in northern settings are now changing rapidly, factors which will in turn influence river flow and
dispersal, as well as marine systems dependent on mass transfer from rivers. The consequences of this change cannot be reliably predicted
from our present state of knowledge. The purpose of this session is thus to explore the state, context, and implications of changing fluvialmarine interactions in northern settings, from perspectives of scientists working in marine, terrestrial, and human realms.
T17. Observing Pan-Arctic Environmental Change
Co-chairs
Christian Haas, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, [email protected]
Maribeth Murray, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, [email protected]
Peter Schlosser, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA, [email protected]
The Arctic system is presently undergoing unprecedented change. This change is visible in the physical, biogeochemical, ecological and human components of the system. In order to act upon these changes and minimize adverse affects we have to characterize their scope and
evolution, understand their causes and project them into the future. One major challenge in achieving these goals is the design and implementation of a pan-Arctic observing system that integrates across the physical, biogeochemical, and human domains. Initial steps towards such
an observing system have been intensified during the International Polar Year.
This session presents results from existing elements of the emerging Arctic Observing System covering physical, biogeochemical, and human
domains. The goal is to highlight close collaborations in cross-domain observational research and approaches to utilizing the observations
in studies aimed at understanding Arctic Environmental Change. Contributions with emphasis on the integration of individual observing
system components into an integrated network, observing system design, utilization of data from the Arctic Observing System in synthesis/
modeling studies are encouraged. Results from the International Polar Year, as well as contributions that that utilize observational data for
the development of mitigation and response strategies are especially encouraged.
T18. Marine Productivity and Biogeochemical Fluxes in the Changing Arctic
Co-chairs
Jean-Éric Tremblay, Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, [email protected]
Simon Bélanger, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec, Canada, [email protected]
Paul Wassmann, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, [email protected]
The extent of sea ice over the Arctic Ocean plummeted to a conspicuous record low in September 2007, confirming the acceleration of the
decline initiated during the 20th century. Changes have also been observed in the large-scale oceanic circulation and the heat influx from the
Atlantic Ocean to the Arctic. The incidence and intensity of synoptic storms is on the rise and globally, freshwater discharge increases in
the Arctic coastal zone. With the added contribution of permafrost melting, rivers deliver increasing amounts of terrigenous dissolved and
particulate organic matter to the marine ecosystem, altering the carbon and nutrient budgets of the Arctic Ocean. The joint impacts of these
changes on primary production, food webs and the biogeochemical cycling of key elements in the Canadian Arctic are presently unknown.
27
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Living marine resources play a crucial role in the culture, nutrition and economy of Inuit and will likely be impacted in unforeseen ways. This
session will focus on, but is not restricted to, the interactive effects of environmental forcing on marine productivity, food webs, and the
transformation and fate of organic matter, including horizontal and vertical fluxes of carbon and nitrogen.
T19. Sea-Ice-Atmosphere Interactions and Climate in a Changing Arctic
Co-chairs
Michael Scarratt, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont-Joli, Québec, Canada, [email protected]
Maurice Levasseur, Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, [email protected]
Tim Papakyriakou, University of Manitioba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, [email protected]
Cycles of elements and energy within the Earth system are closely coupled. Exchanges of climate-active gases and aerosols between the
ocean surface and the atmosphere exert important feedbacks on the global climate system. Understanding which processes are important and
constraining their magnitudes are essential for diagnostic and prognostic models of contemporary and future climate. This session focuses
on recent research developments from Arctic waters including, but not limited to, the Arctic SOLAS (Surface Ocean - Lower Atmosphere
Study) program. We invite papers on the physical, chemical and biological processes underlying climate-relevant ocean-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks. Topics of interest include biogeochemical cycling of climatically important elements and gases in the water and ice, and
the influence of oceanic gas and particle emissions on atmospheric chemistry, aerosol dynamics, and climate.
T20. Land Surface Processes and their Climate Interactions in High-Latitude Regions
Co-chairs
Laxmi Sushama, University of Quebec at Montreal, Montreal, Québec, Canada, [email protected]
Anne Frigon, Ouranos, Montreal, Québec, Canada
High-latitude regions, with their innumerable lakes, wetlands, rivers and permafrost, are particularly challenging for modeling. The presence
of substantial surface water in the form of lakes and wetlands impact regional climate through changes in the surface albedo, surface energy
and moisture budgets. These interactions, though important, are difficult to investigate due to the scarcity of relevant observations and the
complexity of the underlying processes and feedbacks. This session is targeted at addressing these issues and we encourage contributions
related to land surface modeling in high-latitudes including lakes, wetlands, vegetation, snow, permafrost, analysis of models and observations
(validation and process studies), and land climate interactions in the context of climate change.
T21. Climate Change and Quaternary Evolution of the Arctic
Co-chairs
Guillaume St-Onge, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Canada, [email protected]
André Rochon, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Canada, [email protected]
Our knowledge of climate variability and natural hazards for the Arctic is restricted to the instrumental records, which covers approximately
the last 50 years at the most. In order to better constrain the rate of change and help in the forecasting and modeling of future trends, we must
have access to longer time-series. The geological record can provide such time-series. In this session, we invite paleoclimatic studies dealing
with the reconstruction of past climatic changes in the Arctic at all timescales. We also encourage contributions regarding past changes in
sea-level, marine geohazards, as well as contributions dealing with the Quaternary evolution of the Arctic.
T22. CANDAC, PEARL, and Atmospheric Measurements in the Canadian High Arctic
Co-chairs
Kimberly Strong, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, [email protected]
William Ward, University of New Brunswick, New Brunswick, Canada
The Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC) brings together researchers and resources dedicated to addressing the issues of air quality, climate change, and ozone depletion over Canada (see www.candac.ca). The initial focus of activities has
been the revitalization of measurements in the Canadian High Arctic. Towards this goal, CANDAC has established the Polar Environment
Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Nunavut (80?N, 86?W), 1100 km from the North Pole. The PEARL complex now
consists of three facilities: the main PEARL observatory situated 610 m above sea level and 15 km from Environment Canada’s Eureka
weather station; the Zero-altitude PEARL Auxiliary Laboratory (OPAL) located next to the weather station at sea level; and the Surface and
28
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Atmospheric Flux, Irradiance and Radiation Extension (SAFIRE) located in undisturbed terrain about 5 km from the weather station. More
than 20 instruments are permanently installed, including radars, lidars, spectrometers, interferometers and radiometers, with other instruments on site on a campaign basis.
PEARL is a unique national and international resource that is used for a variety of atmospheric research programs, including several for
International Polar Year (IPY). Research at PEARL is divided into four major themes: Arctic Tropospheric Transport and Air Quality; The
Arctic Radiative Environment: Impacts of Clouds, Aerosols, and “Diamond Dust”; Arctic Middle Atmospheric Chemistry; and Waves and
Coupling Processes. In addition to these four themes, PEARL instrumentation is used extensively for satellite validation and has a protocol
for monitoring sudden atmospheric events at high latitudes. This session invites contributions regarding atmospheric research at PEARL, including instrumentation, measurements, data analysis, modelling studies, and scientific findings. Contributions describing related atmospheric
studies at other High Arctic observatories are also welcome.
T23. Education, Communication and Outreach – Linking Research to Public Policy and Environmental
Awareness
Co-chairs
Lucette Barber, Schools on Board, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, [email protected]
David Carlson, Director, IPY International Programme Office, United Kingdom, [email protected]
This session will feature a wide continuum of programs and initiatives that have successfully integrated education, communication and outreach into scientific research. We invite researcher, graduate students, educators, and outreach providers to take this opportunity to share their
successes and ideas by submitting an abstract for an oral presentations in one of the following categories: 1) effective research partnerships
between scientists and schools, 2) unique field experiences, 3) successful community-based monitoring and mentoring programs, 4) public
education and 5) education, communication and outreach outcomes from IPY – sustaining the momentum!
The session will be complemented by a poster session highlighting outreach projects and initiatives. This poster session will make it possible
for anyone who is doing outreach (on any scale) to showcase their initiatives and the people (ie students, teachers, public etc.) or institutions
(school, museums, media etc.) that they are working with. The poster session will be accompanied by a Smithsonian exhibit - The Arctic a
Friend Acting Strangely. The aim is to showcase the breadth of outreach activities that is occurring within the Arctic research community.
Schools on Board will present an award to recognize an individual or group that is taking a leading role in scientific outreach.
T24. Hudson Bay: New Findings and Directions for Future Study
Co-chairs
Robie W. Macdonald, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sydney, BC, Canada, [email protected]
Zuzu A. Kuzyk, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, [email protected]
Steven Ferguson, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, [email protected]
Hudson Bay is a large, estuarine, shelf-like sea at the southern margin of the Arctic. Given its location, the Bay is in the vanguard of polar
change and likely provides an early-warning sentinel for change in the Arctic Ocean and its surrounding drainage basins. Indeed, reduction
and change in ice cover seems already underway in Hudson Bay with consequences for marine mammals, polar bears and marine food web
structure (cod-capelin-murres). Accompanying the change in ice cover is alteration of river discharge, either directly though water diversion
or indirectly through change in permafrost, wetland processes and the hydrological cycle. The oceanographic changes that may result from
altered freshwater inputs (both ice and river runoff) are still largely unknown. However, recently, there has been a re-invigorated research
effort to study all aspects of Hudson Bay through large, multi-year projects like MERICA and ArcticNet. Data emerging from such studies
promise not only to revise what we know about Canada’s largest inland sea, but also to offer timely insights into how the Bay functions, how
it is changing and how it might respond to future change. In this session we wish to bring together the researchers from diverse disciplines to
present new findings in Hudson Bay, especially as they pertain to changing systems.
T25. Changes in Tundra Ecosystems: Impacts and Implications
Co-chairs
Greg Henry, University of British-Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, [email protected]
Esther Levesque, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada
Peter Lafleur, Dept of Geography, Trent University
29
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Tundra ecosystems are showing responses to recent climate change that are substantiated by responses to long-term warming and other
experimental manipulations. The changes in the structure and function of these terrestrial Arctic ecosystems will have consequences for
northern peoples, through changes in ecosystems services, and for the planet as a whole, through changes in carbon and energy balance.
This special session will bring together the latest research results on responses of tundra ecosystems to climate variability and change including: carbon and energy balance; biodiversity; plant ecophysiology; soil processes; and modelling. The session will provide an opportunity to
review, among others, some of the first results from International Polar Year (IPY) projects linked to the International Tundra Experiment
(ITEX), a core project in the IPY.
T26. Role of Arctic Marine Mammals in Northern Ecosystems and Cultures
Co-chairs
Steven Ferguson, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, [email protected]
Jeff Higdon, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, [email protected]
Lisa Loseto, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney, BC, Canada, [email protected]
Arctic Marine mammals such as seals, walrus, whales, polar bears, and Arctic foxes play important ecological, social, cultural and nutritional
roles in Arctic ecosystems. Many of these species are adapted to sea-ice conditions, and Inuit hunters have learned to use these habitats as well
for subsistence harvesting. However these high-latitude marine systems are currently undergoing pronounced changes, with dramatic sea ice
declines in many areas. Environmental changes may have marked effects on marine mammal ecosystems, which will in turn have distinct effects on northern cultures. Many Arctic marine mammals occupy top trophic positions and thus can be viewed as sentinels of marine ecosystem health. Examining health and condition in marine mammals may provide valuable information about ecosystem alterations in structure
that may otherwise be difficult to document. Working with northerners to monitor changes in their subsistence hunts will provide an Arctic
observation network that will improve science while empowering Inuit culture. In this session we bring together researchers representing
diverse views on marine mammals, their ecosystems, and global warming. New marine mammal research findings will be presented that relate
to how the Arctic can adapt to acute change.
T27. Environmental Change in Arctic Coastal Regions: Biophysical Processes and Community Adaptation
Co-chairs
Donald Forbes, Geological Survey of Canada, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada, and Memorial University, St-Jonh’s, Newfoundland, Canada
[email protected]
Paul Overduin, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany [email protected]
Arctic coasts are distinctive interfaces where permafrost terrain, seasonally ice-covered seas, and cold atmospheric conditions interact to
produce distinctive hazards and outcomes. Climate warming and resulting changes in environmental forcing are already recognized along
Arctic coastlines, where rapid change has been documented in many places throughout the circumpolar region. Understanding the processes
of wave and ice interaction with ice-bonded sediments exposed to warmer air and water temperatures is essential to enable modelling and
projection of future changes and impacts on Arctic shores. Rising temperature and sea-level, reduced sea ice, increased wave attack, melting permafrost, changes in habitat conditions, and other trends can interact to create hazards, challenge traditional lifestyles and practices,
and threaten the stability of coastal communities, infrastructure, and resources. Scientific understanding of past and future environmental
changes and impacts can help to inform policy and decision-making at regional and local levels and ultimately minimize the impacts of
these changes. This session includes oral presentations and posters that examine a range of interacting coastal processes and efforts to track
changes in these processes. Papers in this session also consider the implications of environmental change for Arctic coastal communities and
ecosystems, assess the adaptive capacity and resilience of northern residents and communities, and address the interface between science,
planning, adaptation policy, and decision-making to prepare for change.
T29. Impacts of Severe Arctic Storms and Climate Change on Arctic Coastal Oceanographic Processes
Co-chairs
Will Perrie, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, [email protected]
John Gyakum, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, [email protected]
The focus of this session is coastal oceanographic processes in areas such as the southern Beaufort Sea, and related waters of the Arctic,
driven by intense storms and severe weather. These areas are important because the use of the coastal marine and terrestrial environment by
Northerners is an integral part of their life style, and these environments are being impacted by coastal erosion, related to marine storms that
tend to be getting stronger. These areas are also undergoing hydrocarbon exploration with potential development within the next decade. We
are concerned with detailed simulations of the coastal oceanographic processes, waves, storm surges, currents, and marine winds, and related
30
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
nearshore coastal erosion and sediment transport. Factors such as open water and ice, and the oceanic surface fluxes can modulate storm
development and winds. Changes and variability in Arctic storm tracks and intensity, associated with climate change may further endanger
coastal settlements and the expected use of coastal marine environments.
Relevant topics include (but are not limited to) fine-resolution simulations of Arctic storms to study the key Arctic processes, and coupled
ice-ocean-atmosphere-wave models to study Arctic storms and coastal ocean processes, including winds, waves, currents, ice, storm surges,
erosion and sediment transport. The effects of climate change are expected to have impacts on coastal ocean processes and the wave climate,
and in turn, on communities, life style, aquatic species, and activities related to offshore resource development. Relevant time-scales for studies of these issues are synoptic, seasonal, inter-annual and decadal.
T32. Arctic Climate Feedbacks: Atmospheric Composition and Long Range Transport of Chemical
Constituents
Co-chairs
Jean-Pierre Blanchet, [email protected]
Eric Girard, [email protected] and
René Laprise, [email protected]
Institute of Environmental Sciences and ESCER, UQÀM, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
The Arctic is one of the most sensitive regions of the world for climate change. Many feedback processes are playing important roles in determining the evolution of climate at high latitudes. Most of them are due to water in one form or another: ocean, sea ice, snow, clouds, water
vapour, haze, rivers flows, etc. Other factors depend on environmental conditions: atmospheric stability, storm activities, chemical composition, long diurnal-seasonal cycles etc. The IPY has shed a renewed perspective on the Arctic environment in term of climate processes and
feedbacks. Intensive new measurements from campaign, ground stations and new satellites, as well as significant developments in modelling
climate processes, all have given us a welt of high quality information that have advanced our understanding of the Arctic and its relation to
lower latitudes. This session invites researchers to present a summary of their findings on climate feedback related issues in an interdisciplinary context, susceptible to help decision makers and to guide initiatives in the development of the North.
T33. Linking Communities and Scientists in Monitoring Long-Term Environmental Change
Co-chairs
Ryan K. Brook, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine & Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, [email protected]
Susan Kutz, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, [email protected]
There are currently a wide range of approaches to developing baseline and long-term monitoring programs for assessing change in northern
regions. While many community-based approaches and empirical studies that utilize more conventional science-based methods often share
common goals, there remains a considerable need to identify ways of developing a common framework to use these different approaches
together. Some disagreement between these different approaches is perhaps inevitable, but approaches are being developed to resolve or even
prevent conflicts between communities and scientists. We invite researchers that use community based or empirical methods to participate in
order to generate a dialogue regarding challenges and opportunities related to bridging these two approaches.
T34. Seafloor Mapping of the Arctic Ocean, Continental Shelves and Margins
Co-chairs
Ron MacNab, Canadian Polar Commission, Ottawa, Canada, [email protected]
John Hughes-Clarke, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New-Brunswick, Canada, [email protected]
Steve Blasco, Geological Survey of Canada, Dartmouth, Nova-Scotia, Canada, [email protected]
Accelerated interest in polar regions research extends to the seafloor. High resolution seabed mapping is being driven by a wide range of
issues including sovereignty, navigation, resource development, biodiversity assessments, and IPY initiatives. Seafloor mapping has been
greatly facilitated by the development and application of digital sonar and optical technologies including sidescan and multibeam systems
and LIDAR which not only generate detailed charts of seabed bathymetry and maps of seabed morphology but provide acoustic classification maps of the composition of the seabed. Integration of acoustic and optical data with groundtruth from photographic imagery; and
sediment, bottom feature and benthic community sampling is resulting in a much clearer understanding of seabed processes both spatially
and temporally. The seabed of the Polar regions is much more dynamic than previously realized. Application of seabed mapping technologies is leading to the identification of ecologically and biologically significant benthic communities, observation of seabed scouring by the
keels of pressure ridges, icebergs and glacial ice streams, submarine slumping, faulting, mud volcanism, fluid venting and sediment mobility.
31
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
This session provides a unique forum for polar scientists actively involved in seabed mapping research to present and discuss state-of-the-art
technology, research results and opportunities for future collaboration.
T35. Measurements and Numerical Modelling of Precipitations in Cold Climates
Co-chairs
Ismail Gultepe, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, [email protected]
Roy Rasmussen, NCAR, Boulder CO, USA
Jason Milbrandt, Environment Canada, Quebec, Quebec, Canada
Accurate precipitation measurements in cold climates are very important to validate numerical forecasts and climate model simulations but
can be difficult due to the uncertainties involved in measuring snow and freezing particles. Cold temperatures and smaller precipitation
intensities together with unknown particle shape and density can affect the precipitation rate calculations as well as related microphysical
parameterizations. Uncertainties in precipitation rate measurements in the Arctic regions need to be estimated before being used for model
validations. If precipitation rates cannot accurately be obtained for snow, results from climate and forecasting simulations used for snow
precipitation rate validations will be questionable. This suggests that 1) microphysical parameterizations in the current models should be reevaluated to better represent the surface precipitation amounts and 2) surface precipitation rate calculations and measurements should be
improved, especially for light snow conditions.
32
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
STUDENT DAY ORAL ABSTRACTS
FREE LOVE IN THE FAR NORTH:
REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES USED BY ARCTIC
FOXES ON BYLOT ISLAND, NUNAVUT, CANADA
TRANS-POLAR FAT 2008: AN UPDATE ON
ATHEROGENIC EFFECTS AND REGULATORY
ISSUES IN NUNAVIK
Cameron, Cassandra1,2 ([email protected]), D.
Berteaux1,2 and F. Dufresne2
Counil, Émilie1 ([email protected]), P. Julien2,
V. Blouin1, M. Grey3, B. Lamarche4, P. Ayotte1, T. Kauki5, E.
Angiyou6 and É. Dewailly1
Chaire de recherche du Canada en conservation des
écosystèmes nordiques
2
Centre d’études nordiques, Université du Québec à
Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec, Canada
1
The reproductive strategies used by animals
vary greatly across species. Reproductive strategies
also sometimes differ significantly within populations,
depending on a variety of factors such as resource
availability or genetic structure of the population.
Reproductive strategies can influence how a population is
able to face environmental changes, and it is sometimes
assumed that the level of plasticity in the reproductive
strategy of a population affects its ability to cope with
changing conditions. Populations of the arctic fox can
fluctuate greatly according to environmental conditions,
especially when resource availability is variable. Populations
depending on cyclic lemming populations are especially
prone to such fluctuations in density. We studied the
reproductive strategies used by male and female arctic
foxes on Bylot Island (Nunavut, Canada), by combining
genetic analyses with direct behavioural observations
during cub rearing period, from 2003 to 2008. We found
that female arctic foxes used a variety of strategies in their
mate choice, including strict monogamy, polyandry and
extra-pair fertilization. Extra-pair fertilizations events lead
to increased genetic diversity among progeny, which can
enhances the probability that at least some young survive
to future conditions. These outbreeding strategies may also
be particularly relevant in the context of climate change,
given that some arctic fox populations may become more
geographically isolated as maximum sea ice extent declines
and winter movements of foxes are reduced. Public Health Research Unit, CHUL Research Centre,
Québec, Canada
2
Lipid Research Centre, CHUL Research Centre, Québec,
Canada
3
Makivik Corporation, Montreal, Canada
4
Institute of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, Québec,
Canada
5
Jaanimmarik School, Kuujjuaq, Canada
6
Kativik Regional Government, Akulivik, Canada
1
Purpose & rationale: Following our recent observations
that biological levels of trans-fatty acids (TFA), lipids with
adverse health effects mainly found in recently introduced
low quality imported foods, were high among Nunavik
Inuit, we looked at the atherogenic changes associated with
TFA in plasma cholesterol profiles in order to assess the
health significance of this dietary exposure. At the same
time, we worked on the translation of research results into
public health action among Arctic communities.
Process/Approach: 795 Inuit from the 14 communities
of Northern Québec (Nunavik) participated in the baseline
Inuit Health in Transition cohort study and met our
inclusion criteria. We measured the fatty acid profile of
red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids (PL) as a
surrogate for individual intakes. Cholesterol (total, HDL
and LDL), triglycerides, apolipoproteins, LDL size and
paraoxonase activity were measured in plasma. A bootstrap
approach was applied in order to account for the complex
sampling design and non-response rate.
Findings: The associations varied markedly between gender
and according to age. In men (n=357, age=36.3±14.3,
TFA=1.24±0.54%), TFA tended to be negatively associated
with HDL-c, ApoA1 and LDL particle size, and positively
associated with non-HDL-c, LDL-c, ApoB100, the ratio
of ApoB100 to ApoA1 and the ratio of TC, LDL-c and
TRIG to HDL-c. No such trends were observed in women
(n=438, age=37.0±14.1, TFA=1.16±0.54%), except for
PON1 in women and for HDL-c and ApoA1 in women
33
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
aged 50 years and more. As these results were presented
to the Nunavik Nutrition and Health Committee in March
2008, the Regional Board of Health and Social Services
finally decided in June 2008 to follow the 2007 Makivik
call to work towards the reduction of TFA in foods sold in
Nunavik communities.
Implications for Inuit Health: These results suggest
that TFA could raise the risk of coronary heart disease
in Nunavik Inuit men at least through their physiological
effects on plasma lipids. The differential associations
reported in pre- and post-menopausal women need to be
reproduced in other populations and in experimental studies
addressing the influence of sex hormones on response to
dietary fats. Thanks to mutual efforts to translate research
into action, Nunavik public health authorities are now
engaged in the implementation of incentive measures
directed to food retailers and information campaigns that
will be initiated in November 2008. Though just a first step
toward better nutrition, these measures will be followed
by a significant improvement in the quality of fat found in
Nunavik stores.
SPRING MEASUREMENTS OF STRATOSPHERIC
COMPOSITION FROM PEARL IN 2007 AND
2008 USING THE PORTABLE ATMOSPHERIC
RESEARCH INTERFEROMETRIC
SPECTROMETER FOR THE INFRARED (PARISIR)
Kolonjari, Felicia1 ([email protected]),
R. Batchelor1, K.A. Walker1,2, R. Lindenmaier1 , K. Strong1,
R.L. Mittermeier3 and H. Fast3
Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto,
Ontario M5S 1A7
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo,
Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1
3
Environment Canada, Downsview, Ontario M3H 5T4
1
Springtime in the Arctic atmosphere is the most
chemically active time of year. The first light the High
Arctic atmosphere experiences after months of polar
night triggers chemical reactions involved in stratospheric
ozone depletion. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment
(ACE) is a satellite mission on-board the Canadian satellite
SCISAT. One of its goals is to understand the chemical
and dynamical processes controlling middle atmosphere
ozone distribution, particularly in the Arctic. The primary
instrument on SCISAT is the ACE-FTS, a high resolution
Fourier Transform Spectrometer. Each spring since 2004,
the ground-based version of the ACE-FTS, the Portable
Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer for
the Infrared (PARIS-IR), has been deployed at the Polar
Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL)
in Eureka, Nunavut (80N, 86W) as part of the Canadian
Arctic ACE Validation Campaign project. PEARL is ideally
located for these campaigns as a large number of ACE
overpasses occur between February and March. PARIS-IR is
one of eleven ground-based and balloon-borne instruments
used in the campaigns each year. It records double-sided
interferograms with the same maximum optical path
difference (25 cm) as ACE-FTS, resulting in a resolution of
0.02 cm-1. PARIS-IR is designed to measure the full 750
- 4400 cm-1 spectral range with each measurement. This
feature allows total column measurements of a range of
atmospheric species to be determined from every spectral
measurement, creating a data set with high temporal
resolution.
During International Polar Year (IPY), PARISIR operated at PEARL for six weeks during February
and March in 2007 and 2008. It made solar absorption
measurements of a range of ozone and related trace gas
species (including HCl, HNO3 and HF) during this time.
This presentation will describe these trace gas measurements
and interpret them relative to the different dynamical
conditions observed. Additionally, results will be compared
with measurements made with two high-resolution Fourier
Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometers, the CANDAC
Bruker-IFS 125 HR and the Environment Canada DA8
FTIR Spectrometer, collocated at PEARL during the
Canadian Arctic ACE Validation campaigns.
PERMAFROST YOUNG RESEARCHERS GETS
THEIR HANDS DIRTY: THE PYRN-THERMAL
STATE OF PERMAFROST IPY PROJECT
Johansson, Margareta1 and Lantuit, Hugues2 (Hugues.
[email protected])
University of Lund, Lund, Sweden
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research,
Potsdam, Germany
1
2
The Permafrost Young Researchers Network
(PYRN) (www.pyrn.org) is a unique resource for students
and young scientists and engineers studying permafrost.
It is an international organization fostering innovative
collaboration, seeking to recruit, retain, and promote future
generations of permafrost scientists and engineers. Initiated
for and during IPY, PYRN directs the multi-disciplinary
talents of its membership toward global awareness,
knowledge, and response to permafrost-related challenges in
34
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
a changing climate.
Created as an education and outreach component
of the International Permafrost Association (IPA), PYRN
is a central database of permafrost information and
science for more than 500 young researchers from over
40 countries. PYRN distributes a newsletter, recognizes
outstanding permafrost research by its members through
an annual awards program, organizes training workshops
(2007 in Abisko, Sweden and St. Petersburg, Russia, 2008
in Fairbanks, Alaska and St. Petersburg, Russia), and
contributes to the growth and future of the permafrost
community.
While networking forms the basis of PYRN’s
activities, the organization also seeks to establish itself as a
driver of permafrost research for the IPY and beyond. We
recently launched a series of initiatives on several continents
aimed at providing young scientists and engineers with the
means to conduct ground temperature monitoring in underinvestigated permafrost regions.
Focusing on sites not currently covered by the
IPA’s “Thermal State of Permafrost” project, the young
investigators of PYRN successfully launched and funded
the PYRN-TSP project. They use lightweight drills and
temperature sensors to instrument shallow boreholes in
those regions. The first phase of the project was started
in the spring of 2008 at Scandinavian sites. The data and
results will be incorporated in the global database on
permafrost temperatures and made freely available to the
scientific community, thereby contributing to the advance
of permafrost science and the strengthening of the next
generation of permafrost researchers.
DIGITAL IMAGE ANALYSES OF OIL SACS IN
COPEPODS AS A FAST AND COST EFFICIENT
METHOD TO DETERMINE TOTAL LIPID
Vogedes, Daniel([email protected]), J. Søreide, Ø. Varpe J.
Berge
University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS), Pb 156, 9171
Longyearbyen, Norway
All classical methods of determining total lipid
content of zooplankton (i.e. extraction and gravimetric
measurements or chromatographic methods) are both time
consuming, expensive and destructive. We have developed
a method to estimate the total lipid of a copepod by taking
digital pictures of the specimens and measuring the oil sac
perimeter using a free image analysis software (“ImageJ”).
Analyses document that there is a positive and strong
correlation between the perimeter and the total volume
of the oil sac. Furthermore, as the majority of lipids in
overwintering stages of copepods are stored in the oil sac,
this method ensures a reliable estimate of the total lipid
content of the individual copepod.
Since the method is non-destructive, it is possible
to follow the development of a population held in an
experiment. Furthermore it can be used to make estimates
of which percentage of a population is still likely to be
actively feeding and which part is likely to be in diapause
already. The imaging method has been used both in a study
comparing the copepod development over time in an ice
covered vs. a non ice covered fjord on Svalbard, as well as in
a diel vertical migration study.
The relation of calculated oil sac volume to
perimeter, area and prosome length has been studied on
several thousand images and the imaging method has been
tested against the gravitmetric method on pooled samples.
We will also test it on the individual level to get a more
accurate relation. ARCTIC RESEARCH FROM THE PERSPECTIVES
OF SIX PARTICIPANTS IN NUNAVUT
SIVUNIKSAVUT
Karen Flaherty, Kerri Tattuinee, Kiah Hachey, Janice GreyScott, Ann-Marie Aitchison, Abbygail Noah
Nunavut Sivuniksavut, Ottawa, ON K1N 7G3
Nunavut Sivuniksavut (NS) is a unique eight-month
college program based in Ottawa. This program is designed
for Inuit youth from Nunavut who want to prepare for the
educational, training, and career opportunities created by
the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement (NLCA) and the new
Government of Nunavut. Since 2003, NS has been offering
a second year of study for those students wanting to deepen
their understanding of Inuit history and current issues,
and/or prepare more specifically for college or university.
Students take at least one Inuit-specific course each semester
at NS; the remaining courses are delivered by Carleton
University, Algonquin College, and the University of the
Arctic. This year there are six second year students enrolled
in this program: The NS students will provide Student Day
participants with a fresh and very objective perspective to
research by reminding researchers of such things as the
«human» side of research, genuine collaboration and how
the communication of research. This is an opportunity for
student researchers to learn about the potential impacts
that their research has on the people that live in the Arctic,
especially youth, and how these two contrasting views can
come together.
35
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
PLENARY SESSION ORAL ABSTRACTS
The International Polar Year (IPY) Circumpolar Flaw
Lead (CFL) system study
Hydrocarbon Energy from the Arctic: Holy Grail or
Pipe Dream?
Barber, D.G. (1) ([email protected]), T.
Papakyriakou, R. Macdonald, Y. Gratton, L. Fortier, M.
Gosselin, J. Hanesiak, J.Tremblay, S. Ferguson, G. Stern, S.
Meakin, J. Deming, and D. Leitch.
Beauchamp, Benoit ([email protected])
(1) Centre for Earth Observation Science (CEOS),
Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of
Environment, Earth and Resources, University of Manitoba,
Winnipeg, MB. Canada.
The International Polar Year (IPY) Circumpolar Flaw Lead
(CFL) system study supported a large multidisciplinary
overwintering in the Banks Island (NT) flaw lead over the
period September 2007 to August 2008. The CFL system is
formed when the central pack ice (which is mobile) moves
away from coastal fast ice, opening a flaw lead. The CFL
forms in the fall and continues as thin ice or open water
throughout the winter. The flaw lead is circumpolar, with
recurrent and interconnected polynyas occurring throughout
the Arctic. The overarching objectives of the CFL project
were to contrast the physical and biological systems of the
flaw lead open water and thin ice to the adjacent landfast ice
cover. The Canadian Research Icebreaker NGCC Amundsen
completed the first-ever overwintering of a research
icebreaker in the flaw lead. She supported a total of 11,000
person days distributed across 295 investigators from 28
different countries, making the CFL project the largest
single IPY effort in the northern hemisphere. The project
obtained many first-ever measurements of a complete
suite of physical, biogeochemical, contaminant and marine
ecosystem variables across the open water - fast ice contrast.
Throughout the project we recognized that Inuvialuit and
western science have two different ways of understanding
the dramatic changes that are occurring in this sector of
the Arctic. This ‘two-ways-of-knowing’ saw the integration
of traditional knowledge studies with the science teams
onboard the Amundsen. We present information on the
design of the project, an overview of the sampling program
completed, highlight the scientific programs conducted,
and provide some preliminary results. We conclude with
an overview of the various outreach programs including a
World Federation of Science Journalists (WFSJ) competition
and ‘Schools on Board’ programs.
Arctic Institute of North America and Department of
Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N
1N4
It is only a matter of time before industry embarks seriously
on exploration and development of Canada’s Arctic energy
resources. At a time when the world’s largest fields are in
decline, only remote frontier areas like Canada’s Arctic offer
any hope for large discoveries. And while China and India
are rising, our U.S. neighbour shows no sign of loosing its
thirst for energy any time soon, even though the ongoing
economic downturn is bound to slow down demand, at least
in the short run, for oil and gas. Supply, demand, and the
price of commodities will be high on the mind of industry
decision-makers the day they decide to go North, but a
flurry of other factors will also weigh heavily on industry’s
decision-makers before they commit billions of dollars
in capital investment to go after Arctic resources. One of
the least worrisome aspects of Arctic energy development
is probably the resource itself. Large gas discoveries were
made during the first round of exploration three decades
ago. There is enough gas in the large three fields of the
Mackenzie Delta–Taglu, Ninglintgak and Parsons Lake–to
feed the yet elusive Mackenzie Valley pipeline for the next
20 years. Huge quantities of gas were also found in the
Arctic islands, and shipping this gas to market is within
the realm of possibilities if one is to believe a recent study
by the Calgary-based Canadian Energy Research Institute
(CERI). While oil was the prime reason for the early round
of exploration, the paucity of sizeable oil discoveries was
a disappointment for early explorers. However, the recent
discovery of 250 million barrels beneath the Beaufort Sea
by Devon Canada in 2006, the massive $585 million bid for
a huge offshore block by Imperial Oil and Exxon Mobil
Canada in 2007, and a $1.2 billion bid by BP in 2008, may
have rekindled the oil flame. Beyond the known discoveries,
the vast area that extends from the Delta and the Arctic
islands, including both continental shelves to north and
east, holds much promises for many large and mediumsize discoveries. In addition to finding the resources in the
ground, above or below the sea, exploration companies
36
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
face a seemingly endless list of challenges: a regulatory
process that is seen as overly complicated and in the throes
of too many interests, an environment that is harsh and
unforgiving, a warming climate that is playing havoc with
infrastructures, and political ramifications that seem far
more complicated that they used to be. Still, the conditions
may not be insurmountable when compared with the earth’s
other last remaining areas with substantial potential. These
are often war-torn countries, forsaken by democracy and
where corruption and terrorism rule the day. In the end,
the loathed regulatory problems in the north may pale
relative to dealing with war lords or with governments with
a propensity to renege on sealed deals. No matter what and
where, going after the big ones in the 21st century will be
costly and risky.
IPY 2007 - 2008: An Update
Carlson, David ([email protected])
International Programme Office, International Polar Year,
British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road,
Cambridge CB3 OET, United Kingdom
To achieve major advances in polar knowledge, IPY
has entrained the intellectual resources of thousands of
scientists, many more than expected, often from ‘nonpolar’ nations, and representing an unprecedented breadth
of scientific specialties; integration of those efforts across
disciplines to achieve integrated system-level understanding
remains a substantial challenge. Many national and
international organizations prepare plans to sustain new and
improved observational systems, but clear outcomes and the
necessary resources remain elusive. International outreach
networks gradually build breadth and strength, largely
through IPY Polar Science Days and other internationallycoordinated IPY events. A new international and
interdisciplinary Association of Polar Early Career Scientists
(APECS) devotes talent and energy to shaping the future
of polar research. These activities and networks may, with
time and with continued international coordination, achieve
an exceptional level of interest and participation in polar
science. In all areas, much work remains.
Developing Arctic Modelling and Observing
Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies
(DAMOCLES)
Gascard, Jean-Claude ([email protected])
DAMOCLES Program, Université Pierre et Marie Curie
(UPMC), 4, place Jussieu – 75252, Paris, France
Damocles is an integrated ice-atmosphere-ocean
monitoring and forecasting system designed for observing,
understanding and quantifying climate changes in the Arctic.
An advanced observing system has been developed and
tested, providing for the first time synoptic, continuous
and long-term monitoring of the lower atmosphere, sea-ice
and upper ocean. It is designed to evaluate and improve
global and regional climate forecasting models based on
validation, assimilation and integration of observed data.
The ultimate goal will be to lengthen the lead-time of
extreme climate changes predicted to occur in the Arctic
within this century and thus to improve the ability of society
to mitigate for its impacts.
Arctic Wildlife Observatories Linking Vulnerable
EcoSystems (ArcticWOLVES): A study of the impact
of climate change on tundra food webs
Gauthier, Gilles (1) ([email protected]) and
Dominique Berteaux (2)
(1) Centre d’études nordiques, Pavillon Abitibi-Price, 2405,
rue de la Terrasse, Université Laval, Québec (Québec)
Canada, G1V 0A6
(2) Centre d’études nordiques, Université du Québec à
Rimouski
ArcticWOLVES is an international project developed for
the International Polar Year 2007-2008. It is a circumpolar
study of tundra ecosystems aimed at understanding food
webs and associated ecosystem processes, measuring current
impacts of climate change on wildlife through monitoring,
and predicting future impacts through modelling. Our
program has two complementary goals. First, to determine
the relative importance of predator-prey and plantherbivore interactions in structuring Arctic food webs and
to quantify the magnitude of these interactions. Second, to
document direct and indirect impacts of climate change on
terrestrial animal biodiversity, and forecast future impacts
on animal populations and their Arctic ecosystem. The
project is based on a circumpolar network of wildlife
observatories and involves a coordinated research effort
37
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
by an international group of over 40 researchers from 9
countries (Canada, Norway, Russia, Netherlands, USA,
Denmark, Sweden, Finland, and the United Kingdom). The
project is led by the Centre d’études nordiques, Université
Laval, Canada. Funding for the project has been secured
in at least 4 countries and field research is carried out at
12 sites in Canada, Greenland, Norway and Russia. Most
of these sites already have along history of wildlife-related
studies. Extensive monitoring of the abundance, timing and
success of reproduction, habitat use, and diet of several
key wildlife species, as well as annual plant production and
insect diversity and abundance, is conducted at most sites.
This allows a comparative approach and ultimately will
lead to modelling of these interactions at several sites. At
some sites, we are also relying on the Local Knowledge
of Indigenous people to expand our temporal and spatial
perspective on change in abundance and distribution of
some wildlife species. Species of primary interest include
herbivorous geese and small mammals, insectivorous
shorebirds, and avian and terrestrial predators. During the
presentation, we will highlight a few preliminary results of
this project.
Thriving in the North – Canadian Arctic
Environmental Prediction Services
Grimes, David ([email protected])
Assistant Deputy Minister’s Office, Meteorological Service
of Canada, Environment Canada, 141 Laurier Avenue,
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1P 5J3
A rapidly changing northern climate combined with
unprecedented socio-economic development is resulting in
new challenges for understanding and predicting the Arctic
environment. This presentation will examine some of the
changes that are occurring; the challenges they present, and
the approach taken by Meteorological Service of Canada to
address Canadian environmental prediction priorities for the
North.
On limits and uncertainties of predictions of Arctic
warming
Maslowski, Wieslaw ([email protected])
Naval Postgraduate School, Graduate School of
Engineering and Applied Sciences, Department of
Oceanography, Monterey, CA 93943, USA
General circulation models (GCMs) predictions of warming
and sea ice melt in the Arctic Ocean range between several
years to centuries. The multi-model average forecast based
on models participating in the Intergovernmental Panel
for Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCCAR4) suggest a 50% or more reduction of summer sea
ice cover in the Arctic Ocean by the end of this century.
Unfortunately the majority of those models have significant
limitations in their representation of past and present
variability in the Arctic. The inability of climate models
to reproduce the recent warming and ice melt in the
Arctic Ocean diminishes their accuracy of future climate
predictions. Some of these limitations include: northward
oceanic heat convergence, ice thickness distribution, and
feedback processes across the ocean-ice-atmosphere
interface.
In this talk we present results and argue that high resolution
together with improved parameterizations of polar specific
processes are part of the solution towards more realistic
simulations of past and present and prediction of future
climate change in the Arctic.
Multibeam Echosounder Mapping in the High Arctic:
The Challenges and the Joys
Mayer, Larry (1) ([email protected]) and M.
Jakobsson (2)
(1) Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping, University of
New Hampshire, Durham NH USA 03824
(2) Dept of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm
University, Stockholm, Sweden
Growing evidence of the critical role that the Arctic plays
in global climate as well as the strategic issues associated
with navigation and sovereign rights to resources associated
with the Convention on the Law of the Sea, have led to
a recent flurry of scientific (and political) activity focused
on the Arctic Ocean. Many of the scientific and political
issues associated with the Arctic require the establishment
of the best possible geospatial context (i.e., maps), but
given the logistical difficulties of working in the high
arctic, the Arctic Ocean remains the least mapped ocean
basin in the world. Since 2003, four mapping expeditions
aboard the multibeam sonar-equipped USCG Icebreaker
HEALY, have been aimed at attempting to greatly expand
our bathymetric data base in the region of the Chukchi
Cap. While the motivation for these expeditions has
been mapping in support of a potential submission for
an extended continental shelf under Article 76 of the
Convention on the Law of the Sea, the data collected
38
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
has also revealed numerous scientific surprises including,
unmapped seamounts, a new understanding of the shape
of the Chukchi Cap, the ubiquitous presence of pockmarks,
iceberg scour in depths of almost 1000m and evidence for
ice sheets and icesheet–related bedforms in regions where
icesheets were unexpected. In the course of this work we
have learned about the difficulties of collecting multibeam
echosounder data in 8/10 to 10/10’s ice cover and have
developed strategies for working in these conditions
(including “ratchet surveys” and “pirouettes”). All of the
data collected from these HEALY expeditions have been
made publicly available within months of acquisition (see
http://ccom.unh.edu/) as well as quickly incorporated into
the ongoing effort to continually update the International
Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO). The HEALY data
and other recently acquired data have now been compiled
into the new and improved second edition of IBCAO
(Version 2 see http://www.ibcao.org). These new data will
play an important role in increasing our understanding of
the tectonic origin of the Arctic Basin, put physiographic
constraints on deep sea circulation (and circulation models),
and provide important insight into the glacial and climatic
history of the Arctic.
A New Legal Regime for the Arctic
Rothwell, Donald ([email protected])
ANU College of Law, Australian National University, The
Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200
Long neglected in terms of international governance and
management, the Arctic is attracting greater attention as
a region in need of an effective regime. Whilst the Arctic,
unlike the Antarctic, is not plagued by unresolved territorial
disputes, there is the spectre of rising tension over yet to be
asserted maritime claims over the vast Arctic Ocean. When
this issue is added to the growing alarm over the impact of
climate change upon the Arctic, which brings with it not
only associated significant environmental change but also
increased access within the region, it becomes clear that a
region which for all of the Twentieth Century was pushed
to the side when it came to the regulation of international
affairs has the potential to take centre stage as state interests
are awoken and global concerns advance. Arctic States have
since the 1990s been skirting around the edges of creating a
substantive legal regime for the region. In the past, concerns
over national security have been a stumbling block to any
progress towards regime formation. Now in the early
part of the Twenty-First century resource, environmental
and human security have emerged as key issues facing
the region. It is clear that none of the Arctic states can
individually deal with the challenges the region is facing. The
May 2008 Greenland Meeting whilst a positive development
in terms of some of the key Arctic States coming together
to discuss their overlapping outer continental shelf claims
did not significantly advance the thinking on Arctic
regional issues. The time has come for a reassessment of
the reluctance of the Arctic States to consider hard law
mechanisms. The Norwegian, Russian and US experience
as founding members of the Antarctic Treaty should give
them confidence that a new regime approached in the
right spirit of cooperation has great potential. The current
Arctic regime is a patchwork of soft political responses
in need of an overarching binding treaty framework. This
paper will consider these issues by considering the potential
for an Arctic Treaty. The scope, object and purpose of an
Arctic Treaty will be considered drawing upon the Antarctic
experience and the lessons learned from the polar south in
the management of disputed territories. Particular attention
will be given to the role Canada could play in the promotion
of an Arctic Treaty.
Climate Adaptation and Vulnerability in Arctic Regions
(CAVIAR)
Smit, Barry ([email protected])
Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph,
Ontario, N1G 2W1
The unprecedented changes in the Arctic’s physical
environments have profound implications for the people
who live in the north and rely on the environments for their
livelihoods. Arctic communities are sensitive to changes in
weather and ice conditions because of their importance
for travel, fish and animal populations, permafrost for
infrastructure, and new pathogens and viruses. Arctic
peoples have a long history of adaptation, yet there are
questions about the capacity of individuals and institutions
to adapt to the scope and speed of changes, especially when
environmental changes are considered together with rapid
social and economic transformations. Policy initiatives to
address risks to Arctic societies require systematic analyses
of the processes that underlie vulnerabilities and analyses
that identify opportunities to enhance adaptive capacity.
The interdisciplinary analysis is guided by the model
Vijt = f(ESijt, ACijt). The model is used to structure a
suite of case studies in communities across the Arctic,
with local collaboration, in order to document (in a
comparable way) the conditions and forces that contribute
39
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
to vulnerabilities, the adaptive strategies employed, and
the prospects for adaptation in the future. The aim is to
identify and characterize the forces and processes linking
the communities to the environmental changes. An integral
part of the research involves identifying the relationships
between the community vulnerabilities (including the
connections with changes in physical conditions and
resources that are important to people’s livelihoods) and
the institutions through which policies are developed and
undertaken.
Results are given for selected communities, indicating the
resource-dependent vulnerabilities and the institutional
systems through which adaptation initiatives are undertaken.
For some communities (or groups within communities)
the key conditions (exposures) relate to ice dynamics and
access for hunting and other social and economic activities.
For others, shifts in the numbers, location and timing of
wildlife are the conditions where adaptations are needed,
by individuals, community groups and in management
agreements. Elsewhere the need for adaptation relates to
coastal erosion or developments associated with oil, gas or
mining extraction. The comparative results are facilitated
through the IPY-CAVIAR consortium.
Arctic Tipping Points (ATP): a new EU project on
marine ecosystems dynamics in the European Arctic
sector?
Paul Wassmann (1) ([email protected]) and
Carlos D. Duarte (2)
(1) Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of
Tromsø, Norway
(2) Instituto Mediterráneo de Estudios Avanzados;
IMEDEA, Mallorca, Spain
There is mounting evidence that ecosystem response to
certain types or magnitudes of extrinsic pressures is often
abrupt and non-linear, leading to a significant reorganization
of system properties and processes. Such non-linear
responses are often initiated by qualitative changes in
the structure or function of the ecosystem, and are so
fundamental that the impacted ecosystems respond to new
pressures in completely different manners than the original
ecosystem did. These changes can result in alterations of
the most basic ecosystem parameters, including food-web
structure, the flow of organic matter and nutrients through
the ecosystem, or the patterns of space occupation, leading
to a cascade of changes in ecosystems. Climate drives both
community structure and key organismal functions and
regime shifts identified from marine ecosystems are often
linked to climate.
Focusing on the Arctic Basin and particularly on the
European Arctic, the currently negotiated EU FP7
project Arctic Tipping Points is based on previous (e.g.
CABANERA) and ongoing (e.g. iAOOS Norway – closing
the loop) projects and compiles historical trends of Arctic
climate change and projections of future changes in Arctic
sea climate and ice systems. Long-term time series work
in the Arctic ecosystem components are also collected.
Statistical analysis will detect regime shifts and ecological
thresholds and tipping points, and evaluate their sensitivity
to climatic forcing.
Experimental work will be carried out by ATP in the field
and laboratory to approximate early warnings of climatic
thresholds and tipping points of Arctic organisms and
ecosystems. Genomic markers of climate-driven stress to
anticipate molecular tools to estimate genomic feedback in
response to climatic changes will be applied. A biologicalphysical coupled 3 D SINMOD model, amended with
the results obtained, also investigates future trajectories
of Arctic ecosystems under projected climate change
scenarios. Sensitive links and processes in the European
Arctic to identify potential thresholds and tipping points
will be identified. Regime shifts and threshold responses
of ecosystem components of the long-term time series,
experimental outcomes and model IPPC trajectories (until
2100) are explored.
By focusing on activities of strategic importance in the
region, such as tourism, fisheries/aquaculture and the effect
on oil/gas exploration, climate change implications for the
European Arctic are elucidated. Impacts on employment,
income, etc. associated to these activities and legislative
frameworks to conserve, adapt and mitigate the impacts of
climate change are considered. The effectiveness of possible
alternative, post-Kyoto policies and stabilization targets
(e.g. EU +2 ºC target) in avoiding these thresholds will be
examined. We will convey these results and projections to
policy makers, economic sectors and the public in general.
Is Cancer Increasing among the Circumpolar Inuit?
Young, Kue ([email protected]) and the International
Circumpolar Cancer Working Group
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto,
Toronto, Canada M5T 3M7
40
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
The major goal of this project was to review trends and
patterns of cancer among the Inuit in Alaska, Canada
[NWT, Nunavut and Nunavik] and Greenland during the
period 1989-2003, updating an earlier review from 19691988.
The project is an international collaborative effort involving
researchers and health officials from the three countries.
Inuit cancer cases by age-sex group and anatomic site were
obtained from the regional cancer registries. Incidence
rates were age-standardization by the direct method to the
standard world population of the International Agency for
Research on Cancer.
With all sites combined, there is an increasing trend in
cancer incidence over the period. Some “traditional” cancers
(such as nasopharynx and salivary glands) have not shown
a decrease, and Inuit are among the world’s highest risk
populations. Notable among the “modern” cancers is the
increasing trend in lung cancer, especially in Canadian Inuit,
the highest in the world for both men and women. Others
such as colorectal cancer is catching up, while breast and
prostate cancers are still low relative to non-Inuit. There is
some success story, such as the decrease in cervical cancer.
This review provides the needed evidence for public health
interventions (primary prevention and screening) and also
the planning of cancer care programs and services. Urgent
action is needed especially in combating lung cancer. This
project also demonstrates the feasibility of international
partnership in cancer surveillance, and when extended to
other diseases and health conditions, contributes to the
development of a Circumpolar Health Observatory.
41
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
TOPICAL SESSION ORAL ABSTRACTS
THE INUIT OF NUNAVIK (NORTHERN
QUEBEC): SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES
Aatami, Pita ([email protected])
Makivik Corporation, Kuujjuaq, Québec J0M 1C0
Pita Aatami, President of Makivik Corporation,
will focus his presentation on the successes of Makivik in
the field of Arctic Research, outlining the mandate and
research activities of the Nunavik Research Centre (received
the Gold Award in 2007 of the Canadian Environment
Awards) located in Kuujjuaq, its impact and potential
collaboration with governments and academic sector. It will
outline the economic success of the Inuit of Nunavik but
will emphasize the challenges that people of Nunavik are
presently facing: climate change, environmental health, food
security, employment, training and higher education.
THE BIOTA OF CHURCHILL: BARCODING AS A
TOOL FOR BIODIVERSITY ASSESSMENT AND
MONITORING
Adamowicz, Sarah1 ([email protected]), D. Steinke1,
X. Zhou1 and P.D.N. Hebert1
Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph,
Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1
1
The Polar Research Observatories for Biodiversity
and the Environment program (PROBE), an IPY initiative,
comprises an extensive effort deployed over the past three
years to obtain DNA sequences from representatives of
all multicellular life occurring in the area of Churchill,
Manitoba. We review the salient findings from the first
20,000 sequences from this sub-arctic site, encompassing
tundra, taiga, marine, and freshwater environments.
Surprising diversity and new species are detected in many
groups despite the fact that this site was originally chosen
due to supposedly modest diversity and extensive taxonomic
work. Moreover, this endeavour has resulted in new insights
into community structure and the process of characterizing
a biota. This dataset provides an excellent starting point for
further survey and biomonitoring. Range extensions have
already been documented at Churchill using the barcoding
approach. It is clear that DNA barcoding represents a
viable solution – we suggest it is currently the only solution
– to the taxonomic impediment for large-scale monitoring
projects that include invertebrates. We hope to extend
the network of collaborators interested in incorporating
barcoding into their arctic research.
BUILDING A BASE CAMP – BUILDING AN
IPY LEGACY IN NUNATSIAVUT (NORTHERN
LABRADOR): INUIT STUDENTS AND
SCIENTISTS AND A “NEW WAY OF KNOWING”
Angnatok, Dorothy1, A. Fells1, S. Merkuratsuk1, E. Obed1,
M. Okkuatsiak1, W. Barbour2, A. Simpson3, J. Rowell3, T.
Knight4, and Tom Sheldon5 ([email protected])
Nunatsiavut Government, Box 70, Nain, NL, A0P 1L0
Nunatsiavut Government, Box 70, Nain, NL
3
Torngat Mountains National Park, Box 471, Nain, NL, A0P
1L0
4
Parks Canada, Western Newfoundland and Labrador Field
Unit, Box 130, Rocky Harbour, NL, A0K 4N0
5
Environmental Sciences Group, 8 Verite, R-62, Kingston,
ON K7K 7B4
1
2
Three years ago, with the establishment of the new
Torngat Mountains National Park, Parks Canada, together
with the Nunatsiavut Government piloted a base camp
managed and run by Inuit at Kangidluasuk at the southern
boundary of the park. The purpose of the base camp was
to find a way to facilitate the challenges and cost of bringing
people – Inuit, Parks Canada staff, visitors and scientists
- into the park. As a result of the base camps in 2006 and
2007, researchers in particular expressed strong support for
continuation of the base camp as a critical logistical support
and as a “unique and wonderful gift” for the opportunity to
live in an Inuit camp and to work with Inuit – students and
elders - from Nunavik and Nunatsiavut.
In 2008, IPY funding allowed Parks Canada to
enhance communications and safety features that allowed
base camp to deploy, communicate with and support
a number of remote research camps in the Torngat
Mountains. IPY funds also supported 5 Inuit students who
spent the summer assisting the different scientists working
out of the base camp, on shore-based longliners and
42
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
zodiacs, and in remote research camps. They were exposed
to scientific fieldwork in a variety of forms including
marine sampling, seal tagging, glacial monitoring and tundra
vegetation research. In all cases the field research was
conducted in an environment familiar to Inuit with logistical
support provided by Inuit from their communities. It was an
opportunity to experience scientific research in the students’
own cultural context. It was an opportunity for Inuit and
scientists to study an issue through the dual lens of science
and Inuit culture, experience and knowledge. The students
were excited and engaged and in some cases this experience
has fostered relationships that continue past the summer
field season.
The base camp has established a bedrock for
scientists and Inuit to come together with the best that
each have to offer to develop a “new way of knowing”
as they explore their questions and concerns about the
natural environment. Parks Canada and the Nunatsiavut
Government hope to continue to refine the capacity
of the base camp to excite Inuit youth and support the
collaboration of Inuit and scientists well into the future.
We believe it offers a way to push the frontiers of science
in northern ecosystems, to blur borders and cultural
boundaries and to share with a larger world the results of
this work.
FROM ADAPTATION TO LEARNING AND THE
POTENTIAL OF ADAPTIVE CO-MANAGEMENT
TO REDUCE VULNERABILITY IN ARCTIC
COMMUNITIES
Armitage, Derek ([email protected])
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies,
Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3C5
Three general types of environmental change
may increase the vulnerability of Arctic communities:
1) relatively gradual or incremental change in baseline
conditions through time (e.g., upward temperature trends);
2) increased inter-annual variation and frequency of
extreme events; and 3) the potential for social-ecological
regime shifts (i.e., flips in the system or parts of a system).
In combination with large-scale resource development
and on-going socio-cultural change, the implications for
vulnerability and adaptation in Arctic communities are
profound. Responding to these multiple forms, speeds
and intensities of change will require a broad range of
adaptation measures in the short-term and long-term (e.g.,
changes to building codes, livelihood diversification, better
information sharing). Efforts to reduce vulnerability and
build adaptive capacity, however, may also benefit from
greater attention to social learning processes achieved
through multi-level institutional partnerships. Social learning
is a key dimension of adaptive capacity and is defined
here as the on-going action, reflection and deliberation of
individuals and groups collaborating to seek solutions to
complex, multi-scale challenges. How best to achieve the
institutional partnerships that foster learning and adaptive
capacity is not well understood, although a growing number
of institutional forms are available from which lessons can
be gained. Adaptive co-management is one institutional
form which draws the connection between learning and
collaboration. Such multi-level institutional arrangements
are theorized to provide opportunities for more appropriate
flows of resources, information and knowledge in ways that
can bring different perspectives together in the identification
and implementation of adaptation strategies, create
incentives for appropriate individual and collective action,
and build adaptive capacity.
Given the complexity, uncertainty and interconnectedness of social-ecological change in the Arctic,
experiences with adaptive co-management in other contexts
may be valuable. Specifically, community adaptation and
vulnerability reduction is more likely to emerge through
process-based approaches that build on the capacity of
local communities and connect them with higher-order
institutions in processes of joint learning and problem
solving. This represents a departure from passive, reactive
and/or technology-driven adaptation and vulnerability
reduction strategies. Core themes in adaptive comanagement as one institutional innovation offer possible
directions for adaptation and vulnerability research. These
themes include the design of institutional arrangements
and incentives across spatiotemporal scales and levels, the
critical importance of learning through complexity and
as a basis for trust-building, monitoring and assessment
of interventions and strategies in the context of changing
conditions, the need to address power differentials among
different actors and groups, and opportunities to link
climate science with bottom-up policy development directed
at vulnerability reduction.
CHANGES IN ARCTIC OCEAN PRIMARY
PRODUCTION FROM 1998-2008
Arrigo, Kevin1 ([email protected]) and G. van Dijken1
Department of Environmental Earth System Science,
Stanford University, Stanford, California, 94305-2040
1
Arctic sea ice has undergone an unprecedented
reduction in area and thickness in the last few decades,
43
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
exposing an ever-increasing fraction of the sea surface to
solar radiation and increasing the amount of pelagic habitat
suitable for phytoplankton growth. Here we present results
of a primary production algorithm that utilizes remotely
sensed chlorophyll a, sea surface temperature, and sea ice
extent data to quantify interannual changes in phytoplankton
production in the Arctic Ocean between 1998 and 2008.
Our results show that between 1998 and 2006, open water
area in the Arctic increased at the rate of 0.07 million
square kilometers per year, with the greatest increases in
the Barents, Kara, and Siberian sectors, particularly over
the continental shelf. Pan-Arctic primary production during
this time averaged 419±33 Tg C/yr, with the highest rates
observed in 2006. However, open water area increased
dramatically in both 2007 and 2008, which experienced
summer minimum ice area that was 20-23% lower than any
other year on record. Because of the large recession of
sea ice in the summer of 2007, approximately 1.7 million
square kilometers of the Arctic Ocean became ice-free for
the first time in recorded history, effectively increasing the
size of the open water habitat of the Arctic Ocean by an
additional 20-25%, a trend that has persisted into 2008. As
a result, rates of annual production reached an 11-year peak
of 513 Tg C/yr in 2007. Although most of the newly icefree waters were located in deep basins that are of generally
low productivity, some continental shelf regions also were
exposed. Primary productivity in all newly exposed waters
in 2007 amounted to 10.6 Tg C/yr, indicating that of the
35 Tg C/yr increase in annual primary production in the
Arctic between 2006 and 2007, approximately 30% can
be attributed to the increased area of open water area in
2007. Much of the remaining 70% of the 2007 increase
in annual production (24.6 Tg C/yr) is due to the longer
phytoplankton growing season (expressed as the number of
ice-free days) experienced throughout much of the Arctic.
In some regions, the combination of accelerated sea ice melt
in the spring and delayed freeze-up in the autumn produced
an ice-free season that was >100 days longer in 2007 than
in 2006. Not surprisingly, areas with lengthened growing
seasons also exhibited higher annual production in 2007
than in 2006. Increases in productivity were especially large
on the already productive continental shelves, particularly in
the Siberian and Laptev sectors, where the growing season
was 50-80 days longer in 2007 than it was in 2006. Should
these trends continue, continued loss of ice during Arctic
spring could boost annual primary sproductivity >3-fold
above 1998-2002 levels. Increased water column production
could alter ecosystem structure and the degree of pelagicbenthic coupling. Furthermore, changes in carbon export
could in turn modify benthic denitrification on the vast
continental shelves.
ESTIMATING CO2 FLUX MEASUREMENTS
FROM THE INTEGRATION OF HIGH SPATIAL
RESOLUTION REMOTELY SENSED DATA AND
BIOPHYSICAL VARIABLES.
Atkinson, David M1 ([email protected]) and
Treitz, Paul2 ([email protected])
Department of Geography, Ryerson University, Toronto,
Ontario, M5B 2K3
2
Department of Geography, Queen’s University, Kingston,
Ontario, K7L 3N6
1
There has been increasing concern over the effects
of climate change on the Canadian Arctic. The most
fundamental issue of this concern is how natural systems
will respond to these changes. To fully understand how
systems may react to change it is important to understand
how they currently behave and how best to monitor these
environments. The arctic, in the past, has been shown
to be a net sink for atmospheric carbon. Currently there
is a great deal of uncertainty as to how the carbon cycle
within the arctic currently operates and how it will respond
to climate change. Remote Sensing can provide spatiallycontinuous data on arctic vegetation and terrain patterns,
in a range of spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions.
Detailed community level knowledge along with high
resolution remote sensing can provide us with the ability
to understand fine-grain spatial variation and improve our
ability to scale to synoptic predictions. Remote sensing
has the potential to provide valuable information for the
assessment and monitoring of vegetation patterns which
can then be used to predict patterns of carbon dioxide
flux. Three requirements are needed for carbon storage
and flux patterns to be predicted from remote sensing
data: (i) unique electromagnetic signatures need to exist
and correspond to variations in vegetation patterns and
structure; (ii) one or more models are needed to transform
remotely sensed data into derivative values pertaining
to the type or condition of the land cover and then to
estimate carbon flux from this derivative variable; and (iii)
measurements of carbon flux rates and storage amounts
to calibrate and validate the models used to estimate the
carbon flux distribution from the remotely sensed data
(Stow et al., 1998). IKONOS multispectral (4m spatial
resolution) data were collected for Cape Bounty, Melville
Island (74º55’N, 109º35’W). These data capture the spatial
variability of community types and provides the ability to
accurately resolve the proportions of cover types within
a study area. To complement the image data, detailed
community information on species composition, fraction
of vegetation cover, and wet and dry biomass are combined
44
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
with spectral signature data to create statistically derived
community classifications. Ordination techniques are used
to determine the natural arrangement of sample sites and
cluster analysis to create ecological classes. The relationship
between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)
and above-ground biomass are linked with vegetation
community information and closed chamber plot-level CO2
flux measurements to estimate carbon dioxide fluxes within
these derived ecological classes.
ARCTIC-WINTER CLIMATOLOGY AND
RADIATIVE EFFECTS OF CLOUDS AND
AEROSOLS BASED ON LIDAR AND RADAR
MEASUREMENTS AT PEARL
Ayash, Tarek1 ([email protected]), J.-P. Blanchet1 and
E.W. Eloranta2
Département des sciences de la Terre et de l’atmosphère,
Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H3C
3P8
2
Space Science and Engineering Center, University of
Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, 53706
1
During the cold and dark Polar winter months,
arctic regions are the site of interactions between aerosols,
clouds, radiation and precipitations that are linked to intense
cold anomalies and winter storms. The long-range transport
and deep mixing into the arctic atmosphere of sulfurenriched anthropogenic aerosols originating from northern
regions result in the vast formation of thin ice clouds, which
are characterized by fast-growing and precipitable crystals.
This leads to significant enhancement of precipitation,
atmospheric dehydration and infrared cooling with
prominent climate feedbacks.
To study such processes, an algorithm is developed
that identifies and classifies aerosol and cloud features based
on data collected at the Polar Environment Atmospheric
Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Nunavut by an
Automated High Spectral Resolution Lidar (AHSRL) and
the Millimeter-Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR). The algorithm
also provides radiative properties of clouds and aerosols,
which are used to compute their radiative effects and
heating rates by the Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric
Radiative Transfer (SBDART) code. Results on the
climatology and radiative effects of clouds and aerosols are
presented for arctic winter months of recent years, and their
implications to the study of climate change are discussed.
FRESHWATER AND CARBON DYNAMICS IN
HUDSON BAY: RESULTS FROM MERICA 20032006
Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko1 ([email protected]
gc.ca), D. Slauenwhite1 and M. Starr2
Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Bedford Institute of
Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada B2Y 4A2
2
Pêches et Océans Canada, Institut Maurice-Lamontagne,
Mont-Joli, Québec, Canada G5H 3Z4
1
Water mass characteristics and circulation in
Hudson Bay are strongly influenced by freshwater dynamics,
namely, fluvial input from the large drainage basin, sea ice
formation and melt, and less saline Pacific water inflow
in the northern part of the Bay. Changing freshwater
dynamics are considered to play an important role in the
carbon cycle in Hudson Bay. The distribution of freshwater
from different sources affects ocean surface chemistry,
which in turn affects its capacity to sequester atmospheric
CO2. Partial pressure of CO2 in the ocean, which drives
air-sea flux of CO2 in surface water, is determined by
Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) and total Alkalinity
(TA), as well as temperature and salinity. Since DIC and
alkalinity concentrations are vastly different between
sea-ice melt-water and river runoff, the distribution of
freshwater components has a strong impact on the uptake
of atmospheric CO2 in this region. Sequestered CO2 in
the ocean forms carbonic acid, which causes a decrease
of pH (ocean acidification). Ocean acidification has
negative effects on marine calcifying organisms. Because
of low buffer capacity and high dissolution rate of calcium
carbonate shells and skeleton of organisms in cold water,
regions such as Hudson Bay may be particularly affected by
this threat. Annual time series studies have been conducted
in the Hudson Bay Complex during 2003-2006 by the
program MERICA, measuring dissolved inorganic carbon
(DIC), alkalinity and oxygen isotope composition. Oxygen
isotope composition (δ18O) is used to identify the freshwater
sources including sea ice melt water and meteoric water
(precipitation and river or glacier runoff). From DIC and
alkalinity, pH, saturation state for calcite and aragonite and
pCO2 were calculated. Highest DIC concentrations were
observed at the eastern side of Hudson Bay bottom water,
where a large component of brine rejection water exists.
pCO2 concentration in the surface layer is higher than that
in the atmosphere and Hudson Bay serves as a source for
atmospheric CO2 during summer (August). Saturation
horizon for aragonite was shallow, around 100m deep, at
the western side of section. Freshwater in Hudson Strait
is a mixture of the Baffin Bay Current, which flows into
45
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
the northern part of the Strait, and meteoric water from
the Hudson Bay with a large riverine input. There is little
influence of sea ice melt water, while brine rejection water
extends to the bottom. DIC concentrations are low (<2140
µmol/kg) through the section. Net transport of carbon
from Hudson Bay to the Labrador Sea through Hudson
Strait is estimated to be 0.1 PgC/year.
LONG RANGE ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT OF
AEROSOLS: FIRST ARCTIC MEASUREMENTS
USING AEROSOL MASS SPECTROMETER
Bacak, Asan1 ([email protected]), Thomas KUHN1 and
James SLOAN1 ([email protected])
University of waterloo, 200 University Avenue West,
building C2 room 079.
1
Atmospheric aerosols have a direct effect on
climate by scattering and/or absorbing solar radiation,
thereby modifying the radiative balance of the atmosphere.
Aerosols also can act as cloud condensation nuclei, which
alter cloud properties and precipitation rates, thereby
indirectly influencing the climate. Aerosol surfaces also
are a medium for heterogeneous reactions, modifying
the chemical composition of both the gas and aerosol
phases in the atmosphere. Aerosol surfaces may carry
numerous different compounds (e.g. organic or inorganic,
hydrophobic or hydrophilic), which naturally affect their
chemical and physical properties. Since aerosol lifetimes
in the free troposphere are on the order of a few days to a
week, they are transported over long distances in the Earths
atmosphere. To study this transport, we have installed a
quadruple aerosol mass spectrometer (Q - AMS) (Aerodyne
Research Inc.) in the Polar Environment Atmospheric
Research Laboratory (PEARL) in August 2006. PEARL is
located in the Arctic on Ellesmere Island (80°N 86°W) at
an elevation of 610 m. above sea level. It provides a unique
location for observing transport to the sensitive Arctic
ecosystem, because it is far from anthropogenic sources of
contamination and it is in the free troposphere most of the
time.
In this presentation, we will report the analysis
of aerosol mass concentrations, size, and chemical
compositions covering the time period from August, 2006
to January, 2008. Our measurements show that sulphate
dominates the aerosol composition most of the time, with
a maximum concentration of 0.655 µg/m3 and minimum
concentration of 0.030 µg/m3. The second most abundant
species was organic aerosols, with concentrations in the
range from 0.440 µg/m3 to 0.050 µg/m3. Although the
sulphate dominates in general, plots of concentration time
series show a seasonal change in the relative concentrations
of sulphate and organic species. Relatively lower
concentrations of nitrate and ammonium species were
detected during the period of our observations. Occasional
episodes of concentrations up to 0.050 µg/m3 nitrate and
0.080 µg/m3 ammonium were detected; otherwise these
were below our detection limit. (The Q - AMS detection
limit at PEARL was determined to be 0.009 µg/m3, which
is three standard deviations from the noise.) In addition
to the above results, we will briefly report the ionic
components and discuss possible aerosol transportation
routes determined with the semi-Lagrangian trajectory
model, FLEXPART.
SCIENCE-DRIVEN COOPERATION AND
POLICY: ADDRESSING CANADIAN/US
DIPLOMATIC CONCERNS IN THE ARCTIC
Baker, Betsy ([email protected])
Vermont Law School, PO Box 96, South Royalton, VT
05068
In September 2008, as this abstract was submitted,
a Canadian and a US icebreaker traveled together through
the Arctic Ocean. Scientists on both vessels mapped the
ocean floor in preparation for each country’s submission
to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf,
established by the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea.
Canada has ratified the Convention, the US has not, but
both recognize its processes as the surest route to confirm
the extended continental shelf entitlements that each will
present to the international community.
How might
this model – Canadian-US scientific cooperation under
principles of the LOS Convention – apply to the Beaufort
Sea dispute, and to other arctic areas of mutual concern?
The model, if coupled with limited joint management of
the region, has the potential to strengthen Canadian and US
sovereignty over national maritime zones by having both
countries share, as appropriate, responsibility and benefits
relating to Arctic Ocean resources. One outcome might be a
joint management/development area for clean exploitation
of area resources alongside environmental protections. A
greater role for science in setting policy and management
direction in the region would alter the traditional approach
of lawyers and policymakers establishing rules without
sufficiently considering the scientific realities of the subject
being regulated. The paper builds on progress in better
integrating scientific input into oceans policy making and
diplomacy (see e.g. 2006 Virginia LOS Conference on Law,
46
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Science & Oceans Management; Davor Vidas, 2006) and
in managing resources to avoid conflict (see, e.g. Saleem
H. Ali, 2008).
The following legal instruments and
principles will be examined for how they might allow joint
Canadian/US protection, management and development
of areas of common arctic concern on the foundation of
science-driven cooperation: LOS Convention. Art. 76
ECS; arts. 122/123 Semi-enclosed seas/cooperation; art.
194(5) Protecting fragile ecosystems/endangered species
habitats; art. 197 Regional environmental cooperation;
Part XIII, Marine Scientific Research; art. 234 ice-covered
areas; art. 311 LOS/other international agreements.
bOther potentially applicable bilateral and multilateral
treaties, soft law and principles: Agreements or
principles regarding EIA, sharing of scientific information,
integrated ecosystem management, regional seas, marine
protected areas/particularly sensitive sea areas, biodiversity,
preventing pollution from ships, transporting hazardous
cargo, and the duty to cooperate as a Grundnorm of
environmental protection. Each country’s domestic legal
and administrative framework for marine management
and arctic science will be addressed, as well as CanadianUS cooperation in the context of Arctic Council. The
author was the sole lawyer on the USCGC Healy mapping
cruise that immediately preceded the 2008 joint CanadianUS icebreaker mission. Immersion in the cooperative,
multi-dimensional world of mapping science informs
her consideration of scientific cooperation as a means
to strengthen national sovereignty, bilateral relations, and
regional security.
DEVELOPING A FRAMEWORK OF BASELINE
DATA IN A COMPLEX THERMOKARST
LAKE SYSTEM USING RELATIONSHIPS
BETWEEN HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES AND
LIMNOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
Balasubramaniam, Ann1 ([email protected]), R.I. Hall1
and B. Wolfe2
Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo,
ON, N2L3G1
2
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies,
Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, N2L3C5
1
from stable isotope tracer analysis (δ18O and δ2H) to assess
limnological differences in Old Crow Flats (OCF), Yukon
Territory’s most diverse wetland ecosystem recognized
under the Ramsar convention of 1982. The OCF, located
75km north of the arctic-circle, contains over 2000 shallow
lakes in permafrost terrain. Hydrological processes such as
precipitation, evaporation, subsurface flow, surface flow,
and melting permafrost have caused these lakes to expand,
coalesce and in some cases drain naturally. However, recent
observations by the local First Nation report evidence of
pronounced and unprecedented hydrological changes (ie.
draining and drying of lakes), which are consistent with a
warming arctic. The consequences of these hydrological
events on chemical and biological processes within lakes
is unclear, but is a key linkage to understanding both the
ecology of this dynamic lake ecosystem and the associated
effects of climate change.
A set of 56 lakes spanning hydrological gradients
were sampled 3 times over the ice free season of 2007 to
assess seasonal relationships between hydrological processes
(determined from stable isotope tracers) and water
chemistry. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) suggests
that hydrological differences among lakes of the Old Crow
Flats strongly influence nutrient concentrations. Lakes
that receive relatively higher inputs of snowmelt water, as
identified by isotopically-depleted lake water compositions,
are characterized by high concentrations of phosphorus
and dissolved organic carbon. In contrast, lakes that have
isotopic signatures suggesting a greater relative influence of
rainfall tend to have low concentrations of these nutrients
as well as more alkaline pH. Data analysis also suggests
that these hydro-limnological relationships remain relatively
consistent over the ice free season between June and
September. Ongoing analysis of chlorophyll concentrations
will determine the effect of hydrological characteristics
on biological community composition and associated
productivity. These findings indicate hydrological conditions
are effective in characterizing limnological patterns in
shallow thermokarst lake systems and should be used to
develop hydro-limnological baseline data frameworks for
long-term monitoring programs.
The role of hydrological processes on lake ecology
is not entirely understood and traditionally is not extensively
used in limnological studies. However, in northern shallow
lake ecosystems hydrological processes have been found to
be a driving force behind biological and chemical changes
within the lake. This research uses information gained
47
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
EDUCATION, COMMUNICATION AND
OUTREACH: LINKING RESEARCH TO PUBLIC
POLICY AND ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS
– OPENING REMARKS
Barber, Lucette1 ([email protected])
Centre for Earth Observation Sciences, Clayton H. Riddell
Faculty of Environment, Earth and Resources, University
of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2
1
Investigate and communicate...this growing trend
in scientific polar research, is evident in the prevalence of
Education, Outreach and Communication sessions in major
national and international science conferences such as Arctic
Changes. This trend reflects the growing public recognition
and interest in climate change and the need to communicate
the role of science and Inuit knowledge in building a
better understanding of these changing times. Scientists
play an important role in promoting both scientific and
environmental literacy and inspiring the next generation
of scientists and policy makers. The outreach initiatives
represented in these sessions and the complementary
poster sessions demonstrate the diversity of activity that
enable scientists to engage the public in their work in a very
meaningful way.
MAPPING CANADA’S ARCTIC SEABED:
DATA PROCESSING, MANAGEMENT AND
DISTRIBUTION STRATEGIES
Beaudoin, Jonathan1 ([email protected]), J.E. Hughes
Clarke1, J. Bartlett2, S. Blasco3 and R. Bennett3
Ocean Mapping Group, University of New Brunswick,
Fredericton, NB
2
Canadian Hydrographic Service, Burlington, ON
3
Geological Survey of Canada, Dartmouth, NS
1
There has been recent renewed political interest
in mapping Canada’s north, for example the October 2007
throne speech to Parliament stated that «As part of asserting
sovereignty in the Arctic, our Government will complete
comprehensive mapping of Canada’s Arctic seabed. Never
before has this part of Canada’s ocean floor been fully
mapped.
The Canadian Hydrographic Service, the Geological
Survey of Canada and the ArcticNet NCE program have
been mapping in the Arctic for many years and have
amassed considerable amounts of data. Current clients
require this data for all of navigation, engineering, natural
resources and benthic habitat applications. Thus, products
beyond “least depths”, including geomorphology, surficial
backscatter and shallow subbottom data, need to be
processed and distributed simultaneously. Regarding future
mapping efforts, there is a need to collate existing data sets
and to make them available to the various parties that will be
involved. This will facilitate their task by helping (1) to avoid
redundant data collection and (2) to prioritize areas which
should be remapped (e.g. due to low resolution or poor
accuracy). Through its involvement in ArcticNet, the OMG
has developed an expandable data distribution model that
allows for web-based perusal and retrieval of the ArcticNet
seabed mapping data set. As the model was developed to
serve the various needs of the many parties involved with
ArcticNet, the ideas are adaptable to serving the various
agencies that will be tasked with mapping Canada’s Arctic
seabed.
SATELLITE-BASED ASSESSMENT OF THE
LIGHT-DRIVEN COMPONENTS OF THE
MODERN ARCTIC OCEAN BIOGEOCHEMICAL
CARBON CYCLE
Bélanger, Simon1 ([email protected]); Babin,
Marcel2 ([email protected])
Département de Biologie, chimie, et géographie, Université
du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec, G5L 3A1,
Canada
2
Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, Centre
Nationale de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) & Université
Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI), Villefranche-sur-Mer,
06238, France
1
Primary production and dissolved organic carbon
photo-oxidation have opposing impacts on carbon fluxes
in the ocean. The balance between the two processes
may be significantly affected in the near future by climate
change. This is especially true for the Arctic Ocean, which
is increasingly exposed to light as perennial ice recedes,
and which receives increasing amounts of terrigenous
dissolved organic carbon (tDOC) as the permafrost thaws
and river discharges increase. In this study, we used remote
sensing data to estimate the pan-Arctic distributions of
primary production and CDOM photo-oxidation, and how
they evolved from 1998 to 2007. Ocean color (merged
data from SeaWiFS, MERIS and MODIS), ozone, cloud
(ISCCP) and ice (SSMI) data are combined to run a UVvisible atmospheric radiative transfer code, and primary
production and photo-oxidation models. We used state-of-
48
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
the-art optical models for optically complex waters, some
being specific to the Arctic Ocean. Our results provide the
first pan-Arctic combined estimates of primary production
and CDOM photo-oxidation based on remote sensing, and
allow determining how these two processes compare. They
indicate that CDOM photo-oxidation accounts for a major
fraction of allochthonous organic carbon mineralization
in the Arctic Ocean, and is comparable in magnitude to
the fraction of gross primary production that ends up
sequestered within the ocean bottom sediments. The ratio
between photo-oxidation and primary production turns
out being highly variable, which suggests competition for
light between CDOM and phytoplankton at regional scale.
As a response to sea ice decline, both photo-oxidation and
primary production showed increasing trends from 1998
to 2007, but the spatial patterns are highly variable and still
not well understood. Based on our results and previous
estimates of vertical carbon fluxes, we propose a simplified
version of the Arctic Ocean organic carbon budget,
including terrestrial dissolved component.
SEASONAL AND DAILY SCALE BEHAVIOUR OF
ARCTIC COD WINTER AGGREGATIONS UNDER
THE SEA-ICE COVER AT A FIXED STATION IN
FRANKLIN BAY (BEAUFORT SEA)
Benoit, Delphine1 ([email protected]), Y. Simard2,3
and L. Fortier1
Canada Research Chair on the response of Arctic marine
ecosystems to climate change, Québec-Océan, Département
de biologie, Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1K 7P4
Canada [email protected], [email protected]
ulaval.ca
2
Fisheries and Oceans Canada Chair in marine acoustics
applied to ecosystem and marine mammals, Institut des
Sciences de la Mer, Université du Québec à Rimouski, 310
allée des Ursulines, Rimouski, QC, G5L 3A1 Canada. yvan_
[email protected]
3
Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Fisheries and Oceans
Canada, 850 route de la Mer, C.P. 1000, Mont-Joli, Québec
G5H 3Z4, Canada.
1
In the Canadian Arctic, the large biomass of Arctic
cod that must exist to explain consumption by predators
has eluded detection. From December 2003 to May 2004,
acoustic estimates of Arctic cod biomass at a 225-m deep
station in central Franklin Bay (southeastern Beaufort
Sea) increased progressively by two orders of magnitude,
reaching maximum values of 2.7 kg m-3 and 55 kg m-2
in April. During accumulation in Franklin Bay, the fish
occupied the lower part of the Pacific Halocline (140 m to
bottom), where the temperature-salinity signature (-1.4 °C
to 0.3 °C; 33 to 34.8 PSU) corresponded to slope waters.
Currents at 200 m along the western slope of Amundsen
Gulf headed SSW throughout winter, suggesting the
passive advection of cod from southeastern Beaufort Sea
into Franklin Bay. Retention in Franklin Bay against the
general circulation resulted from the fish keeping at depth
to reduce predation by diving seals and/or to benefit from
relatively warm temperatures in the lower halocline. The
mean Arctic cod standing biomass estimated (11.23 kg
m-2) would amply satisfy the requirements of predators.
Furthermore, Arctic cod diel vertical migrations (DVM)
were observed under the sea-ice cover, until the day/night
alternation was occurring (i.e. end of April). During the
dark hours, a small part of the population migrated up to
80 m, while most of the fish remained below 140 m. DVM
were triggered by light and tracked the lengthening of the
photoperiod. Vertical distribution of Arctic cod’s main
preys matched the night distribution of the fish, suggesting
that they migrated to feed, while minimizing the risk of
predation by seals. DVM stopped in May, at the beginning
of the 24 h light period, and most of Arctic cod were
distributed between 50 and 150m. This dramatic change in
their distribution and behaviour suggest a seasonal switch
of fish activity, triggered by light. Analysis of this very
dense Arctic cod aggregation, at a seasonal and daily scale,
enabled to enlighten the interactions of Arctic cod with its
preys and predators, in its deep, ice-covered, and low-light
winter environment. Understanding the under-ice ecology
of Arctic cod is a gateway to envisage how the decrease of
the sea-ice cover may affect this key-species of the Arctic
pelagic ecosystem.
NORWEGIAN MEASUREMENTS OF
ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY DEPLETION
EVENTS AT ANTARCTICA, SVALBARD AND THE
MAINLAND OF NORWAY
Berg, Torunn1,2 ([email protected]), K. Aspmo2,
A.O.Steen1
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU,
7491 Trondheim, Norway
2
Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU, 7018 Kjeller,
Norway
1
The presentation show development and some
highlights from eight years Atmospheric Mercury Depletion
Event (AMDE) studies at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (78o54’N,
11o53’E), two years at Andøya (69.3º N, 16º E) at the
49
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
mainland of Norway, as well as 1 years measurements at
Troll, Antarctica (72° 01’ S, 2° 32’ E). For the first time
AMDEs have been recorded at the Scandinavian peninsula.
Nearly all of the AMDEs observed at the subarctic station
Andøya occurred concurrently with AMDEs measured
at the high Arctic Zeppelin station, Svalbard. The events
at Andøya were less pronounced as those measured at
Zeppelin. AMDEs have also been observed at the Antarctic
station. This was somewhat surprising due to the fact that
the station is located 220 km from the coast line and 1270
m.a.s.l. The stations are completely different from each
other concerning climate and the results will be discussed on
basis of this fact.
UPS AND DOWNS ALL YEAR ROUND: DVM
PATTERNS IN ARCTIC ZOOPLANKTON
Berge, Jorgen1 ([email protected]), M. Wallace2, F.
Cottier3, G. Tarling4, A. Brierley2, E. Leu5, S. Falk-Petersen5,
J. Søreide1, Ø. Varpe1, C. Griffiths3
University Centre in Svalbard, Pb 156, 9171 Longyearbyen,
Norway
2
Gatty Marine Laboratory, University of St Andrews, Fife,
KY16 8LB, Scotland, UK
3
The Scottish Association for Marine Science, Dunstaffnage
Marine Laboratories, Oban, Argyll, PA37 1QA, Scotland
4
British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road,
Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK
5
Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsø, Norway
1
High latitude environments show extreme seasonal
variation in both physical and biological variables, with
the classic paradigm of Arctic marine ecosystems holding
that Diel Vertical Migration (DVM) of zooplankton will
cease both during the midnight sun and polar night. Pelagic
biological processes in summer have been extensively
investigated in terms of community development,
reproduction and feeding, whereas much less is known
about the rates and processes of pelagic communities in
winter.
Acoustic data from two years of almost continuous
deployment from two coastal sites at Svalbard (Rijpfjorden
and Kongsfjorden) have now been analyzed for patterns
of DVM. Both datasets are derived from one-year
deployments of moored upward-looking acoustic Doppler
current profilers (ADCPs) covering the upper ~100m of
the water column. In Kongsfjorden, there is a detectable
synchronized DVM pattern almost continuously between
late autumn 2006 until August 2008, with the signal only
becoming weaker and indistinct during December and early
January. This period covers the polar night and midnight
sun, as well as the regular day-night cycles of spring and
autumn. Corresponding data from Rijpfjorden show DVM
during autumn, late winter and spring, but in contrast to
Kongsfjorden the signal does not appear to continue into
summer.
COMUNITY-BASED MONITERING
Berkes, Fikret1 ([email protected])
Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba,
Winnipeg Manitoba R3T 2N2
1
There is a need to develop monitoring frameworks
that take into account both science and local traditional
knowledge. Using a range of sources of information is
crucially important for environmental monitoring. This
helps engage user-groups, foster environmental stewardship,
improve the quality of information, and expand the
range of kinds of changes to be monitored. Indigenous
knowledge (traditional environmental knowledge) of
northern aboriginal peoples is under-represented in
environmental monitoring and assessment in Canada and
elsewhere, despite over ten years of experience with projects
such as the Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Coop (http://www.taiga.net/coop). There are three important
lessons emerging from the experience with indigenous
knowledge systems.
First, indigenous knowledge is not merely local,
as often thought. Local knowledge can be pieced together
to illuminate regional-level changes from multiple stresses
over large areas, as done in Yukon-Alaska by the Co-op,
Voices from the Bay project in the Hudson Bay region, and
the use of a ‘fat index’ to monitor the health of caribou
across northern Canada and Alaska. Second, indigenous
knowledge has its own distinct logic. It seems to monitor a
large number of indicators continuously, accumulates large
amount of qualitative data, and builds a collective mental
model that is flexible. Such community-based monitoring
results in holistic assessments by the consideration of a
large number of variables qualitatively; this complements
scientific approaches that typically monitor a small number
of variables quantitatively. Third, the key role of local-level
observations in global assessments is being increasingly
recognized, as in the MA volume, Bridging Scales and Knowledge
Systems. Community-based monitoring can complement
scientific monitoring not only in terms of knowledge, but
also in terms of scale. Scientific knowledge and community
knowledge are complementary because the two kinds of
knowledge operate at two distinct spatial scales. Good
monitoring requires the use of both, giving a more complete
50
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
accounting at the various levels of analysis from local to
global.
CO-MANAGEMENT INSTITUTIONS AND THE
USE OF KNOWLEDGE: ADAPTING TO CHANGE
IN THE ARCTIC
Berkes, Fikret1 ([email protected])
Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba,
Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2
1
Environmental change and other drivers have
been affecting Arctic resources and livelihoods. Arctic
social-ecological systems possess adaptations to deal
with natural variability, and recent changes have been
triggering short-term coping responses as well. What
are the prospects for increasing the ability of Arctic
communities to adapt to further change? Institutions
are important in this regard because they are related to
knowledge development and social learning that can help
reduce vulnerability, build resilience and increase adaptive
capacity. But the mechanisms of this are poorly known.
In our current project, we are examining institutions and
institutional processes that facilitate or constrain adaptation.
The relevant institutions in Canada, for our purposes, are
mainly the co-management institutions of Arctic land
claims agreements. Under the Inuvialuit Final Agreement of
1984, the main co-management agency is the Fisheries
Joint Management Committee (FJMC). Under the Nunavut
Land Claims Agreement of 1993, it is the Nunavut Wildlife
Management Board (NWMB). However, other institutions
that play a role in co-management also include those at
community, regional, national and international levels.
A co-management agency that properly functions as a
bridging organization provides a platform (1) to facilitate the
interactions of institutions at multiple organizational levels,
(2) to bring together the different kinds of knowledge
and ways of knowing (indigenous and scientific), (3) to
access information and resources as needed, and (4) to
build networks and partnerships for social learning. In
particular, we need to identify key linkages, and the flow
of communication, knowledge and resources across
these linkages, both horizontally (across the same level of
organization or across geographical space) and vertically
(across levels of organization). By doing so, we may
understand the opportunities and limitations of current
institutional arrangements to provide governance systems
that can learn from experience and generate knowledge to
cope with change.
RADARSAT BASED RIVER ICE MAPPING IN THE
NUNAVIK CONTEXT
Bernier, Monique1 ([email protected]), Yves
Gauthier1, Martin Tremblay2 and Chris Furgal3
INRS-ETE, 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec,
Canada, G1K 9A9,
2
Kativik Regional Government, C.P. 930, Kuujjuaq, Québec,
Canada, J0M 1C0,
3
Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough,
Ontario, Canada, K9J 7B8
1
Over-ice transport is an essential element of
life in the north. Native people are commonly using the
inland rivers and lakes network to access there hunting
and fishing grounds. However, these ice routes are being
strongly impacted by recent warming and associated
reductions in the seasonal duration and thickness of ice,
which may lead to increasingly risky areas or inaccessible
trails. In this context, the Kativik Regional Government of
Nunavik (Northern Quebec) has initiated an ice monitoring
program along the trail networks surrounding certain
communities, relying on traditional knowledge and scientific
measurements. Through the Canadian Government
International Polar Year Program, and the project
¯’Variability and Change in the Canadian Cryosphere’ a
complementary monitoring approach based on RADARSAT
images is being tested.
RADARSAT-1 images in Fine or Standard mode
are a powerful tool to collect information on river ice
development over large areas repeatedly and consistently
throughout the ice season. Unsurpervised classifications
algorithms based on radar image intensity and texture are
used to discrimate automatically different ice types. The
dominant ice cover types can be identified and ice type
boundaries can be observed. The ice maps can help locate
the head of the complete ice cover and the location of
heavily consolidated events (very rough ice). However,
misclassification of ice cover types can occur due to the
complex and variable characteristics of the ice itself and
to the characteristics of the sensor. Generally, overall
classification accuracies of 69% to 99% could be obtained
for tree to five ice classes.
This paper presents the process developed to adapt
and implement radar based river ice maps to the context
of the Koksoak River area (Kuujjuaq, Qc) and the needs
of the local communauties. The first step was to meet with
local hunters and experts to establish the trail network, to
acquire the Inuit’s perspective about river ice in the area (ice
features, changing conditions, risky areas) and to discuss a
product that would suit their needs (boundaries, frequency,
51
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
medium, language, etc.). The second step of the process
was to plan for a test season, with a weekly near real-time
prototype product. Aspects of this planning would involve
the adaptation of image processing methods and map
design, as well as developing means to deliver the maps to
the users. The third step of the process was to develop a
validation protocol, which relies on field observations. This
part involves the installation on site of instruments such as
an ice profiler (SWIP) and a high resolution webcam. But it
also involves the map users themselves, with feedbacks on
the maps, acquisition of ground photos and measurements
of ice thickness. Results of the 2007-2008 winter season are
also presented.
THE NORTHERN BIODIVERSITY PARADOX:
GLOBAL CRISIS YET LOCAL ENRICHMENT
Berteaux, Dominique ([email protected])
Chaire de recherche du Canada en conservation des
écosystèmes nordiques et Centre d’études nordiques,
Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec, G5L
3A1
Although there are many uncertainties about the trajectories
of populations and species, we know where biodiversity will go
from here in the absence of a rapid, transformative intervention:
up in smoke and toward the poles (modified and simplified
from Ehrlich and Pringle PNAS 2008). The Arctic is
the end-member of a declining biodiversity gradient
that runs from the tropics to the North Pole. Climate
warming is currently shifting this gradient to the North,
with a predicted acceleration of biodiversity erosion at
the global level. Whereas the Arctic will lose (is losing) its
ice-dependent habitats and some of its most specialized
species, biodiversity in the Arctic should generally increase
with the augmentation of primary productivity and the
arrival of new species from the South. In terms of absolute
number of species, the Arctic should gain more than it will
lose, hence generating a Northern biodiversity paradox.
If this hypothesis is true, biodiversity conservation in
the 21st century Arctic will have to deal at least as much
with invading Southern species as with declining Arctic
species, in a context where adaptation strategies for habitat
and biodiversity conservation may be limited. In this
presentation I explore the interface between climate change
and biodiversity conservation in the Arctic, in an attempt
to extract some of the key issues that arctic researchers and
managers have to face.
ON THE ROLE OF ANTHROPOGENIC
AEROSOLS IN THIN ICE CLOUDS FORMATION
DURING WINTER: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCTIC
CLIMATE AND DECISION MAKERS
Blanchet, Jean-Pierre1 ([email protected]),
P. Grenier1, R. Munoz-Alpizar1, T. Ayash1,2, E. Girard2, C.
Jones2,3, G. Stephen4 and J. Jiang5
Institute des sciences de l’environnement, UQAM,
Montréal, H3C 3P8
2
ESCER, Département des sciences de la terre et de
l’atmosphère, UQAM, Montréal, H3C 3P8
3
Rossby Centre SMHI, Norrköping, Sweden
4
Department of Atmospheric Science, Fort Collins, CO
80523-1371
5
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109
1
New findings from CloudSat – CALIPSO satellites
and from the ground based observatory at PEARL, Eureka
NU, together with concurring model simulations over
the Arctic are leading us into a new perspective on the
formation of cold air anomalies in the High Arctic through
the dehydration-greenhouse feedback process. Our results
show that vast regions of optically thin ice cloud formations
(1000 to 4000 km wide and 5 to 10 km deep) are modified
by anthropogenic aerosols reaching deeply in the Arctic
troposphere during the cold season (November to March).
The cold core from winter storms in their final life stage
are often drifting into the Arctic, slow lifting cold and moist
air, enriched by anthropogenic pollutants and dominated
by sulphuric acid. Observations and model simulations
agree that the maximum aerosol concentration in the upper
troposphere (4 to 8 km) occurs during winter above the
Arctic. This situation allows a cooling rate which favours
the interaction between aerosol, originating for arctic
haze, and clouds. The resulting thin ice cloud formations
are associated to acid coating on most aerosol particles,
deactivating IFN and leading to fewer but larger ice crystals.
The process effectively dehydrates the air deeply into the
troposphere and produces very distinct cloud types from
those dominating in more pristine regions, like Greenland
and Antarctica. Statistics on aerosol and thin ice clouds
found in both polar regions are compared. Microphysical
processes in thin ice clouds and light precipitation occurring
in these regions are enhancing the lost of energy in the far
IR region and can be responsible for profound alteration
of the production rate of cold anomalies which ultimately
feeds mid latitudes synoptic storms. This study of aerosols,
thin ice clouds, radiation, light precipitation and atmospheric
dehydration in cold conditions is part of the Canadian
research activities during the International Polar Year. The
52
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
implications for decision and policy makers are paramount
for managing the course of our future climate in the Arctic
and the mid latitudes as well.
TERRESTRIAL ARTHROPOD ABUNDANCE
AND PHENOLOGY IN THE CANADIAN
ARCTIC; MODELING THE VARIATION IN
RESOURCES AVAILABLE TO ARCTIC-NESTING
INSECTIVORES.
Bolduc, Elise1,2 ([email protected]), L. McKinnon1,2,
And J. Bêty1,2
Département de Biologie, Université du Québec à
Rimouski, Québec, Québec, G5L 3A1
2
Centre d’Études Nordiques, Université Laval, Québec, G1V
0A6
1
Many insectivorous birds breeding in the arctic
tundra depend on arthropods such as insects and spiders
for their survival and reproduction. Arthropods benefit
from a very short period of favorable climatic conditions
to grow and reproduce and birds must synchronize the
hatching of their young with the short peak in arthropod
abundance. This can be particularly challenging for longdistance migrants. The timing and amplitude of the peak
in arthropod abundance are likely to change rapidly as
a consequence of global warming. One of the possible
outcomes is that peaks in arthropod abundance will
occur earlier in the season but may not necessarily last
longer, thereby disrupting the synchrony between nesting
phenology of birds and their prey. In order to better
anticipate the response of wildlife to global warming, we
investigated the effect of various environmental parameters
on seasonal changes in arthropod abundance and activity.
Arthropod trapping provides a proxy for both arthropod
abundance and activity, which in turn is reflective of their
availability to insectivores. Pitfall and modified pitfall traps
were set in four locations in the Canadian Arctic: Bylot
Island, Ellesmere Island, Herschel Island, and Southampton
Island. Traps were set for one to three consecutive summers
at each location using a standardized protocol. In all
instances, a set of traps were deployed in both wetland
and mesic tundra and sampled every two days. By coupling
trapping data with environmental parameters measured
by automatic weather stations, we built a model to predict
seasonal change in arthropod abundance. Model variables
included precipitation, cumulative thaw degree-days and
daily temperature. The model will be used to simulate past
trends in arthropod abundance and activity and forecast
their response to climate changes. The model will provide a
tool in assessing the risk of a phenology mismatch between
insectivorous birds and their prey in the arctic tundra.
VARIABILITY OF SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURE
AND SEA-ICE COVER IN THE FRAM STRAIT
OVER THE LAST TWO MILLENNIA
Bonnet, Sophie1 ([email protected]), A. de Vernal1 and
C. Hillaire-Marcel1
Centre de recherche en géochimie et en géodynamique
(GEOTOP-UQÀM-McGill), Département des Sciences
de la Terre et de l’atmosphère, Université du Québec à
Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3P8
1
During the last decades, the Arctic regions have
experienced significant changes, notably with respect to
the extent and duration of the sea-ice cover. Although
the modern sea ice decline is largely attributed to global
warming, little is known about the natural variability of sea
ice, and future trends remain difficult to predict. One key
to address this critical issue is the use of recent geological
archives for documenting past sea ice on centennial to
millennial time scales.
In this context, the International Polar Year activity
WARMPAST (Arctic Ocean Warming in the Past: IPY
n°36) was defined for the reconstruction of past ocean and
climate conditions in the Fram Strait which constitutes the
main gateway between the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans.
Here, we report the results obtained from a sediment core
(JM-2006-04) collected during the WARMPAST 2006
expedition on the Jan Mayen along the West Spitsbergen
margin of Fram Strait (78.92°N, 6.77°E, water depth: 1497
m). The chronology of the 51 cm long core was established
from 210Pb and 137Cs and 14C measurements. A
sedimentation rate of about 19 cm/kyrs and a mixing layer
of 5 cm led to an extrapolated age of 2400 yrs BP at core
bottom. Analyses of dinocyst assemblages were performed
to reconstruct hydroclimatic conditions, including the seaice cover, using the Modern Analogue Technique (MAT)
and a Northern Hemisphere reference database of 1208
sites.
The relative abundance of dinocyst taxa and a
principal component analysis permitted to distinguish
a particularly warm interval characterized by sea-ice
free conditions at about 1350 yrs BP. A sharp transition
from the Medieval Warm Period to Little Ice Age
conditions is found around 640 yrs BP. It is marked by
the simultaneous disappearance of the thermophilic
taxa Spiniferites mirabilis-hypercanthus, Selenopemphix
quanta and Impagidinium sphaericum and the increase
53
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
of the polar-subpolar taxa Impagidinium pallidum and
Pentapharsodinium dalei. Sea-surface temperatures (SSTs)
estimates suggest warmer conditions than present (up to
7°C in summer) until 640 yrs BP although cooling pulses
are recorded circa 1900, 1550 and 900 yrs BP. These
pulses associated with a high variability of sea ice suggest
centennial to millennial timescale oscillations. The last 640
yrs BP show a cooling trend with summer SSTs decreasing
from 7 to 2°C and a seasonal sea-ice cover increasing up to
7 months/yr.
The study of core JM-2006-04 demonstrates the
Fram Strait area constitutes a particularly sensitive zone as
regards the sea-ice cover and SSTs, as a result of the relative
influence of the warm and saline inflow of North Atlantic
water masses and of cold and fresh waters outflow from
the Arctic. The thermal optimum recorded at 1350 yrs BP
represents the only interval of the last 2400 yrs BP that
provides a possible analogue for the modern post-2000 AD
conditions.
PREDICTING CLIMATE CHANGE-INDUCED
ALTERATION IN FOOD WEB ACCUMULATION
OF CONTAMINANTS
Borga, Katrine1, T. Saloranta1, A. Ruus1 and Lars Otto
Reiersen
Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalléen 21,
0349 Oslo, Norway
1
Climatic change is expected to alter environmental
distribution of contaminants and bioaccumulation in
organisms. This alteration is related to changes in transport,
partitioning, carbon pathways and internal bioaccumulation
process rates. The magnitude and direction of these changes
and resulting overall bioaccumulation in the food web is not
known. In the present study the aim is to quantify the effect
of climate change, represented by temperature change, on
internal processes resulting in bioaccumulation of organic
contaminants. Thus, the study is independent of altered
transport of contaminants and introduction by new species
in the food web.
To asses the effect of climate change on internal processes
governing bioaccumulation, we focussed on the pelagic
marine food web of the Arctic, as the amplitude of
climate change is expected occur largest and fastest in
Polar Regions. The pelagic Arctic marine food web was
represented by primary producers (phytoplankton/
particulate organic matter, secondary producers (calanoid
copepods: Calanus glacialis and C. hyperboreus, and krill:
Thysanoessa inermis), predators (pelagic amphipods:
Themisto libellula, and fish: polar cod Boreogadus saida),
piscivorous seabirds (kittiwake Rissa tridactyla) and
piscivorous mammals (ringed seal Phusa hispida). The effect
of climate change on bioaccumulation was studied using
a well-studied bioaccumulation model that has been used
in many recent bioaccumulation studies. The fundamental
model concept is to estimate six different contaminant rate
constants governing the intake and outflow of POPs in
an organism. These six rates are: uptake (kI) and loss (kO)
to water or air via gills or lungs, dietary uptake (kD) and
loss due to excretion (kE), metabolic degradation (kM) and
growth dilution (kG).
By defining two future scenario with increasing
seawater temperature (+2ºC and +4ºC), the effect on the
model processes was quantified, and the overall contribution
to bioaccumulation was estimated. Interestingly, parameters
that are not directly influencing bioaccumulation in a
specific species had an overall effect on the species, as
it affects the prey of the species. The break up of the
processes rather than looking at the overall bioaccumulation
was awarding, as some of the processes work in different
directions. Also, the identification of how the change in
parameters influence the bioaccumulation was surprising
for some parameters such as lipid content, as its role in the
bioaccumulation is more complicated than often considered.
In future phases of this work we focus on the other
contributors to changes accumulation in an organism, such
as altered exposure and food web.
GLOBAL WARMING AND ARCTIC MARINE
MAMMALS (GWAMM): THE DEVELOPMENT
OF A COMMUNITY-BASED MONITORING
(CBM) NETWORK WITHIN THE HUDSON BAY
REGION OF CANADA
Bortoluzzi, Tara1,2 ([email protected]) and
Steven H. Ferguson1,2
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent,
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N6.
2
Centre for Earth Observation Science, The University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2
1
The core objective of the International Polar Year
(IPY) - Global Warming and Arctic Marine Mammals
(GWAMM) project was to develop a community-based
monitoring (CBM) network within the greater Hudson Bay
region of the Canadian Arctic. The CBM network would
(1) be based on partnerships between Fisheries and Oceans
Canada, University researchers, Hunting and Trappers
Organizations, and hunters, their families, and associated
54
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
northerners from the Inuit communities around Hudson
Bay; (2) employ an integrated ecosystem-based approach
that incorporates both science and traditional ecological
knowledge (TEK); and (3) involve the participation
and training of northerners in all aspects of research,
monitoring and sample collections; from planning and
coordination to implementation and support, as well as
evaluating, analyzing, communicating and applying the
resultant information. The GWAMM CBM network
functions to collect biological samples and information
from aquatic marine mammals, with emphasis on the key
co-management hunted marine mammals that dominant
upper trophic levels of Arctic marine ecosystems including
ringed seal, bearded seal, beluga whale, narwhal whale, and
bowhead whale. Resulting collections are being used to
examine changes in marine mammal health and ecology
with climate warming including diet, contaminants, disease,
stress, genetics, and reproduction. In addition, GWAMM
is developing a model of trophic interactions for the
Hudson Bay ecosystem, from marine mammals down to
nutrients and phytoplankton that is based on data gathered
via CBM. Currently, the CBM network is focused in four
communities around Hudson Bay: Arviat, Sanikiluaq,
Repulse Bay, and Igloolik, Nunavut, as well as providing
umbrella support and funding to other linked communitybased studies across the Canadian Arctic including
Eastmain (QC), Pond Inlet, Rankin Inlet (NU), Churchill
(MB), Hall Beach (NU), and Pangnirtung (NU), Kugaaruk
(NU, Rigolet (NL), Hope Dale (NL), and Nain (NL),
Holman (NWT) and Tuktoyaktuk (NWT), Salluit (QC),
Inukjuaq (QC), Umiujaq (QC), Kuujjuaraapik (QC), and
Kangisujuaq (QC). Future plans are to expand the network
to additional northern communities around Hudson
Bay, as well as to communities in all four Canadian Inuit
territorial regions (Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Nunavik, and
Inuvialuit). Community-based monitoring partnerships are
an important element in detecting changes in the ecosystem
and guiding research projects specific to the needs of the
local resource users. If successful, the project’s legacy will
be a CBM network run by northerners for northerners. The
triumphs and difficulties associated with the development
and long-term sustainability of the GWAMM CBM network
will be discussed, including examples from participating
communities, and relevant research findings.
IMPACTS OF RECURRING ICE-JAMS
ON CHANNEL GEOMETRY AND
GEOMORPHOLOGY IN A SMALL HIGH-BOREAL
WATERSHED
Boucher, Étienne1 ([email protected]), Y. Bégin2
and D. Arseneault3
1
Centre d’études nordiques and Département de géographie,
Université Laval, Québec, Canada, G1V 0A6
2
Centre d’études nordiques and Centre Eau, Terre
& Environnement, Institut national de la recherche
scientifique, Québec, Canada, G1K 9A9
3
Centre d’études nordiques and Département de biologie,
chimie et géographie, Université du Québec à Rimouski,
Rimouski, Canada, G5L 3A1
River ice-jams are generally perceived as significant
erosive events and are well known to impact both channel
morphology and geometry. However, the extent of
these impacts and the frequency of events required to
maintain ice-scoured morphologies remain unexplored.
In this study, we investigated downstream variations in
geometric and geomorphologic characteristics in a small
high-boreal watershed. We coupled these observations
to dendrochronological data on ice-jam frequency. It is
shown that channels affected by ice erosion experience a
rapid retreat of the upper bank and significant deposition
on the lower bench. Our results show that channels
appear enlarged and present a typical two-level ice-scoured
morphology when ice-jams recur more often than once
every five years. By contrast, channels appear unaffected
when ice-jams are less frequent. We therefore conclude that
ice-jam frequencies should be taken into account in order to
better define the role of ice as a geomorphological agent in
cold-environments.
LE DÉVELOPPEMENT DE PRATIQUES
DE RESTAURATION APPLIQUÉES AU
MILIEU NORDIQUE : L’EXEMPLE DE
WHAPMAGOOSTUI-KUUJUARAPIK AU QUÉBEC
SUBARCTIQUE
Boudreau, Stéphane1 ([email protected]),
Alexis Deshaies1, Julie-Faure Lacroix1 and Ian Boucher1
Centre d’études nordiques et département de Biologie,
Université Laval, Québec, Québec, G1V 0A6
1
À Whapmagoostui-Kuujjuarapik, le couvert végétal
est dégradé suite à de nombreuses perturbations de nature
anthropique. Le village est en fait une mosaïque d’îlots
55
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
résiduels de végétation et de surfaces dénudées. Le substrat
sableux exposé, souvent mobilisé par le vent durant la
période sans neige, est à l’origine de nombreuses tempêtes
de poussière. Devant ces faits, il existe un profond désir au
sein de la communauté crie de solutionner le problème en
favorisant le retour de la végétation. Dans ce contexte, les
objectifs principaux de cette recherche étaient i. d’identifier
les facteurs contraignant la recolonisation végétale naturelle
ainsi que ii. de déterminer les différentes interventions
pouvant favoriser la recolonisation végétale assistée.
Pour ce faire, les substrats du village de WhapmagoostuiKuujjuarapik ont été échantillonnés et soumis à des analyses
physico-chimiques. Des échantillons de sol de l’écosystème
de référence (dunes côtières non-perturbées) et d’un
marais environnant (utilisé comme source de fertilisant
organique) ont été prélevés à des fins comparatives. Des
échantillons de sol ont également été prélevés pour vérifier
la présence d’une banque de graines viables dans le village.
Finalement, des expériences en serre et sur le terrain ont été
menées pour vérifier la performance d’espèces herbacées
indigènes à différents traitements de fertilisation, de
piétinement, d’ensablement et de sécheresse. La disponibilité
des nutriments est plus faible et les particules sont plus
grossières pour le substrat prélevé dans le village. La
banque de graines viables de Leymus mollis et de Lathyrus
japonicus se limite aux îlots résiduels de végétation. Bien
que ces contraintes ne favorisent pas la croissance et la
recolonisation végétale dans le village, il semble improbable
qu’elles limitent à elles seules le rétablissement du couvert
végétal. La fertilisation chimique favorise l’émergence de L.
mollis alors qu’elle influence négativement l’émergence et la
survie des autres espèces (L. japonicus et Trisetum spicatum).
Son effet sur la croissance et l’accumulation de biomasse est
toutefois moins évident puisqu’elle agit dans la plupart des
cas en interaction avec d’autres facteurs. La performance
de L. mollis en réponse aux traitements d’ensablement et de
piétinement est supérieure à celle de T. spicatum, alors que les
deux espèces sont affectées négativement par les traitements
de sécheresse. Grâce aux connaissances acquises lors de
ces diverses expériences, des recommandations seront
formulées aux communautés concernées pour favoriser les
initiatives individuelles afin de restaurer le couvert végétal
des villages.
A critical mass of empirical research has emerged
over the past few years focused on identifying vulnerabilities
and adaptations in Arctic communities given current and
anticipated impacts of climate change (e.g. Berkes and
Jolly, 2001; Ford et al., 2006; Ford et al., 2007; Pearce et al.,
2007). While seldom stated in these terms, these identified
vulnerabilities inherently reflect a change from some former,
presumably preferred, condition of the community under
investigation; that is, all assessments implicitly start with a
‘baseline’ against which new vulnerabilities are revealed. As
such, community vulnerability researchers, again although
seldom acknowledged, also make implicit use of some sort
of ‘continuum of vulnerability’ marked by increasing and
decreasing vulnerability towards each end. If the aim of
the research is to merely identify possible vulnerabilities
and help generate adaptive strategies to reduce these
vulnerabilities and thereby maintain the community
‘baseline’ condition, then making explicit what is currently
implicit is neither necessary nor productive. If, however,
the overarching purpose of the research, and certainly the
reason for its considerable funding of late, is to enable
communities, some of which are experiencing a range of
significant and persistent challenges beyond those generated
by climate change, to move away from their current
‘baseline’, then this ‘continuum of vulnerability’ needs to be
made explicit and its ultimate positive endpoint needs to be
identified and perhaps even defined.
To this end, this paper attempts to identify and
define ideal Arctic community conditions by drawing on
a wide range of scholarship including that focused on
vulnerability, resilience, Aboriginal economic development,
and community well-being and development. We
appreciate that this exercise may be infeasible; indeed, Sen
(1988; 1993; 1999), one of the leading contributors to
community development scholarship and practice, and an
author of numerous normative characteristics of ‘capable
communities’, cautions those who would seek to define
the precise attributes of such communities. That said,
we see benefit in the attempt. Consistent with this effort
and without diminishing current research efforts aimed at
identifying (new) vulnerabilities and possible adaptations,
we suggest that vulnerability research could be significantly
enlivened and further justified were it to embrace
community development as an explicit goal.
ASSESSING COMMUNITY VULNERABILITIES IN
LIGHT OF CLIMATE CHANGE: TO WHAT END?
Bradshaw, Ben1 ([email protected]) and P.
Siebenmorgen1
Department of Geography, University of Guelph
1
56
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
CLIMATE CHANGE, SEARCH AND RESCUE AND
HUMAN VULNERABILITY IN THE CANADIAN
ARCTIC
Breton-Honeyman, Kaitlin1 ([email protected]), C.
Furgal1,2
Environmental and Life Sciences Graduate Program, Trent
University
2
Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent
University
1
The Arctic is experiencing some of the most
rapid effects of climate change globally and how northern
residents are able cope with the variety of changes they
face is of particular concern for their health and safety.
Vulnerability assessments have emerged as an informative
research approach to understanding potential impacts
and identifying characteristics of those communities and
individuals most at-risk. Many of the climate change driven
challenges facing northern residents are common across
regions in the Canadian Arctic. However, understanding
the nature of what these challenges mean in terms of
current or future impacts on health and well-being and
the opportunities and abilities of individuals to respond
is unique to the individual, community or regional scale.
It is for this reason that community or regionally focused
and issue-specific vulnerability assessments can prove
an effective tool through which to understand risks and
responses and support the development of policies or
programs to enhance adaptive capacity and protect human
health in the Canadian North in a focused manner.
For Inuit, health and safety on the land is of
particular concern in the context of climate change and
variability as many communities report increasingly frequent
uncharacteristic weather and sea-ice conditions putting
hunters and others at greater risk than ever before. Inuit
communities across the Canadian Arctic are reporting
a perceived increased in the numbers of land and icebased accidents and injuries related to these changes in
environmental conditions. This issue is of great importance
as injury related mortality is already 2.3 times higher in
the Northwest Territories than the Canadian average
and is 3 times higher among Inuit residents than others.
We conducted an issue-specific vulnerability assessment
to look at health and safety while on the land in the
Inuvialuit Settlement Region of the Northwest Territories.
We took a multi-disciplinary approach drawing on both
qualitative (workshop reports, semi-directed interviews)
and quantitative (primary Search and Rescue (SAR) data
and secondary data on injuries) data. The results from this
study will present the challenges in effectively assessing
vulnerability with existing Search and Rescue data collection
and organization protocols in the Canadian Arctic, highlight
the characteristics of those most at-risk for land based
accidents and the needs in terms of support for adaptation
programs and policies in this and other Inuit regions. With
the results of this assessment we will argue that it is possible
to improve the monitoring and surveillance capacity at the
regional and community scales to gain a more complete
understanding of health and safety vulnerabilities related to
climate change and land based safety for Inuit communities.
EXPLORING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
OF A SUBARCTIC ESTUARY, THE NELSON
RIVER ESTUARY, HUDSON BAY, CANADA
Briand, Marie-Hélène1 ([email protected]),
Kevin Sydor2, Stéphane Lorrain3, Suzanne Leclair3, Tariq
Aziz2 and Karen Ng1
RSW Inc, 1010 de la Gauchetiere west, Suite 500, Montreal,
Quebec, H3B 0A1
2
Manitoba Hydro, Water Resources Development and
Engineering, 540-444 St.Mary Ave., Winnipeg, R3C 3T7
3
Environnement Illimité, 1453 St-Timothée, Montreal, H2L
3N7
1
The Nelson River, the largest contributor of
freshwater inflows to Hudson Bay, is regulated for
hydroelectric generation downstream of Lake Winnipeg,
and is a major component of Manitoba Hydro’s hydraulic
system. The Nelson River mouth, a large subarctic,
mesotidal estuary, although well known for its important
beluga whale gatherings, was until recently mostly
unexplored, due to the remote location, difficult navigation
conditions, a much shorter open-water season, compared to
southern rivers, and a harsh regional climate.
Manitoba Hydro, in collaboration with its
consultants, have undertaken oceanographic studies of
the Nelson River estuary to support environmental studies
related to potential hydropower developments along the
lower reaches of the Nelson River. These studies will
provide the building blocks upon which the baseline for
future development projects assessments will depend.
Extensive survey programmes were carried out in the
estuary over the summer-fall period in 2005, 2006 and
2007 by Manitoba Hydro to describe the existing physical
environment and prevailing oceanographic processes.
The approach used for the monitoring programme was
specifically designed to extract essential information
required to describe the physical environment of his large
and complex estuary.
57
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Previous knowledge of the estuary indicated a tide
dominated, homogeneous to partially-mixed environment
with the presence of a stratified zone offshore whereas
the information collected over three seasons (water levels,
current patterns obtained from ADCP profilers, as well
as temperature and conductivity gauging stations) reveals
a relatively complex environment with three distinct
zones each offering particular dynamics: the inner estuary
submitted to tides with only occasional salt intrusions; a
highly stratified middle estuary with cyclical current reversals
in the bottom layer, and the well-mixed outer estuary open
to Hudson Bay, characterized by a briny surface layer
developing into a wide plume into the Bay. These physical
processes are driven by strong opposing marine and fluvial
forces.
The presentation provides an overview of the
main oceanographic processes governing the physical
environment, circulation and mixing of water masses into
Hudson Bay. Future studies include 3D numerical modelling
of the estuary.
LINKING SCIENTISTS AND COMMUNITIES
IN WILDLIFE HEALTH MONITORING AND
EDUCATION: AN OVERVIEW AND ASSESSMENT
OF THE SAHTU WILDLIFE HEALTH
OUTREACH AND MONITORING
Brook, Ryan1 ([email protected]), S. Kutz1, A. Veitch2
and B. Elkin1,3
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary,
Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1
2
Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Sahtu
Region, Government of the Northwest Territories, Norman
Wells, Northwest Territories, X0E 0V0
3
Department of Environment and Natural Resources,
Wildlife & Fisheries, Government of the Northwest
Territories, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, X1A 3S8
1
Many residents of the five communities within
the Sahtu Settlement Area of the Northwest Territories
continue a subsistence lifestyle of resource harvesting. At
a workshop in 2002, elders and community leaders raised
concerns regarding wildlife health, food safety, climate
change, and the sustainability of health wildlife populations.
They requested that efforts by scientists be put toward
developing training for youth in science and for increasing
involvement of hunters and youth in wildlife monitoring
and research. In response, we initiated a long-term,
integrated approach to foster community-based wildlife
monitoring and education. This approach includes youth
education, hunter training and knowledge sharing among
researchers, biologists, elders, hunters, and youth. Annual
trips have been made to all schools in the Sahtu from 20032008 to provide hands-on learning about wildlife biology
and health for 250-460 students each year. Themes changed
annually and reflect key issues raised by the communities
and have included slide presentations, demonstrations,
hands-on wildlife dissections, handling of furs, bones,
and preserved parasites. Students were encouraged to ask
questions and have discussions with wildlife veterinarians
and biologists. Local hunters were trained as wildlife health
monitors to collect samples and measurements from moose
and caribou that they harvested for consumption. These
data are used to assess body condition and monitor parasites
and disease and to date 69 caribou and 19 moose have been
sampled. In 2007 and 2008 we were invited to participate
in community caribou hunts, which provided another
51 caribou for health monitoring. The value of these
data for providing baseline and monitoring information
on the body condition, parasite load, and presence of
pathogens will be discussed. The program continues to be
challenged by several issues, particularly the recent decline
in caribou, which has resulted in hunters fewer caribou,
particularly fewer females. Interviews were conducted with
31 experienced hunters and elders to document their local
ecological knowledge of wildlife health and to develop
baselines of past and current presence, absence and spatial
distribution of pathogens that were readily identifiable by
harvesters in caribou, muskoxen, Dall’s sheep, and moose.
These interviews established that, based on observations
of 5870 moose since 1970, ‘ghost moose’ that had been
impacted by winter ticks were not present in the area. In the
last three years, there have been four ghost moose observed
in the region, suggesting that winter ticks ‘emerged’ in the
region around 2004. In conjunction with, and as an outcome
of, the community-focused aspects of our Sahtu program,
we also developed targeted scientific studies that included:
evaluating blood filters strips to characterize wildlife health,
dental enamel development and lesions in caribou, caribou
bone density, gastrointestinal parasite ecology, caribou
anatomy, parasite diversity and distribution, and a needs
assessment for veterinary services. The Sahtu Wildlife
Health Outreach and Monitoring Program has generated
considerable capacity building and has formed trust-based
relationships with local people but the scientific value of
the data obtained from the community monitors requires
rigorous analysis and we will discuss ways that these data are
being assessed and shared with the communities.
58
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
SNOW DEPTH CONTROLS THE SPRING
NUTRIENT FLUSH IN ARCTIC TUNDRA
Buckeridge, Kate M.1 ([email protected]) and P. Grogan1
Department of Biology, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON,
K7L 3N6
1
The availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)
determines plant communities and ecosystem carbon (C)
storage in arctic tundra. Although plant growth is limited in
the growing season by low soil nutrient pools, soil microbes
may be mineralizing N and P over winter and these nutrients
could be an important part of the annual vegetation
budget upon their release during spring thaw. Despite the
importance of the vernal nutrient flush for spring plant
growth in many ecosystems, and although a substantial
nutrient content has been characterized in arctic lakes during
nival melt, a spring flush has seldom been reported in arctic
tundra soil. The timing, the magnitude and the drivers of
this flush, and the sensitivity to climate change, have not
been previously described.
We sampled soil biogeochemistry and microbial
biomass every three days for two months, from late winter
frozen soils to mid-spring thawed soils, under ambient
and experimentally deepened snow. Two important soil
temperature periods were identified, associated with large
peaks and crashes in soil solution and microbial biomass C,
N and P. The thaw turnover in microbial nutrient content
was three times the background microbial P and twice the
background microbial N, and this N peak is double the
estimated annual N uptake requirement for plant growth
in this ecosystem. Daily changes in microbial C:N:P ratios
suggest rapid soil microbial community succession, which is
supported by microbial molecular and lipid characterization
and microbial cell counts. Changes in microbial biomass
nutrient pools were a magnitude larger than changes in soil
solution pools, suggesting that the biomass-related flush
was rapidly lost from the system or acquired by plants.
Depending upon the potential for plants to acquire this
resource pulse, the larger spring nutrient flush with deeper
snow may be important for changing plant communities and
ecosystem C budgets, or may instead maintain ecosystemwide limitations to plant growth.
EDUCATION, COMMUNICATION AND
OUTREACH: LINKING RESEARCH TO PUBLIC
POLICY AND ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS
– CLOSING REMARKS
Carlson, David ([email protected])
Director, IPY International Programme Office
The Education,Outreach and Communication
activities of IPY have shown that good ideas, good topics,
and good practices transcend national borders, age groups,
and formal and informal settings. The activities and
networks developed during IPY also reveal a global hunger
for climate-relevant educational resources, and the powerful
impact that polar materials, polar stories, and a polar
viewpoint can have as part of that climate focus. In the IPY
IPO we look for mechanisms and support to continue many
of these networks as effective advocates for polar research
and as effective partners in global climate-related education
and outreach. The legacy of IPY will be the lasting
collaborations and partnerships between the education and
science community result in a wide continuum of programs
all aimed at creating greater awareness and understanding of
the importance of both poles in these changing times.
Modeling the potential
hydrothermal response impact of
climate change on permafrost of
within the South Mackenzie Plain,
Northwest Territories, Canada
Castonguay M.1, Jagtar S. Bhatti2 ([email protected]), M.
Brady2, P. A. Arp1
Forest Watershed Research Centre, Faculty of Forestry and
Environmental Management, University of New Brunswick,
P.O. Box 44555, Fredericton, NB E3B 6C2. 2Northern
Forestry Centre, 5320-122nd Street, Edmonton, Alberta,
Canada, T6H 3S5
1
This paper investigates hydrothermal responses of
differing landscape components (forested and non-forested
upland and wetland sites) with the potential to change a
permafrost layer according to local variations in site type,
snow pack depth, and daily weather conditions as these
have varied from 1963 to 2007, with actual and somewhat
increased air temperatures. Observed air temperature was
consistently increasing in Fort Simpson area over last 40
years. More importantly, average January temperatures
increases were more pronounced than the increases
59
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
in average July temperatures. The Forest Hydrology
Model ForHyM was applied to select conditions as these
would exist within the South Mackenzie Plain south of
Fort Simpson, to discern likely depth and duration of
frost penetration into the soil for select upland/wetland
conditions, based on daily weather information, from 1963
to 2007. It was found that forested upland soils would
experience deep frost and thawing cycles each year, but no
permafrost, with two exceptions of two-year durations. In
contrast, water-saturated wetland soils with limited drainage
would have developed a permafrost layer starting from a
hypothetical no-frost condition in 1963. This layer would
then deepen over the course of about the next 10 years and
become fairly stable thereafter, as long as the year-after-year
weather conditions would remain the same. In general, the
calculated frost depth varied with site type, and with depth
of simulated snow pack and forest litter on the ground: the
deeper these layers, the shallower the simulated frost depth.
Year-to-year snow depth variations have a particularly strong
influence on depth of frost penetration. These results
were used to hypothesize likely permafrost distribution
patterns within the study area, based on vegetative cover
and landforms, local flow patterns, and likely depth-to-water
from the soil surface. It was also noted that the hydrological
calculations corresponding to the most recent airtemperature changes suggest fairly sudden permafrost losses
in areas where the permafrost layer has already thinned to a
critically low depth.
Keywords: permafrost build up and loss, hydrothermal
snow and soil modeling, climate change.
Abundance and distribution of ringed
seals in western Hudson Bay 1995-2008
by reduced pregnancy rate, reduced pup survival, older
age structure and reduced growth and number of polar
bears. Management concerns are fuelled by a pattern of
decreasing ringed seal abundance estimates provided from
five spring aerial surveys of basking ringed seals (19952000) that estimated population size declines from 70,000
to 45,000 seals in western Hudson Bay. In June 2008, ringed
seal were declared a ‘mid-priority’ candidate species for
assessment by COSEWIC as ringed seal populations may
need conservation help with projected changes in sea ice
extent. In 2007 and 2008, we conducted two aerial surveys
over western Hudson Bay following the same protocol
than in the 90’s to assess whether ringed seal numbers
have continued to decline in the 2000’s. Survey results were
analyzed using two different methods: the strip-transect
and the distance sampling methods. The latter computes
an estimation of population size taking into account the
probability of detecting a seal with distance and other
co-variables, like years, observers, group size and sky
conditions. Satellite transmitters were attached to 18 ringed
seals in autumn 2006 and 2007 in Hudson Bay. Satellite
tagged seals during spring 2007 and 2008 provided haulout time to correct aerial survey estimates done at the same
time. Strip-transect and distance sampling methods are
compared, results are discussed in the context of global
warming and management advices are provided.
USING STABLE ISOTOPES OF CARBON
AND NITROGEN TO PREDICT TROPHIC
STRUCTURE IN DEEP-SEA ARCTIC FISH
COMMUNITIES
Chambers, Chandra A.1 and T.A. Dick1
Chambellant, Magaly1,3 ([email protected]
gc.ca), N. Lunn2 and S.H. Ferguson3
1
Department of Biological Sciences, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2
2
Canadian Wildlife Service, Edmonton, Alberta, T6H 3S5
3
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T
2N6
Arctic marine food web and the affects of
environmental and biological variables were studied by
using diet endohelminth and stable isotope data. We
proposed that stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen could
predict trophic position in deep-sea Arctic fishes and that
stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen reflected diet and
consequently the endohelminth community in deep-sea
fishes. Multidimensional scaling and Kruskal-Wallis tests
confirmed three trophic groups (benthic, benthopelagic,
pelagic), each characterized by unique combinations of
diet groupings and endohelminth (parasite) communities.
Some overlap occurred between all groups but overlap was
more significant between benthopelagic and pelagic species
than between either benthopelagic or pelagic with benthic
1
Ringed seals (Phoca hispida) contribute the bulk of
the Inuit subsistence harvest of marine mammals and are
the main food resource for polar bears. The evolutionary
adaptations of ringed seals to exploit the land-fast ice
habitat for reproduction and survival could expose
this species to critical challenges with predicted global
warming. Concerns have arisen over possible declines in
ringed seal numbers in western Hudson Bay as indicated
Department of Biological Sciences, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2
60
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
species. Results of multiple regression analysis indicated
that 1) few food groups in deep-sea Arctic fish diets could
be predicted based on the nitrogen isotope signal in tissues,
but carbon isotope values were significantly correlated with
most benthic and one pelagic food group, and 2) nitrogen
isotopes were poor predictors of endohelminth infections
though carbon isotopes significantly predicted infection
by six endohelminth species. Data from the present study,
in contrast to the literature, was unable to show a strong
positive correlation between length and d15N or d13C values
for Arctic deep-sea species. The absence of or a very weak
correlation between size and trophic position suggests
several possibilities. Large fish shift their diet to a lower
trophic level or small benthic species shift to a diet with
higher d13C or d15N signals. Perhaps, in deep water benthic
communities, the type and location of prey in pelagic,
benthopelagic and benthic zones are also important. For
example, the prey species of a benthic micropredator
(polychaetes), have higher d15N signatures than pelagic
zooplankton. Consequently, the d15N signals of carnivorous
species feeding on same-sized prey on the ocean bottom vs.
pelagic environment would be higher. In summary, d15N and
d13C values were less useful to estimate trophic position of
individual species, relative to size, but were good predictors
of trophic position within the community in terms of
feeding patterns.
PERFORMANCE OF THE EXPERIMENTAL
TOTAL PRECIPITATION SENSOR IN BARROW,
ALASKA
Cherry, Jessica1,2 ([email protected]), M. Ivey3, M. Sturm4,
Daqing Yang2, Douglas Kane2
International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska
Fairbanks (UAF)
2
Institute of Northern Engineering, Water and
Environmental Research Center, UAF
3
Sandia National Laboratory
4
Cold Regions Research Laboratory, US Army
1
The authors are testing at Barrow, Alaska
an experimental solid precipitation sensor, the Total
Precipitation Sensor (TPS), which represents a departure
from the gauge-based approach. This device is designed
to overcome the biases associated with gauge turbulence.
It is installed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research
Facility (ACRF) program. Following an extensive
gauge intercomparison project supported by the World
Meteorological Organization, measurement studies of
snowfall at Barrow are continued with standard gauges
as well as a modified Double Fenced Intercomparison
Reference (mDFIR) gauge. NOAA’s Climate Reference
Network program maintains the mDFIR, which includes the
Geonor gauge. A team of researchers from the University
of Alaska Fairbanks and the Cold Region Research Lab
at Fort Wainwright, Alaska have installed a state of the
art snow research station at the Barrow Environmental
Observatory including a solid state snow pillow (for
measurement of snow water equivalent), ultrasonic depth
sensors, a Wyoming snow gauge, and web cameras pointed
to graduated snow stakes. Comparisons of the available
data for 2008 are shown here. Additional site installations in
Alaska will also be described.
SHIFTS IN ZOOPLANKTON COMPOSITION
DRIVEN BY CLIMATE CHANGE COULD ALTER
METHYLMERCURY TRANSFER TO FISH IN
HIGH ARCTIC LAKES
Chételat, John1 ([email protected]) and M.
Amyot1
GRIL, Département de sciences biologiques, Université de
Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7
1
Climate change may alter the accumulation of
methylmercury (MeHg) in food webs of High Arctic lakes
through multiple processes including shifts in species
composition. The purpose of our presentation is two-fold:
(1) to present new findings on present-day determinants
of the MeHg content and taxonomic composition of
freshwater zooplankton in the High Arctic, and (2) to
explore the implications of these patterns with respect
to climate warming. In 2005 and 2006, we surveyed
zooplankton in 16 lakes and ponds in the Canadian Arctic
Archipelago (74-76°N), and we found that zooplankton
communities containing Daphnia (mainly D. middendorffiana)
had on average 5 times the MeHg content of copepoddominated communities. The percent biomass of Daphnia
best explained MeHg variation in bulk zooplankton
compared to water chemistry and morphometric variables.
Water-column concentrations of MeHg were low at most
study sites (mainly £0.07 ng L-1), and Daphnia strongly
bioaccumulated mercury through species-specific processes.
Since we observed Daphnia in more productive water
bodies (i.e., ponds, a eutrophied lake), we then tested the
role of productivity in determining the distribution of this
keystone herbivore using a broad-scale literature data set
of 47 High Arctic lakes (65-77°N). Daphnia density was
positively related to the amount of organic carbon in the
61
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
water-column in both dissolved and particulate fractions
(DOC partial R2adj=0.39, P<0.001; POC partial R2adj=0.05,
P=0.032). The strong influence of DOC suggests that
bacterial production is an important energy source for
Arctic Daphnia. Our findings indicate that productivity
influences the MeHg content of zooplankton communities
through its control of species composition; specifically, low
productivity limits the presence of mercury-rich Daphnia
in many copepod-dominated lakes of the High Arctic.
Aquatic productivity is expected to increase with climate
warming, and we present a conceptual model that predicts
how environmental drivers could extend the distribution of
Daphnia in lakes and alter the movement of mercury in food
webs of the Canadian High Arctic.
killer whale presence poses an increased risk to their
potential prey species such as beluga and bowhead whales,
narwhal, and seals which are also important species in Inuit
subsistence hunts. The increased predation risk can affect
prey behaviour, distribution, and movements. Anti-predator
behaviours in response to killer whales, such as cessation
of vocalizations, grouping, and swimming near shore, have
been observed in beluga, narwhal, and bowhead whales in
the eastern Canadian Arctic by locals and researchers which
also indicate the potential importance of killer whales in
this region. Long-term photo-identification data along with
other sightings data and acoustic monitoring will be used to
estimate abundance, seasonal distribution, movements, and
behaviour of eastern Arctic killer whales.
PHOTO-IDENTIFICATION OF EASTERN
ARCTIC KILLER WHALES, ORCINUS ORCA
SIMULATION OF PRECIPITATIONS OVER THE
ARCTIC BASIN: A SENSITIVITY STUDY WITH
POLAR-GEM MODELLING SYSTEM
Chmelnitsky, Elly1,3 ([email protected]), J.W.
Higdon2,3, and S.H. Ferguson3
Department of Biological Sciences, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2
2
Department of Geography, University of Manitoba,
Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2
3
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T
2N6
1
Killer whale sightings in the eastern Canadian
Arctic have increased in recent years and they have shown a
recent advance in distribution associated with loss of sea ice.
However, little is known about the distribution, abundance,
and movements of this population. Answers to these
questions may be available through photo-identification
techniques which use natural markings to identify individual
whales. Killer whales are an ideal species for photoidentification studies because they exhibit individually
distinctive features that are constant over time and can
be photographed when the animal surfaces. Identifiable
features include dorsal fin shape, size and scarring, saddle
patch shape (area of light pigmentation just behind dorsal
fin), and eye-patch shape. A catalogue has been compiled of
photographs collected by researchers and northern residents
during killer whale sightings in the eastern Canadian
Arctic from 2004 to present and as new photographs are
obtained they will be added to the catalogue. The unique
features that are visible in the photographs were used to
identify individual killer whales and then photographs were
compared to identify any individuals observed more than
once. Repeat sightings will be used to track killer whale
movements within the Canadian Arctic. The increased
Chosson, Frederick1 ([email protected]), J.
Milbrandt1 and P. Vaillancourt1
Service de Recherche en Prévision numérique,
Environnement Canada, Dorval, Quebec, H9P 1J3
1
The Polar-GEM modelling system is a limited
area model (LAM) covering the Arctic basin at its larger
extent, including Alaska and northern parts of Canada
with a constant grid of approximately 15km resolution.
This model is the response to the primary objective of the
Thorpex Arctic Weather and Environmental Prediction
Initiative project (TAWEPI) which is to develop and validate
a regional Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model for
the international polar year (IPY) observation period over
Arctic. The proposed experimental model is the sister-ship
of the Environment Canada (EC) operational regional
GEM model, used for one- to two-day weather forecasts.
As in the GEM-LAM 15km model, the Polar-GEM
proposes a classical Sundqvist-like (Sundqvist, 1989) single
moment microphysical scheme and a radiative transfer
model (NEWRAD) also used in the Environment Canada
weather forecast operational model. Also embedded are
the new radiative transfer scheme CCCMARAD, based on
a k-correlated method (Li and Barker, 2005) and recently
implemented in the GEM-LAM 15km model, and the
Milbrandt and Yau (2005) microphysical scheme, which can
be used in its single, double or triple moment version and
that will be implemented in a future release of the GEM
operational model. This later scheme provides much more
detailed description of microphysical and precipitation
processes than the previous one, using six hydrometeor
62
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
classes and explicit representation of their number
concentration, improving the realism of the different form
of precipitations.
The objective of this work is to study the relative
benefit of these new schemes compared to the previous
versions, and to perform a sensitivity analysis of the various
available microphysical parameterizations and cloudradiation interactions on the modelled surface precipitations.
Results from short term simulations and comparisons with
ground-based and satellite observations will be addressed in
this presentation.
EVALUATION OF A COUPLED SEA ICE SYSTEM
INCLUDING BLOWING SNOW PROCESSES
OVER ARCTIC SEA-ICE
Chung, Yi-Ching1 ([email protected]), S. Bélair1 and
J. Mailhot1
Numerical Prediction Research Section, Meteorological
Research Division, Environment Canada, Dorval, Quebec,
Canada H9P 1J3
1
Blowing snow frequently occurs in the Arctic
Ocean and Antarctica, transporting snow by saltation and
suspension and yielding sublimation of snow particles. In
this study, it is found that erosion due to blowing snow
may account for snow depth overestimation in a multilayer snow/sea ice coupled system. Atmospheric forcing
measurements made during the Surface Heat Budget of the
Arctic Ocean Experiment (SHEBA) were used to examine
the effect of wind erosion on snow and ice evolution over
the Arctic pack ice from October 1997 to October 1998.
Total erosion due to blowing snow was found to be as large
as 56 mm of snow water equivalent and was showed to
strongly influence snowpack redistribution for the particular
case under study. A sensitivity analysis of ice thickness has
been also performed and revealed that ice depth depends on
surface albedo, new snow density and thermal conductive
fluxes at the ice/snow interface; results that are similar
to those from a sensitivity analysis of snow depth. The
snow/sea-ice coupled system was modified in order to
account for wind erosion for low-level wind speed greater
than 9 m/s. Results show that including blowing snow
significantly improves the simulation of snow depth and of
temperature at the snow/ice interface, but slightly degraded
the simulated sea ice thickness. It also leads to other changes
such as a decrease of snow temperature by an average of
0.87K and a decrease of snow depth by 4.93 cm on average.
An overall effect is to shorten the duration of the snowpack
and increase the underlying ice thickness. Future studies
need to explore the possibilities of using this approach for
2-D modeling of snow and sea ice.
EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON
ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY DEPLETION IN THE
CANADIAN ARCTIC
Cole, Amanda1 ([email protected]), A. Steffen1, T.
Scherz1 and J. Bottenheim1
Air Quality Research Division, Science and Technology
Branch, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
M3H 5T4
Mercury has been measured at high levels in
Arctic people and wildlife, posing a threat to their health.
Atmospheric transport and deposition is thought to be a
significant source of mercury to this ecosystem. Much of
this deposition occurs in Arctic springtime, through the
chemical oxidation of stable Hg(0) to reactive Hg(I) and
Hg(II) and subsequent deposition of this reactive mercury
to the snow. Some details of the chemical and physical
mechanism for these atmospheric mercury depletion events
(AMDEs) and the fate of the deposited mercury are still
unclear, making it difficult to predict the effects of future
climate change. To address this question, long-term mercury
and meteorological measurements at Alert, Canada, were
analyzed to assess the relationship between AMDEs and
meteorological parameters. It was found that the temporal
distribution of AMDEs has already changed over the
period 1995-2007, indicating that projected changes in
Arctic climate may need to be incorporated into predictions
of future mercury deposition to the Arctic. It was also
discovered that local AMDEs exhibit a complex relationship
with local temperature and wind direction, which not only
provides a basis for more quantitative climate effects, but
may also provide additional clues as to the mechanism and
location of mercury depletion events.
1
ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES IN BARROW
STRAIT AS ESTIMATED FROM MOORED
ACOUSTIC DOPPLER CURRENT PROFILER
(ADCP) DATA
Collins, Kate1 ([email protected]), J. Hamilton1
and S. Prinsenberg1
Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Department of
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS, B2Y 4A2
1
63
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Year-long time series of estimated zooplankton
biomass and backscatter strength of suspended matter
in Barrow Strait, in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, are
calculated from echo intensity data from 300 kHz ADCPs
and density data from CTDs moored at various depths.
Analysis of backscatter strength from the 2003-04 mooring
array shows differences between the northern and the
southern biological communities in Barrow Strait. The
role of physical processes such as ice thickness and breakup, currents, and density on the zooplankton dynamics
is discussed. Estimation of zooplankton biomass via
backscatter area reveals seasonal variability, peak abundance
timing, and vertical zooplankton distribution. The analysis
technique was applied to the total available time series in
Barrow Strait (August 1998 to August 2006) and, along with
the available physical observations, provides insight into any
inter-annual variations and bio-physical coupling.
Offshore, where these influences were less and upwelling
of deep Atlantic water occurred, the polychaete Maldane
sarsi dominated. Faunal distribution across the Beaufort
Shelf correlated with depth, water mass and sediment
changes but was not significantly linear. Benthic anomalies
such as mud volcanoes, natural gas seeps, artificial drilling
islands and submerged glacial beaches modified community
composition locally.
THE SYNOPTIC AND PLANETARY SCALE
ENVIRONMENT ASSOCIATED WITH
SIGNIFICANT WIND EVENTS ALONG THE
BEAUFORT SEA COAST
Cooke, Melanie1 ([email protected]), E.
Atallah1 and J. Gyakum1
Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill
University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6
1
DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS OF CANADIAN
BEAUFORT SHELF MACROBENTHOS
Conlan, K.E.1, Alec E. Aitken2 ([email protected]),
E. Hendrycks1, C. McClelland1, S. Blasco3, H. Melling4
Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 6P4
Department of Geography & Planning, University of
Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5C8
3
Geological Survey of Canada, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia,
B2Y 4A2
4
Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia, V8L
4B2
1
2
Variation in macrofaunal composition was analysed
in nine regions of the Beaufort Shelf and Amundsen Gulf.
We hypothesized that benthic community composition
was distinctive (1) in a recurrent polynya in Amundsen
Gulf and (2) in upwelling regions (Mackenzie Canyon
and Cape Bathurst) and (3) changed in a linear gradient
across the Beaufort Shelf. (1) No significant change in
community composition was measured inside the polynya
in Amundsen Gulf. (2) The Mackenzie Canyon macrofauna
were similarly indistinct from the shelf community at similar
depth. However, there was a 10-fold increase in inshore
abundance in the upwelling region of Cape Bathurst due
to large numbers of the amphipod Ampelisca macrocephala
and the polychaete Barantolla americana, species that were
not abundant elsewhere. (3) In the inshore fast ice and flaw
lead regions of the Beaufort Shelf, under the influence of
ice scour, storm effects, coastal erosion and the Mackenzie
River, the macrofauna were dominated by the bivalve
Portlandia arctica and the polychaete Micronephthys minuta.
Strong wind events along the Beaufort Sea
coast have potentially damaging effects on populations
and geology as is evidenced by storm surge events at
Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories. A set of significant
wind events is identified from coastal station data. In an
attempt to further our understanding of these events, their
characteristic environments at the synoptic and planetary
scales are defined using global reanalysis data. They
are described in the context of large-scale atmospheric
circulation regimes, teleconnection patterns, and climate
change.
BENTHIC HABITAT MAPS FOR NACHVAK
AND SAGLEK FIORDS: A CONTRIBUTION
TO NUNATSIAVUT NULUAK, NORTHERN
LABRADOR, CANADA
Copeland, Alison1, Trevor Bell1, Tanya Brown2 (tanya.
[email protected]), Tom Sheldon2, Evan Edinger1, Rodolphe
Devillers1
Marine Habitat Mapping Group, Memorial University, St.
John’s, NL, A1B 3X9
2
Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College of
Canada, PO Box 17000 Stn Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K
7B4
1
Nunatsiavut Nuluak is a research network of Inuit,
government, industry and universities who are concerned
with the ecological integrity of the marine environment of
64
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
northern Labrador. It forms part of ArcticNet’s integrated
regional impact study for the eastern subarctic of Canada.
Specifically, the network addresses Inuit concerns about the
effects of climate change, modernization and contaminants
on fiord-based marine ecosystems. The goal of our
project is to conduct a baseline inventory and comparative
assessment of benthic fiord habitats using multibeam sonar
data and bottom sampling. Our study sites are Nachvak and
Saglek fiords – the former represents a pristine ecosystem
adjacent to the Torngat Mountains National Park, whereas
the latter has been exposed to a historical source of PCB
contamination. Nachvak and Saglek fiords are 40 to 45
km-long glacial troughs that cut through the Torngat
Mountains and open to the Labrador Sea. Their sidewalls
are generally steep, rising in places 1000 m vertically from
sea level. They have characteristic fiord bathymetry with
multiple steep-sided, flat-bottomed, deep basins separated
by narrow, steep-sided shallow sills. Surveyed water depth
ranges from 5 to 258 m and basin margins attain maximum
slope angles of 80-90°. Nachvak and Saglek bays represent
the seaward limit of their respective fiords and tend to
have variable water depth and complex bathymetry. Outlet
glaciers from the Laurentide Ice Sheet advanced eastward
through the fiords during the last glaciation, eroding the
landscape and depositing a range of sediments from
bouldery gravel to fine mud. Steep slopes, both above and
below sea level, generate slumps and rockfalls. Over 450
km2 of multibeam sonar coverage was used to characterise
seafloor bathymetry and acoustic backscatter intensities in
each fiord. Seabed sampling at 130 sites included substrate
and biota imaging and grab sampling. Eight substrate classes
were identified from the sampling program in both fiords.
Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) was used to examine the
distribution of multibeam sonar-derived depth, backscatter
and slope for sampled stations in each substrate class. The
results of the EDA were then used to generate supervised
classification rules for the substrate mapping, which were
applied to the full multibeam coverage in each fiord.
Between 31 and 45% of the surveyed areas in Saglek and
Nachvak fiords were uniquely classified according to this
classification procedure. The biota on many of the substrate
classes were statistically identical and consequently only
two mappable and statistically distinct habitat types were
defined: (1) gravel-bottom habitat found mostly on basin
margins and fiord sills; and (2) muddy-bottom habitat on
basin floors. A further six substrate classes were identified
by towed video transects across the shallow inlet of Saglek
Anchorage in outer Saglek Bay. The biota associated with
the six nearshore substrates indicated four distinct shallowwater habitats aligned along a depth gradient. From shallow
to deep water these were: Laminaria kelp on boulder, Agarum
kelp on boulder, Agarum kelp on gravel, and gravelly sand.
This habitat distribution is primarily influenced by the light
requirements of the different kelp species and general fining
of substrates away from shore.
CONSUMPTION OF SUGAR-SWEETENED
BEVERAGES AND COMPONENTS OF THE
METABOLIC SYNDROME IN INUIT ADULTS OF
NORTHERN QUÉBEC (NUNAVIK)
Counil, Émilie1 ([email protected]), M-L.
Chateau-Degat1,2. A. Ferland1 P. Julien3 B. Lamarche4 and
Dewailly Éric1
Public Health Research Unit, CHUL Research Centre,
Québec, Québec, Canada
2
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill, SteAnne de Bellevue, Québec, Canada
3
Lipid Research Centre, CHUL Research Centre, Québec,
Québec, Canada
4
Institute of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, Québec,
Québec, Canada
1
Rationale and objective: In spite of large body size
and increasingly high intakes of bad nutritional quality
foods - including soft drinks, the Inuit still experience a
low prevalence of diabetes and favourable blood lipid
profiles. Higher intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages
(SSB) have been associated with weight gain, type 2
diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to
examine the association between the consumption of
SSB, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, and its
components in the Inuit of Nunavik. Methods: 616 adults
who were enrolled in the baseline of the Inuit Health
in Transition Cohort Study answered a food frequency
questionnaire and passed clinical examinations, including
venipuncture. Metabolic syndrome was assessed according
to the International Diabetes Federation definition. Logistic
regression was adjusted on age and gender. Results: Median
consumption of SSB was 868ml/day (soda contributing the
most) and was higher in the young (p=0.02). The prevalence
of central obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome were
respectively 57.6%, 4.2% and 17.5%. Consumption of 3.7
cans of SSB or more per day (third tertile) was associated
with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR=1.56,
95% CI [0.84;2.92]), and this association was much stronger
among new onset cases (OR=6.19, 95% CI [1.89;20.29]).
Central obesity was the only single component of the
Metabolic Syndrome that was significantly associated with
SSB consumption (OR=1.80, 95% CI [1.10;2.95]), although
the association with elevated triglycerides was close to
significance. Further adjustment on energy intakes, physical
65
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
activity, smoking and other types of dietary fat (saturated,
n-3, n-6 and trans) did not alter our findings. Conclusion:
Although the Inuit may still be protected by their omega-3
fatty acids and selenium rich traditional foods, the dietary
shift towards store-bought junk food rich in refined sugars
already has a visible impact on their cardio-metabolic
profile.
TRENDS IN CANADIAN SURFACE
TEMPERATURE ANOMALY INTENSITY
Cox, Jessica K., and John R. Gyakum ([email protected]
ca)
McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Much of the previous work on trends in
temperature extremes has considered anomalies relative
to a stationary base period climatology, over the entire
period of record or over a selected 30-years. Calculated
this way, trends toward more extreme warm events and
less extreme cold events will be found if the climate itself
is warming. In this study we calculate anomalies relative
to a 30-year running mean in order to examine trends in
surface temperature variability and extremes separately from
changes in the mean
CANDAC OUTREACH IN THE HIGH ARCTIC: A
CHILLY ENDEAVOUR FOR IPY
Cunningham, Tara1, Kaley A. Walker1 ([email protected]
physics.utoronto.ca), Pierre Fogal1 and Kimberly Strong1
1
Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto,
Ontario, M5S 1A7
The Canadian Network for the Detection of
Atmospheric Change (CANDAC) has an outreach program
which focuses on working with students in Northern
schools and colleges. This outreach program has three main
components during International Polar Year (IPY). The
first component involves bringing scientists to Northern
schools to deliver workshops on topics such as climate
change, ozone depletion, and weather. To date, CANDAC
scientists have visited schools in Resolute, Pond Inlet,
Grise Fiord, and Arctic Bay, Nunavut. Outreach visits to
other communities in Nunavut will occur in the spring of
2009. We have also implemented a co-operative education
program for Northern college students. Two students, one
from Nunavut Arctic College, and the other from Aurora
College, have successfully completed work terms through
this program. The third component of our outreach
program, the Northern Experience Program, will bring
15 students and 6 teachers from across Canada on an
educational excursion to Resolute and Eureka, Nunavut.
Canadian students in grades 11 and 12 and their teachers
are eligible to enter the Northern Experience Contest and
the winners will participate in the Northern Experience
Program in April 2009. This presentation will describe the
CANDAC IPY Outreach Program, including the activities
that we have accomplished and our plans for the future.
PUTTING OUR HEADS AND SKILLS TOGETHER:
HUNTERS AND SCIENTISTS AND CARIBOU
HEALTH MONITORING
Curry, Pat1 ([email protected]), Susan Kutz1, Wendy
Hutchins2, Brett Elkin3, Carl Ribble1, Debbie Jenkins4,
Alasdair Veitch3, Mitch Campbell5
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary,
Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4N1
2
Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB,
Canada T2N 4N1
3
Environment and Natural Resources, Government of
NWT, Canada X1A 3S8
4
Department of Environment - Qikiqtaaluk Region,
Government of Nunavut, Pond Inlet, NU, Canada X0A 0S0
5
Department of Environment - Kivalliq Region,
Government of Nunavut, Arviat, NU, Canada X0A 0H0
1
The rapid climate and industrial changes currently
unfolding in the Arctic are expected to have profound
impacts on animal and human health. One predicted
outcome is shifts in patterns of wildlife disease involving
emerging or existing pathogens. Barrenground caribou
(Rangifer tarandus ssp.) are central to culture, food supply,
and economy in most northern communities. Hunters are
already noting abnormalities in caribou and unusual herd
movements, and recent aerial population survey data show
severe declines in several herds across Canada. Resilience of
caribou populations and the safety of country foods with
respect to diseases transmissible to humans (“zoonoses”
such as brucellosis) are key concerns, and even more so in
the context of the “new Arctic.
Environmental conditions and distances pose
tremendous challenges for scientific surveillance of disease
in northern wildlife. Indigenous knowledge of caribou
is profound and has great historical and current value;
however, formal disease surveillance systems are outside
this realm and rapid climate warming is introducing many
66
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
unknowns for scientists and Northerners alike. There is
need for communities and scientists to work together on
caribou health issues and ensure that acquired knowledge
benefits or safeguards public and animal health.
One innovative step in this direction is hunter-based
caribou health monitoring, wherein harvesters and scientists
blend their wildlife expertise to monitor and manage
caribou populations. Participating hunters collect a small set
of samples and data from caribou they kill for subsistence,
and also report abnormal observations to scientists. The
scientists then analyze the samples and data, and return
information to communities as quickly as possible. One
particularly interesting component of this communitybased sampling is blood collection on filter paper. Whereas
traditional blood collection requires glass tubes and
expertise and equipment to process and store serum, the
field-friendly filter paper method can be performed in
minutes by a lay person. Paper blood strips are conveniently
transported, dried and stored for multiple possible analyses
at a later date, thus, the caribou hunter collects a quick and
easy sample that can potentially detect caribou exposure to a
variety of pathogens. Hunters in wildlife health monitoring
programs in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are
now collecting filter paper samples, and progress with
validation of this method (part of an IPY project) will be
presented as an illustration of the potential value of hunterscientist caribou health monitoring. Methods undertaken
and lessons learned in implementing filter-paper caribou
blood collection in northern communities will be discussed
(a simple technique is not necessarily simple to implement!).
obtain additional scientific knowledge on the environmental
framework: arctic ecosystems and their processes. The
international petroleum company, StatoilHydro has
launched a major arctic environmental research program
that integrates complimentary biological research fields
to improve understanding of the vulnerability of Arctic
ecosystems to anthropogenic influences. The program
addresses two main objectives: to improve knowledge of the
ecology, natural life history and sensitivity to oil of key arctic
species and to develop new tools to assess environmental
changes related to diverse anthropogenic pressures on
ecosystems. The program is being carried out by the
Research Network ARCTOS (http://www.nfh.uit.no/
arctos/), a consortium of institutes with diverse expertise
in the fields of Arctic marine ecology, ecotoxicology
and biogeochemical processes. While initially focussing
mainly on the Barents Sea, the program takes a Pan-Arctic
perspective, including research in the Canadian and Russian
Arctic. For example, in 2008, ARCTOS scientists took part
in two legs of the Amundsen expedition to study Arctic
calanus and under ice fauna as part of the International
Polar Year Circumpolar Flaw Lead Program. This effort
to increase core basic knowledge on the biology, ecology,
and ecotoxicology of the Arctic, is part of StatoilHydro’s
objective to improve the basis for environmental risk and
impact analyses for operations. The information generated
supports StatoilHydro’s corporate zero harm strategy. It
will also aid in the development of appropriate regulatory
guidelines to protect biological resources from adverse
impacts.
CLIMATE AND ANTHROPOGENIC STUDIES ON
FOOD WEBS OF THE ARCTIC MARGINAL SEAS
UP, UP AND AWAY? BIODIVERSITY AND
CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE ALPINE
ECOSYSTEMS OF SOUTHWEST YUKON
Dahle, Salve1 ([email protected]), S. Falk-Petersen2, P.
Wassmann3, J. Carroll1, B. Kristoffersen4 and S. Johnsen5
Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, 9296 Tromsø,
Norway
2
Norwegian Polar Institute, 9296 Tromsø, Norway
3
Norwegian College of Fisheries Sciences, University of
Tromsø, 9037 Tromsø, Norway
4
Eco-management Support, Havnegt 7, 4306 Sandnes,
Norway
5
StatoilHydro Research Center, 7005 Trondheim, Norway
1
As diversification of resource demands intensifies
in the Arctic, so too have stakeholder discussions on how
to balance environmental and industrial interests in the
region. Viewing potential industrial development in context
with a changing arctic climate, there is a pressing need to
Danby, Ryan1,2 ([email protected]), D. Hik2, S. Koh2,
A. Jarosch3 and G. Clarke3
Department of Geography and School of Environmental
Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6
2
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta,
Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E9
3
Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of
British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4
1
The mountains of southwest Yukon provide a
useful analogue for the changes in biodiversity expected
to continue across the circumpolar north. Extreme
terrain variation results in strong environmental gradients,
particularly a decrease in temperature with increasing
elevation. Because of a similar suite of species, the
67
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
biological gradients in southwest Yukon correspond well to
those found spanning the latitudinal gradient of the western
North American Arctic. As part of International Polar Year
we developed a hierarchical typology of the region’s major
alpine and subalpine vegetation types. A suite of multiresolution satellite imagery was used to map these areas and
model their phytological characteristics, including biomass
and leaf area index. A long history of field investigations
and experimental studies is being used to develop habitat
suitability maps for the region’s major herbivores as well
as rules governing potential state transitions of different
plant communities and vegetation types. The collective
set of data is then to be incorporated into a complex
spatio-temporal model to forecast distribution of the
different vegetation types under future climate scenarios.
A preliminary static model suggests a significant potential
for change, particularly with respect to an advance of trees
and shrubs. A map of this potential advance indicates that
continued climate warming would result in the loss of
habitat for alpine obligates as alpine vegetation types are
reduced to smaller areas upslope. However, the upslope shift
of vegetation types will be mediated by the availability of
suitable substrate as well as changes in other climate-related
variables, especially snow cover. It is still unclear as to the
extent to which these additional variables will affect these
potential changes.
WINTER FROST FLOWERS ON SEA ICE:
VECTORS FOR UPWARD TRANSPORT OF
MICROBES AND VIRUSES?
have not been examined from a biological perspective. We
took advantage of late fall and winter opportunities during
CFL to sample frost flowers and environs and evaluate their
salinity and microbial content. We assumed that microbes
observed microscopically in melted flower and ice samples
were originally present in the brine fraction of the ice and
that reasonable estimates of frost flower brine volume could
be calculated using ice surface temperature (range of –7.6
to –23.6°C) and frost flower bulk salinity (30–55 in late fall,
65–140 in winter). Although our sample sets are small (n
= 2–10), we observed that bacterial concentrations in frost
flower brines (5.5–9.2 x 105 ml–1) were similar to those in
new ice brines (5.2–8.0 x 105 ml–1) and higher than those
in seawater (1.6 x 105 ml–1) or melted snow (1.1–2.5 x 104
ml–1) in winter. On an ice-volume basis, the winter frost
flowers contained more bacteria than the underlying new
ice (1.9–4.7 x 105 versus 0.81–1.0 x 105 ml–1 ice). The
opposite was observed in late fall, when the frost flowers
were of lower salinity. The one (late fall) sample examined
for the presence of viruses contained enough of them (1.5
x 107 ml–1 brine) to indicate virally-mediated bacterial
mortality, either in the flowers, the briny slush that develops
at their base or the ice below. Attempts to culture frost
flower bacteria have been successful for the winter samples
using organic media of high salinity (up to 182) incubated
at –1°C. The seasonal implications for upward transport,
concentration and dispersal of bacteria and viruses via frost
flowers, as well as the possible roles of microbial processes
in the fate of mercury and other elements or contaminants
deposited on flower-rich new ice await further study.
Deming, Jody1 ([email protected]), M. Ewert
Sarmiento1, R.E. Collins1, S.D. Carpenter1, and M. Lin1
RECENT TRENDS AND VARIABILITY OF RIVER
DISCHARGE IN NORTHERN CANADA
1
School of Oceanography, University of Washington,
Seattle, WA, 98195 USA
Déry, Stephen1 ([email protected]), J. Burford1,2, M.
Hernandez-Henriquez1, and E. F. Wood3
The CFL project provided a unique opportunity to
observe formation of new ice in leads during Arctic winter,
features expected to increase in future. Common to the
surface of new ice is the growth of frost flowers, delicate
ice-crystal formations that, once fully formed, have bulk
salinities typically three times that of seawater. Although
atmospheric moisture may be required to initiate the growth
of frost flowers, the source of the salt they contain is the
brine within the new ice on which they grow. Frost flowers
have been implicated in the alteration of sea ice albedo and
in atmospheric ozone depletion events (via dispersion of
bromide salt needed for such events) and mercury depletion
events (mercury levels in frost flowers are very high relative
to surrounding snow). To our knowledge, frost flowers
1
Environmental Science and Engineering Program, UNBC,
Prince George, BC, V2N 4Z9
2
Environment Canada, Darthmouth, NS
3
Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University,
Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA
This talk will present an overview of recent trends
and variability of river discharge in northern Canada, with
a focus on our contributions to the IPY project “Arctic
Freshwater Systems”. To begin, a brief description of the
pan-Arctic hydrological cycle and its climatology will be
presented. The presentation will then focus on observed
trends and variability of discharge in as many as 64 rivers
covering an area of 5.6 × 106 km2 of northern Canada from
68
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
1964 to the present. Possible factors leading to the observed
trends and variability will be explored. A discussion of
some 21st century projections and implications of changing
rivers in northern Canada will follow. The talk will end
with a summary and a list of research priorities concerning
the impacts of climate variability and climate change on
Canadian Arctic rivers.
CONTAMINANT LINKAGES TO CLIMATE
PARAMETERS IN POLAR BEARS (URSUS
MARITIMUS) FROM GREENLAND AND
SVALBARD
Dietz, Rune1 ([email protected]), Frank Rigét1, Mads
Forchammer1, Christian Sonne1, Aurore Aubail1,2, Erik
Born3, R. Letcher4,5, M. McKinney4,5, D. Muir6, R. Bossi1, J.
Aars7, M. Andersen7, Ø. Wiig8, F. Caurant2 and P. Grandjean9
National Environmental Research Institute, University of
Aarhus, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark
2
Littoral, Environnement et Sociétés, CNRS-University of
La Rochelle, 17000 La Rochelle, France
3
Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, GR-3900 Nuuk,
Greenland, Denmark
4
Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa,
ON, Canada;
5
Wildlife Toxicology and Disease Program, Science and
Technology Branch, Environment Canada,
6
National Water Research Institute, Environmental Canada,
Burlington, Canada,
7
Norwegian Polar Institute, Polarmiljøsenteret, NO-9296
Tromsø, Norway
8
Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, P.O. Box
1172 Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway
9
Institute of Public Health, University of Southern
Denmark Center, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark
1
East Greenland polar bears sampled 1984-2006
were measured for mercury (Hg) and organohalogen
contaminants (PCBs, OHCs and PFCs) in 7-19 of the years.
Most legacy organochlorines and mercury have shown
decreasing trends in East Greenland during the last 2-3
decades before the turn of the Millenium, but there are
indications for increases after 2000. Other contaminants
such as the PFCs showed an exponential increasing trend
in ringed seals and polar bears from East Greenland
between 1984 and 2000 but again a steeper increase have
been documented between 2000 and 2006. The most
powerful time series were analysed to evaluate whether
the residual from trend line (linear or non-linear, using the
ICES methods) calculated from the annual medians could
be linked to climate variables such as temperature, polar
sea ice coverage and North Atlantic Oscillation Index
(NAOI). This was done to resolve whether the climate
changes over the recent decades have affected the pathways,
bioaccumulation and time trends of the contaminants in
East Greenland where the polar sea ice exits and extension
has decreased dramatically. With respect to mercury, East
Greenland and Svalbard are relevant locations to initiate
studies of climate change vs. mercury interactions,, as
the majority of the polar ice passes out along the East
Greenland coastline and because differences in temperature,
ocean currents and the NAOI is detectable between East
Greenland and Svalbard. A significant (P=0.05) negative
correlation was detected between the NAOI and the Hg in
East Greenland polar bear hair whereas an opposite nonsignificant (P=0.07) positive trend was detected for bears
from the Svalbard area. Significant negative correlations
were also found between Hg in East Greenland bear hair
and the polar ice extent the same year (P=0.02) and two
years before (P<0.01) dependant on how the hair samples
were allocated to the exposure year. No linkages could be
detected between Hg in Northwest Greenland polar bear
hair samples versus temperature and NAOI and likewise no
climate relationships could be established to the PFC (PFOS
and PFOA) concentrations in East Greenland polar bear
liver.. Additional contaminant time series in combination
with biomarkers are being exploited in the coming years
for other contaminant groups, extended time periods, other
regions and species within the IPY Fuller #134 BearHealth.
ANNUAL AND SEASONAL VARIATION IN
NEARSHORE FISH AVAILABILITY ASSOCIATED
WITH THE RECORD ARCTIC PACK ICE
MINIMUM OF 2007
Divoky, George1 ([email protected]), B.Britten
Harter2 and Gail Davoren2
Friends of Cooper Island, 652 32nd Ave. East, Seattle, WA
98112
2
Department of Zoology, University of Manitoba,
Winnipeg, MB R3T 2H2, Canada
1
Highly visible apex predators, such as seabirds,
can be valuable tools in monitoring temporal variation in
marine ecosystems. This is especially true in the Arctic
where logistical constraints and the near ubiquity of sea
ice impose major constraints on traditional oceanographic
sampling. The 2007 record summer ice retreat could be
expected to have major effects on species dependent on the
sympagic zooplankton and fish community associated with
69
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
pack ice, As part of a long-term study of arctic seabirds
near Point Barrow, Alaska,, we were able to document
temporal variation in the prey of the arctic race of the Black
Guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandtii), a pack ice obligate. Both
guillemot parents provide fish to nestlings from late July to
early September, the period of rapid pack ice retreat. Prey
are typically captured within 30 km of the colony and visible
in the parents bill as they return to the nest. We conducted
photo documentation and observations of prey items
delivered to nestlings in the breeding seasons in both 2006
and 2007. In 2006 local pack ice retreat was minimal, with
ice <30 km from the colony during chick rearing, typical
of ice conditions in the 1970s and 1980s. In 2007, during
the record ice retreat, distance to the pack ice went from
<20 km from the colony in late July to >250 km in early
September.
The prey obtained by guillemot parents reflected
the changes in the location of the pack ice, the species’
preferred foraging habitat. Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida),
a species closely associated with pack ice, comprised
>90 percent of prey in 2006 and displayed no significant
seasonal trend in size. In 2007 Arctic Cod comprised >90
percent of the prey at the beginning of the nestling period
but declined to <20 percent after pack ice had retreated
to well outside the species’ foraging range. Distance to
the pack ice explained >75 percent of the daily variation
in cod abundance. Additionally most late-season cod in
2007 were subadult, a life stage with less affinity to pack ice
and also typically avoided by parents when adult cod are
available. The alternative prey in 2007 consisted mainly of
nearshore demersals, primarily sculpin (Myoxocephalus spp.).
The decrease of cod and increase of sculpins in 2007 was
associated with annual and seasonal decreases in nestling
growth and increased frequency of brood reduction, a
sign of nutritional stress. Ongoing and future decreases in
nearshore summer ice extent could be expected to cause
high arctic species to turn to alternate prey or move to areas
where summer ice is persisting.
A)PLANT-HERBIVORE INTERACTIONS AND
CLIMATE CHANGE: THE CASE OF THE
GREATER SNOW GOOSE
Doiron, Madeleine1 ([email protected]), Gilles
Gauthier1 and Esther Lévesque2
In arctic regions, the distribution and abundance
of organisms and interactions between species are highly
constrained by abiotic conditions (e.g. temperature) because
of the harsh climate. While several studies have focused
on the impacts of climate change on individual species,
few have examined the possible effects of global warming
on trophic interactions, which play a crucial role in the
dynamic of ecosystems. The objective of this project is thus
to test experimentally the hypothesis that global warming
will have a negative impact on the synchrony between
the reproductive phenology of the Greater Snow Goose
and plant growth in the High Arctic. In many herbivores
such as geese, the growth and subsequent survival of
young is dependent upon the seasonal change in plant
nutritive quality. If plants respond more quickly than geese
to global warming, this may lead to a mismatch between
the availability of high quality food (expected to occur
earlier with warming) and hatching date of goslings. We
manipulated environmental parameters most likely to be
affected by global changes (surface temperature and date
of snow melt) using small plexiglass open-top chambers
(OTC) and by adding or removing snow in spring. In 2007
and 2008, from shortly after snow melt in mid-June until the
end of July, we collected plant biomass every 10 days in all
treatments. Samples were dried, weighed and analyzed for
nitrogen content in order to examine the seasonal changes
in the quality of plants. Experiments were conducted in two
different habitats used by geese, wet polygon fens and mesic
tundra. We predict that the warming and snow removal
treatments will lead to an earlier peak in plant quality and
higher total biomass, and that the snow addition treatment
will produce the opposite effects. We also predict that this
effect will be more pronounced in mesic habitats compared
to wetlands because of the high thermal inertia of water.
Results from the first year of this experiment will be
presented. In parallel to this experiment, we are examining
how the synchrony between hatching date of young and
peak in nutritive quality of their food plants affects the
growth of goslings. This is being tested using a 9-year
database that includes annual hatching date of goslings
(determined on several hundred nests), body measurements
and mass of goslings shortly before fledging (also
determined on several hundred individuals) and seasonal
sampling of the nitrogen content of plants.
Département de biologie and Centre d’étude Nordique,
Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1K 7P4.
2
Département de chimie-biologie and Centre d’étude
Nordique, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, QC, G5L
3A1.
1
70
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
COMMUNITY-BASED HEALTH RESEARCH IN
THE ARCTIC: A CASE STUDY FROM NUNAVUT,
CANADA
Donaldson, Shawn G.1 ([email protected]), Nancy
C. Doubleday1, Don Charette1, Chandal Nolasco da Silva1,
Tara Leech1, Anita Kushwaha1, Michael R. Donaldson1,
Bryan Grimwood1, Morgan Ip1, Bryan Adlard1 and Jay Van
Oostdam1
Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Community-based health research (CBHR) is
considered to be one of the frameworks that can be used
to engage researchers and community organizations and
members in research. This approach is important to ensure
that the research responds to community-level health
needs and concerns. The objective of this paper is to
outline a community-based approach that was applied to
a dietary decision-making study in Cape Dorset, Nunavut,
Canada. The discussion details the importance of research
partnerships, the involvement of community members in
all phases of research (including the research question), the
process that was employed to collect, analyze and interpret
the findings, and the mediums used to communicate
the research results. The results of this paper provide a
foundation that could be used to build future communitybased health research projects in the circumpolar region.
1
The Polar Environment Atmospheric
Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka,
Nunavut CANADA
Drummond, James R.1,2 ([email protected]), Duck,
T.1, Sloan, J.3, Strong, K.3, Ward, W.4, Fogal, P.2, Argall,
S.5, Degenstein, D.6, Fast, H.7, Hudak, D.8, Manson, A.9,
McArthur, B7, McElroy, T.7, O’Neill, N.10, Shepherd, G.11,
Shepherd, M.11, Sica, R.12, Strawbridge, K.7, Walker, K.A.2,
Whiteway, J.13
Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science,
Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
2
Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto,
Ontario, Canada
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo,
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
4
Department of Physics, University of New Brunswick,
Fredericton, New Brunswick Canada
5
Fanshawe College, London, Canada
6
Dept. of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of
Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
7
Environment Canada, Experimental Studies Division,
1
Environment Canada, Downsview, Ontario, Canada
8
King City Radar Facility, Environment Canada, King City,
Ontario, Canada
9
Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of
Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
10
Dept de geomatique appliquee, Université de Sherbrooke,
Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada
11
Centre for Research on Earth & Space Science, York
University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
12
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of
Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
13
Dept of Earth & Space Science & Engineering, York
University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
The PEARL laboratory is situated at 80N, 86W.
Instrumentation at the laboratory provides a large range of
atmospheric measurements from surface to about 100km
altitude using lidars, radars, spectrometers, radiometers,
imagers and other methodologies. At present over 25
instruments are operational at the site. Data from the
laboratory is processed and supplied to several international
databases.
As part of International Polar Year (IPY) a number
of new projects have been initiated at PEARL. These
address specific issues of radiation balance, precipitation,
long-range transport and the like. In addition, the
measurements at PEARL have been intensified.
Canada is providing a high-level research activity
in the High Arctic which is attracting a growing interest in
the community. This presentation will provide an overview
of activities at PEARL as a prelude to other papers in the
session and discuss how these activities fit with each other
and the broader activities of IPY.
PEARL is supported by the Canadian Foundation
for Innovation (CFI); Canadian Foundation for Climate and
Atmospheric Science (CFCAS); Canadian Space Agency
(CSA); Environment Canada (EC); Government of Canada
IPY funding; Ontario Innovation Trust (OIT); Natural
Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC);
Nova Scotia Research Innovation Trust (NSRIT); Ontario
Research Fund (ORF); and the Polar Continental Shelf
Program (PCSP).
CANDAC ARCTIC RADIATIVE ENVIRONMENT
THEME
Duck, Thomas J. 1 ([email protected]), Glen Lesins1, Line
Bourdages1, Graeme Nott1, Jon Doyle1, Christopher Perro1,
and James R. Drummond1
Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science
1
71
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Surface temperatures at Eureka (80N, 86W)
have increased considerably over the past 30 years,
which is consistent with an Arctic warming trend that
has dramaticaly reduced the summertime sea-ice extent.
Surface temperatures are determined largely by the
radiative exchange, which is in generalpoorly observed
and understood given the relative inaccessibility of
the High Arctic. A comprehensive new data set for
studying radiative transfer is emerging from the Polar
Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL)
at Eureka, which hosts lidars, radars, radiometers and
other instruments operated by the Canadian Network
for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC)
with important contributions from the NOAA SEARCH
programme. An overview of results from the CANDAC
Arctic Radiative Environment Theme will be given.
Surface and satellite measurements reveal the importance
of ice crystals lofted from the mountainous terrain on the
downwelling infrared fluxes. Diamond dust has only a small
impact, which supports results from the SEARCH SHEBA
experiment, but is contrary to much past research. Thin
water clouds and aerosols have been optically characterized
in a statistical study. As new instrumentation comes online
we will have the opportunity to measure continuous profiles
of temperatures and water vapour, and observed the key 20
micron window in the Arctic infrared absorption spectrum.
and a cycle of interaction and economic activity that closely
reflects the rhythm of the land. It postulated that warming,
increased spring run-off and drier summers will bring
with them accelerated permafrost melt. and the possibility
of increased flooding and incidence of forest fire. The
community’s economy has varying degrees of exposure to
both climate induced events and the vagaries of the broader
national and international economies.
In our work we recognize that vulnerability and the
capacity to adapt to changing circumstances are the outcome
of a synergistic mix of the magnitude of environmental
and economic challenges facing a community, and
endogenous characteristics conditioning adaptive capacity
such as community memory, experience coping with stress,
economic well-being, and the breadth of human resources.
Working with the community and building on a synthesis
of secondary data, community interviews and workshops,
we examine responses to contemporary stresses as a basis
for assessing the ability to cope with the implications of
a changing physical environment. Preliminary analysis has
resulted in a framework for a community strategy to adapt
to emerging trends that incorporates the future expectations
of Dawson’s population, the pace and magnitude of
anticipated environmental changes and the significance
and life-cycle of economic activities and infrastructure
components.
DAWSON CITY. A COMMUNITY ON THE EDGE?
BRUCELLA C-ELISA SEROSURVEYS IN ARCTIC
MARINE MAMMAL POPULATIONS
Duerden, Frank ([email protected])
Department of Geography, Ryerson University.
In this paper we utilize a vulnerability framework
to assess the probable response of Dawson City, Yukon, to
anticipated changes in the physical environment. Dawson
with a permanent population of some 1500 sits on a flood
plain at the confluence of the Klondike and Yukon rivers
close to the junction of two significant bio-zones. The
community has much in common with many high latitude
circumpolar communities including an Indigenous\nonindigenous demographic mix and a highly seasonal economy
based on an amalgam of mining, country food harvesting,
tourism and government transfer payments.
Dawson has long dealt with exposure to the
volatility of global markets and local environmental
conditions, the latter manifest in extreme weather
conditions, flooding, and forest fire. Historically
vulnerability to such stresses have been reflected in
population fluctuations, and adaptation in the emergence of
a mixed economy, investment in flood abatement measures
Dunn, J. Lawrence1 ([email protected]), Cara
Field1, Inga Sidor1, Tracy Romano1, Laura Thompson1,
Adrian M. Whatmore2, Jenny Meegan1,3
Department of Research and Veterinary Services, Mystic
Aquarium and Institute for Exploration, Mystic, CT, 06355
2
FAO/WHO Collaborating Centre for Brucellosis, OIE
Brucellosis Reference Centre, Surrey, United Kingdom
3
University of Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine,
Gainesville, FL 32611
1
Beginning with the 1994 discovery of marine origin
Brucella (currently identified as B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis)
concerns have been raised about the prevalence and
significance of infection with this organism in marine
mammal populations as well as the possible risks of
exposure in humans who interact with marine mammals.
These concerns dictated the need for the development
of new tools to enable confident diagnoses, whether in
marine mammals or humans. We conducted a multimodal
study comparing extant diagnostic tools with these newer
72
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
testing methods, including direct comparisons between
gold standard classical microbiology and newly developed
molecular method results with, where possible, c-ELISA
results in order to address issues of sensitivity and
specificity of the c-ELISA.
In our multiyear study of marine Brucella we have
processed thousands of marine mammal samples from
the arctic and elsewhere and demonstrated significant
differences in seroprevalence rates between marine mammal
species as well as seroprevalence differences in conspecifics
from different geographic locations. We have demonstrated
transplacental Brucella infection in aborted fetuses of
California sea lions and documented its presence in some
marine mammal species regularly consumed by arctic
native populations. A serosurvey of selected at risk human
populations is currently underway.
The significance of a positive c-ELISA test in some
marine mammal species remains elusive. Large numbers of
pinnipeds, some, whose sera demonstrate very high levels
of competitive inhibition indicative of high titers show no
clinical or histopathologic evidence of disease. Only three
naturally acquired human cases of disease caused by marine
origin Brucella have been reported despite large populations
of marine mammal consuming subsistence hunters.
Whatmore et al (2008) recently demonstrated that all of the
isolates from naturally-acquired human marine origin Brucella
infection shared the same ST27 genotype. Our isolates
from aborted California sea lions and bottlenose dolphins
also share this genotype. It is possible that this particular
genotype has a greater pathogenicity than that of the more
common marine isolates.
Risk Perception and Mitigation
Related to ‘Safe’ Food and Water:
Impacts on Human Health
Edge, Victoria1,2 ([email protected]), M. arRushdi3, A. Jones2, S. McEwen2, M. Simard4
Centre for Foodborne, Environmental and Zoonotic
Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada,
Guelph, Ontario N1H 8J1
2
Department of Population Medicine, University of
Guelph, N1G 2W1
3
Labrador-Grenfell Health Region, Happy Valley-Goose
Bay, Newfoundland & Labrador A0P1C0
4
Nunavik Research Center, Makivik Corporation, Kuujjuaq,
Québec, J0M 1C0
1
associated illness. Building and safeguarding of this trust is
the responsibility of multiple stakeholders in government,
industry and also with each of us as individuals.
The complexity of this shared responsibility to assess and
manage risk of illness and death due to the consumption of
unsafe food and water may itself be an important factor that
impacts the ability to mitigate health risks.
Competing interests and accountabilities can affect
how officials address their responsibilities. Moreover,
public health officials face a myriad of health issues in
their communities, demanding constant prioritisation
and flexibility for responding to emerging or unexpected
crises. Since health issues do not exist in isolation of
environmental health, social and cultural factors, addressing
one aspect will invariably effect change in another.
These pressures are compounded in remote
northern regions. Rapidly changing environments in the
north may have a more dramatic impact on Inuit who live
closely tied and attuned to the land and what it provides.
For many Inuit communities, cultural habits and historical
perceptions of the level of risk of contamination in
traditional foods and drinking water sources are being
challenged both internally and externally.
A response to this is improved surveillance and the use of
rigorously collected data that addresses community concerns
and questions regarding the safety of their food and water.
A key element of effective surveillance is sharing of results
to the community in a way that is respectful, coherent,
sensible and useful.
Community based studies in the Inuit regions of
Nunavik (northern Quebec) and Nunatsiavut (northern
Labrador) are investigating questions concerning the current
status of biological hazards (pathogens) in traditional foods
from hunting and fishing (Simard et al., Pufall et al.) and
in raw water sources (Harper et al) and related impacts of
climatic change.
Identification and presentation of hazard
surveillance data from these studies, and how the risks will
be received and acted upon, will likely involve a degree of
conflict between the assessment of risk by the researchers
and government officials at different bureaucratic levels, and
the public’s risk perception and risk tolerance.
With the ultimate goal of mitigating health risks and
improving community health, recognition of these different
perspectives and the use of scenario development can guide
public and environmental health officials’ actions regarding
use and dissemination of research results.
Public trust in our food and drinking water is
fundamental but repeatedly threatened by outbreaks of
73
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
ESTIMATION OF AIR-SEA CO2 FLUX IN
HUDSON BAY DURING THE ICE-FREE SEASON
USING FIELD AND SATELLITE REMOTE
SENSING DATA
Else, Brent1 ([email protected]), Tim Papakyriakou1,
John Yackel2
Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of
Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba,
Winnipeg, MB, Canada, R3T 2N2
2
Foothills Climate Analysis Facility: Centre for Alpine and
Arctic Climate REesearch, Department of Geography,
University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4
The lack of baseline estimates of air-sea CO2
exchange in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions represents a
major shortfall in our ability to understand how climate
change may affect CO2 fluxes at high latitude. The
2005 ArcticNet cruise of Hudson Bay provided a rare
comprehensive oceanographic survey of one such region.
Ship-based observations of sea-surface fugacity of CO2
(ƒCO2sw) were made at 56 locations between September
15 and October 26, and were found to range from
259µatm in Hudson Strait to 425µatm at the entrance to
James Bay. Strong relationships between ƒCO2sw and river
discharge were identified, with coastal waters observed
to be supersaturated in ƒCO2sw with respect to the
atmosphere (and thus a source of CO2), while off-shore
waters were undersaturated (thus a sink). High correlation
of ƒCO2sw with salinity, sea surface temperature (SST),
and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) suggest
that thermodynamic effects and possibly the oxidation of
riverine carbon were driving supersaturation in the coastal
zone.
To expand the spatial and temporal domain of
the study, a remote sensing approach was applied. A SSTƒCO2sw algorithm was used with monthly maps of SST
obtained from the MODIS aqua sensor to extrapolate
ƒCO2sw in Hudson Bay for the 2005 ice-free season
(August-October). Gas transfer velocities were estimated
using twice-daily QuikSCAT wind retrievals, and by
using a bulk aerodynamic approach the monthly flux of
CO2 in Hudson Bay was calculated. The results of these
calculations revealed that Hudson Bay acts as a source of
CO2 during August and September (4.73 and 5.95 mmol
m-2 day-1, respectively), but reverts to a sink of CO2 in
October as the water temperature cools (-4.61 mmol-2 day1
). By integrating over the spatial extent of Hudson Bay
and the 92 day open-water season, a positive flux of 1.60
TgC was estimated. This result is in contrast to most Arctic
or sub-Arctic continental shelf seas, where usually strong
absorptions of CO2 are observed.
1
THE CALANUS COMPLEX IN A PAN-ARCTIC
PERSPECTIVE
Falk-Petersen, Stig1 ([email protected]), Haakon Hop1, Eva
Leu1, and Anette Wold1, Janne Søreide2 and Jørgen Berge2
Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9226 Tromsø, Norway
The University Centre in Svalbard, Pb. 15, 9171
Longyearbyen, Norway
1
2
As light intensity increases during spring in high
latitude ice covered marine systems, ice algae start to grow
under the sea ice as early as in March, Ice melting with
subsequent stratification of nutrient-rich water masses
facilitate short and intense blooms of phytoplankton, which
propagate through Arctic waters producing a luxury of high
quality food for zooplankton grazers. The three Calanus
species Calanus finmarchicus, Calanus glacialis and Calanus
hyperboreus are the major herbivores in the Arctic system
transferring energy through the lipid based food web, from
the primary producers to the higher trophic levels. They
convert low energy carbohydrates and proteins in ice algae
and phytoplankton into high energy wax esters through their
specific biosynthesis. We have studied the role of Calanus in
a pan-Arctic perspective (Canadian-and-European Arctic)
over two decades. We here present a synthesised overview
the three dominant Calanus species in Arctic waters,
including their geographic distributions, overwintering,
feeding, life strategies and the role of lipids.
USING AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER
VEHICLES IN UNDER-ICE SCIENTIFIC
MISSIONS
Ferguson, James S. ([email protected])
International Submarine Engineering Ltd., Port Coquitlam,
B.C. V3C 2M8
Since the mid 1960’s, Canadian companies and
universities have been leaders in the development of
unmanned underwater vehicles and sensing systems. Over
the same period, there has been increasing interest in the
use of the Arctic, both as an ocean waterway and as a
source of natural resources and food. In support of these
objectives, scientific studies and research to characterize
the Arctic environment are being initiated with increasing
frequency. With an Arctic landmass second only in area to
that of Russia, Canada has a major interest in the focus and
impact of these studies, and it has started to use unmanned
vehicles as a platform to aid in the collection of polar
74
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
ocean data. The Remotely Operated Vehicle or ROV has
been used fairly routinely for under-ice observation since
the 1970’s and the procedures associated with its use are
now quite straightforward. However, the real coverage
that an ROV can achieve is limited by its umbilical tether,
and its value to the polar ocean science mission is a matter
of some question. In terms of mobility, a more versatile
platform is the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV).
Operating without a tether, the AUV can make undersea
transits or surveys hundreds of kilometres in length. So
far, use of the AUV in polar regions has been sparse and
there is not a large body of operational experience with
under-ice operations. In 1995 and 1996, however, the
Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) and
International Submarine Engineering Ltd. (ISE), operated
a large AUV through ice in the Lincoln Sea, north of Alert,
NWT, conducting missions with lengths in excess of 450
km. ISE is now using this experience to adapt the smaller
3000m depth Explorer AUV for Antarctic missions with
Memorial University and the University of Tasmania, in
south polar regions. The company is also working with
DND, Memorial University and the NRC, to adapt its
5000 meter AUV for sea-floor mapping operations in the
Canadian Arctic. The paper will review experience gained
on Arctic operations and outline the considerations and
decisions that were made to adapt AUV technology and
procedures for the Arctic mission. Both pre-deployment and
operational aspects will be covered. Pre-deployment aspects
that will be presented include training, fail-safe provisions,
mission planning and simulation, the use of local knowledge
or lore, mission logistics and finally, loss provisions and
insurance coverage for the vehicle. Operational aspects to
be discussed will include dealing with extremely cold, icesurface temperatures, high latitude, inertial initialization and
navigation, under-ice acoustic positioning, communications
with the AUV, acoustic homing to the recovery site and the
procedures for recovery. Procedures for turning the vehicle
around between missions including options for battery
charging, data download and mission upload will also be
presented. The paper will demonstrate that technology and
procedures needed to operate AUVs successfully in polar
regions have been proven to work and are readily available
to the scientific researcher. The paper will also highlight the
need for a thorough AUV training program ahead of the
polar deployment.
LOSS OF CHAOS IN THE ARCTIC: WHAT IT
MEANS TO ICE-ADAPTED MARINE MAMMALS
Ferguson, Steve1 ([email protected])
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, R3T 2N6
1
Contrary to expectations, a warming Arctic
will be more predictable. Predictable climate without as
many extreme events will favour human aspirations for
economic development of Arctic waters. But will a more
predictable climate be good for Arctic animals? Lifehistory adaptations of mammals in polar environments can
be described according to a punnett square categorizing
bet-hedgers, reproducers, competitors, and survivors.
Environmental change results in competition and predation
causing temporal and/or geographic displacement of one
group by another. Arctic bet-hedgers and competitors
that have evolved reproductive adaptations to variable
environments will be replaced by reproducers and survivors
from temperate environments. For example, Arctic
marine mammals will respond to an ecosystem shift that
is expected to result in the loss of polar bears and Inuit
hunters as top predators being replaced by killer whales and
a new suite of marine mammal prey that will include minke
and humpback whales and dolphins. How to mitigate this
redistribution may require creating reserves for ice-adapted
species, restricting migratory tendencies, and management
of killer whale activity. A research program is required to
obtain information necessary to predict how, when, why,
and where species redistribution will occur and provide
critical advice to assist northerners adapt to the loss of their
subsistence culture within a more predictable world.
SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SUMMER PRIMARY
PRODUCTION IN THE HUDSON BAY COMPLEX
Ferland, Joannie1,2 ([email protected]), M.
Gosselin1 and M. Starr2
Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski, Université du
Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec G5L 3A1
2
Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Ocean and Environmental
Science Branch, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont-Joli,
QC, G5H 3Z4
1
Phytoplankton production and biomass were
measured in the Hudson Bay Complex (HBC) during
August-September of 2004 to 2006. Phytoplankton
production and biomass were overall similar during the
three sampling years, but showed large horizontal variability.
They were generally lower in Hudson Bay and Foxe Basin
(51 to 1218 mg C m-2 d-1; 5.4 to 86.9 mg chl a m-2) than
in Hudson Strait (412 to 3132 mg C m-2 d-1; 28.0 to 202.4
mg chl a m-2). On average, the upper water column of
Hudson Bay and Foxe Basin was more stratified than
Hudson Strait (the difference in sigma-t between 80 and
5 m being 3.82, 1,79 and 1.21 kg m-3, respectively) and was
75
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
characterized by a deeper nitracline (47 m, 51 m, and 33 m,
respectively) and euphotic zone (56 m, 55m, and 38 m,
respectively). In Hudson Bay and Foxe Basin, phytoplankton
production was higher at stations with a weaker stratification
index and a higher nitrate+nitrite concentration (value
integrated over the euphotic zone). In Hudson Strait, south
shore stations, which are influenced by Hudson Bay surface
water, showed more productive waters than north shore
stations. These results suggest that vertical mixing and
advection are major factors controlling primary production
in the HBC. Therefore, future enhancement of surface
water column stratification by warming and freshwater input
from precipitation may affect carbon fluxes and food web
dynamics of this subarctic marine system.
COMBINING BARCODING AND TRADITIONAL
TAXONOMY TO STUDY THE DIVERSITY OF
MICROGASTRINAE WASPS (HYMENOPTERA:
BRACONIDAE) IN ARCTIC NORTH AMERICA
Fernandez-Triana J.1 ([email protected]), A. Smith1, H.
Goulet2, C. Boudreault2 and P. Hebert1
Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, Department of
Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario,
N1G 2W1
2
Canadian National Collection of Insects and Nematodes,
Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture
and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A OC6
1
Within the context of global warming, insect
diversity will increase in the Arctic, most likely bringing in
invasive species to the region with considerable affectations
to ecosystem productivity and functioning. Therefore, a
better understanding of the beneficial fauna to deal with
the new insect pests becomes a priority. Here we present
a combined approach to study the Microgastrinae wasps
(Hymenoptera) in the Arctic North America (ranging
from Alaska to Greenland). We chose that group of
parasitoids because of its high diversity, difficult taxonomy
and potential applications in biological control programs.
Microgastrinae is the single most important group
parasitizing Lepidoptera larvae; they comprise around 1500
described species worldwide, with 30 recorded for America
north of 60º N, but those figures are far from complete.
During the last two years we have been combining
molecular techniques (DNA barcodes), with traditional (i.e.
morphological) taxonomy, the study of available collections
(over 6000 specimens, half of them collected before 1960),
and literature. Our preliminary results show that: a) The
diversity of microgastrine wasps in arctic ecosystems of
North America is much larger than previously thought
(around a hundred of species identified so far); b) Barcoding
can speed up considerably the process of identification of
species; c) The combination of molecular and traditional
taxonomy approaches increased the accuracy of the work
in such a difficult and diverse group; d) The old specimens
available in collections might provide a useful baseline to
compare the changes in biodiversity patterns with present
and future data; e) More collecting and study are needed to
complete the picture we presently have on the diversity of
this group of parasitoids.
CHANGING GOVERNANCE AND THE
GOVERNANCE OF CHANGE: FACILITATING
ADAPTATION ACROSS MULTI-LEVEL
INSTITUTIONS IN HOPEDALE, NUNATSIAVUT,
LABRADOR
Fleming, Laura1 ([email protected]), S. Boase2, T.
Flowers3 and K. Lane2
University of Guelph
Hopedale Resident
3
Salma Boase
1
2
Scientists and northerners agree that changing
environmental conditions in the Canadian Arctic are
now affecting the livelihoods and well-being of northern
residents who rely on natural resources. To reduce current
and future vulnerability, adaptation planning initiatives
are needed. Initiatives to enhance adaptive capacity need
to integrate local knowledge and be facilitated through
the existing systems of governance including formal and
informal institutions, organizations across multiple scales.
There exists limited research on how adaptation can be
mainstreamed into existing risk management and resource
management systems in Canadian arctic communities.
This research centered on vulnerabilities associated
with access and availability of wildlife and other natural
resources based on previously identified concerns by the
community. Through a multi-level, community-centered
assessment of the decision making structures and processes
of Hopedale, Nunatsiavut this research identifies the role
of governance and local knowledge in facilitating adaptation
of the community. Fifty six in-depth, semi-structured
interviews were conducted with participants from the
community, regional, provincial and federal government and
non-governmental organizations. This was complimented
with a survey, participant observations and an analysis of
secondary sources.
Findings suggest that existing and historical
76
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
institutions as well as new governance systems are both
facilitating and hindering the capacity of individuals
and households to adapt to changing conditions. This is
evident through key examples at the community scale such
as changes in caribou migration patterns which has led
to further distances to travel for the annual harvest and
fewer residents involved in the hunt. Community sharing
norms, however, facilitate the supply of caribou meat
for most households. Current open subsistence harvest
regulations, though, have many residents concerned about
overharvesting of migratory bird species, particularly in
the face of a longer spring season due to earlier break
up. Furthermore, although the new system of self
government assures residents of preserved Inuit culture and
heritage, others are unfamiliar with the changing system of
governance, potentially compromising their ability to access
resources such as employment. At regional and provincial
scales, differences in perceptions of local knowledge
integration pose potential challenges to multi-level
adaptation planning. These examples reinforce the notion
that climate change adaptation initiatives must be tailored to
the specific local and multi-scale institutions and systems of
governance.
DRDC IN CANADA’S HIGH ARCTIC
Forand, Luc1, V. Larochelle1, D. Brookes2, J. Lee2, C.Wu2,
G. Heard3, M. MacLeod4, N. McCoy3, Roger Dao3 and K.
Kollenberg5
DRDC Valcartier, 2459 Blvd Pie XI North, Quebec, QC
G3J 1X5
2
DRDC Ottawa, Ottawa, ON
3
DRDC Atlantic, Dartmouth, NS
4
DRDC CORA, Ottawa, ON
5
DRDC Corporate, Ottawa, ON
1
The Canadian Arctic is fast becoming an area of
increasing strategic and economic importance to Canadians
and its federal and territorial governments. As a result, the
need for the Canadian Forces (CF) to monitor and surveil
activities in this area; particularly in the navigable passages,
is quickly increasing. However, due to the large expanse,
low population density, and lack of extensive infrastructure
(i.e. buildings, communications, and transportation) in
the Canadian Arctic, this is a difficult task. Presently,
surveillance is primarily limited to information gathered by
over-flights carried out by the CF’s Maritime Patrol Aircraft
(Auroras), to ground patrols carried out by the Canadian
Rangers, and patrols by the Canadian Coast Guard and
occasionally by the Canadian Navy. To improve the ability
of the CF to obtain an Operational Picture (OP) for the
high Arctic, Defence Research and Development Canada
(DRDC) started a four year Technology Demonstration
(TD) project in April 2007 to investigate and demonstrate
technologies that could be used to monitor and surveil the
waters of the high arctic. During these years, the work will
require significant effort from managerial, scientific and
technical personnel at DRDC Corporate, DRDC Atlantic,
DRDC CORA, DRDC Ottawa, and DRDC Valcartier. This
presentation will discuss the various technologies that
the team will investigate, develop and demonstrate and
presents the program of work that has been proposed and
which we are in the process of realizing. In particular, it
focuses on the sensor detection technologies and sensor
data integration techniques that will be investigated. These
include passive underwater sonar and electromagnetic
detection, active and passive radio frequency detection,
and active and passive optical and infrared detection. The
performance of such integrated sensors will be evaluated
using two types of methodologies. The first type involves
experiments with a suite of ground-based sensors able to
provide continuous coverage at certain strategic locations
in the Canadian Arctic. This will be tested through the
development and installation of a multi-sensor system
at a test site near Gascoyne Inlet on Devon Island. It
will include an Automatic Identification System (AIS),
an underwater hydrophone and electromagnetic sensor
suite that is part of the Rapidly Deployable System (RDS)
developed at DRDC Atlantic, a navigational radar (RF)
system, a radio direction finding system developed at
DRDC Ottawa, and a new DRDC Valcartier electro-optical
(EO) system called the Canadian Arctic Night and Day
Imaging Surveillance System (CANDISS). In addition,
using meteorological data obtained from on-site sensors,
other ground stations and radio-sonde launches within
the Arctic, and similar data obtained from Environment
Canada’s Global Environment Model (GEM), the
performance of the EO and RF systems will be modelled
for many strategic locations. This will be accomplished
using a modified version of DRDC’s Shipborne Integrated
Environment System for Tactics and Awareness (SIESTA)
software that was developed to predict the performance of
shipborne EO and RF systems. The second type involves
studies and simulations of other detection technologies
such as RF and EO satellite surveillance, high-frequency
surface wave (HFSW), RF and EO aerial surveillance,
and other platforms of opportunity. This would include
information provided by citizens working or traveling in the
North, and by commercial shipping and air services. The
investigation of these possibilities will only be conducted
using computer modelling without field-testing at this point
since it is beyond the scope of the project budget.Finally, we
77
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
discuss the schedule of work and the major work elements
associated with each of the sensing technologies to be
developed during this program. In particular, we will present
some of the results of our first Arctic campaign carried out
during the summer of 2008.
ARCTIC COASTAL RESEARCH: RECENT
DEVELOPMENTS IN CANADA AND THE
CIRCUMPOLAR WORLD
Forbes, D.L.1,2 ([email protected]), P.P. Overduin3, T.
Bell2, W. Pollard4
1
Natural Resources Canada, Bedford Institute of
Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, Canada
2
Department of Geography, Memorial University, St. John’s,
NL, Canada
3
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research,
Potsdam, Germany
4
Department of Geography, McGill University, Montréal,
QC, Canada
Scientific research on coastal biophysical processes
in the Arctic developed slowly in the second half of the past
century and accelerated in recent decades. Early pioneers
included Felix Aré in Russia, Erk Reimnitz and colleagues
in Alaska, and Ross Mackay and Brian McCann in Canada.
The Geological Survey of Canada developed an extensive
network of coastal monitoring sites throughout northern
Canada, beginning in the 1970s, but this has been difficult
to maintain. Work on sea-ice dynamics, seabed scour, and
oil-spill sensitivity of coasts was initiated in the first wave
of Arctic oil and gas exploration in the 1970s and has
continued intermittently since, with much work currently
underway in the Mackenzie Delta region and on the North
Slope of Alaska. Renewed efforts related to coastal and
sub-sea permafrost were initiated in the 1990s in northern
Russia and more recently, in part with funding from the
ArcticNet Network of Centres of Excellence, in Nunavik
and other parts of northern Canada. Two projects in the
initial phase of ArcticNet, one focused on vulnerability of
Arctic coasts and coastal communities, another on coastal
permafrost issues, spurred new efforts in northern Canada.
At the international level, the Arctic Coastal Dynamics
Project (ACD) fostered broad collaboration around the
circumpolar world. The International Polar Year led to
development of new activities, including projects such
as Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Arctic Regions
(CAVIAR), Sea Ice, People, and Weather (Siku-Inuit-Hila), and
the Arctic Circumpolar Coastal Observatories Network (ACCONet), involving partnerships from Siberia and Alaska east
to the Canadian Arctic, Greenland, and northern Europe.
These and new projects under ArcticNet emphasize active
participation by northern residents and close involvement
with communities to address needs for adaptation to climate
variability and change. Monitoring change, projecting
future impacts, and discovering new approaches to
planning and community development are key elements
of recent efforts on many fronts. Current projects under
ArcticNet include Permafrost and Climate Change in Northern
Coastal Canada and Instability of Coastal Landscapes in Arctic
Communities and Regions. These and complementary work
by Natural Resources Canada (with other federal and
territorial government agencies and the Canadian Institute
of Planners) are directed to strengthening the links between
western science, traditional ecological knowledge (Inuit
Qaujimajatuqangit), and local and regional planning and
policy to improve the knowledge base for robust decisionmaking and enhance resilience in northern communities.
Efforts are underway to increase the extent and scope of
Arctic coastal monitoring, building on national networks
and international collaborations such as the Arctic Monitoring
and Assessment Programme (AMAP) and ACCO-Net through
the SAON initiative (Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks).
Specific challenges include the need for increased spatial
and temporal density of observations and better integration
of coastal research across international boundaries. Coastal
issues received limited attention in the Arctic Climate Impact
Assessment (2005) and a new effort is underway to review
the current state of knowledge on coastal change, hazards,
vulnerability, and response strategies in the circumpolar
Arctic. This work, sponsored by the International Arctic
Science Committee (IASC) and Land-Ocean Interactions in
the Coastal Zone (LOICZ), is intended to stimulate postIPY efforts internationally.
CLIMATE CHANGE, NATURAL HAZARDS,
AND VULNERABILITY IN SMALL INUIT
COMMUNITIES: A COMPARISON BETWEEN
IGLOOLIK, NUNAVUT, AND QEQERTARSUAQ,
GREENLAND
Ford, James D. ([email protected])
Dept. of Geography, McGill University, [email protected]
ca
Climate change presents risks to the well-being
of Inuit communities across the Arctic. Many of these
risks are associated with hunting, fishing, and travelling
in the Arctic environment. Research from the Canadian
Arctic has demonstrated how vulnerability differs between
communities within the same region, a function of
78
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
physical location, livelihood strategies, economic situation,
governance, demographics, and availability of natural
resources (Ford et al., 2008). However, few studies have
assessed differences (or similarities) in vulnerability and
its determinants between Inuit communities in different
countries. This raises some important research questions.
Can we, for example, generalize on the processes that shape
vulnerability regionally, nationally, or even internationally?
Does vulnerability exist to similar climatic risks? Are policy
impacts on vulnerability of a similar magnitude in different
countries? These questions have important ramifications
for the development of adaptation policy at a local to
international level, yet little comparative research has been
undertaken in an Arctic context. This paper presents some
early results from an evolving project characterizing Inuit
vulnerability to climate change in Igloolik, Nunavut, and
Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland. The case studies focus on hazards
associated with resource harvesting and travel, and use the
vulnerability approach of Ford and Smit (2004), where
vulnerability is conceptualized as a function of exposure
of a community to climatic conditions and its adaptive
capacity to deal with that exposure. Both studies also utilize
detailed place-specific case studies, close collaboration
with community members, and multiple participatory
methodologies to characterize vulnerability. The use of a
consistent and systematic approach permits comparison
and integration of case studies, including identification of
commonalities and differences in the two regions and the
generation of policy-relevant outcomes which draw on
findings from the case studies.
OPPORTUNITIES FOR POLICY TO SUPPORT
INUIT ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
Ford, James D. ([email protected])
Dept. Geography, McGill, Montreal, H3A2K6
For the Arctic’s Inuit population, climate change
is challenging internationally established human rights.
Moreover, «dangerous» climate change might already be
occurring in the Arctic thereby compelling Parties to the
UNFCCC to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions. Mitigation
can help avoid ‘runaway’ climate change, adaptation can
help Inuit reduce the negative effects of current and future
climate change, take advantage of new opportunities, and
can be integrated into existing decision-making processes
and policy goals. Indeed, adaptation is emerging as a priority
area for action on climate change among the member states
of the Arctic Council, and can help Inuit manage changes
in climate that are now inevitable. This paper identifies
entry points where policy can support Inuit adaptation to
the social, cultural, health, and economic effects of current
and predicted climate change. These include supporting
the teaching and transmission of traditional skills,
enhancing emergency management capability, promoting
co-management of natural resources, targeted economic
support to facilitate adaptation for groups with limit income,
and the need to catalogue and preserve at risk cultural
sites. These policy entry points are targeted at different
levels of decision making, including recommendations to
strengthen and prioritize existing management and support
systems, target government institutions charged with wildlife
management and education, and enhance municipal decision
making and planning.
SUNSHINE: AN IMPORTANT BIOCLIMATIC
CONTROL ON HOLOCENE AND LAST
INTERGLACIAL VEGETATIONAL
DEVELOPMENT IN EASTERN BAFFIN ISLAND,
ARCTIC CANADA
Fréchette, Bianca1 ([email protected]), A.
de Vernal1 and P.J.H. Richard2
GEOTOP, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal,
Québec, H3C 3P8
2
Département de géographie, Université de Montréal,
Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7
1
The past can play a tremendously important
role in helping us understand future climate change and
associated tundra ecosystem response. Feedbacks in
Arctic climate system associated with clouds (or inversely,
sunshine conditions) is still a major source of uncertainty
in model projections of global warming. At polar latitudes,
the availability of light and the atmospheric moisture are
interrelated with cloud cover, which should indeed play
an important role in plant physiology. This study presents
Last Interglacial (ca. 125,000 years ago) and Holocene
(last 11,500 years) vegetation and climate changes at Fog
Lake (67°11’N, 63°15’W) on eastern Baffin Island, Arctic
Canada. The vegetation cover is reported as structural
vegetation types, or biomes. July air temperature and
sunshine during the growing season (June-July-AugustSeptember) were reconstructed from pollen assemblages
with the modern analogue technique. The vegetation of
the Last Interglacial period evolved from a prostrate dwarfshrub tundra to a low- and high-shrub tundra vegetation.
The succession of four arctic biomes was distinguished
from the Last Interglacial sediments, whereas only one arctic
biome was recorded in the Holocene sediments. From ca.
79
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
8300 cal. year BP to present, hemiprostrate dwarf-shrub
tundra occupied the soils around Fog Lake. During the
Last Interglacial, growing season sunshine was higher than
during the Holocene and July air temperature was 4 to 5°C
warmer than present. A Principal Component Analysis
helped in assessing relationship between floristic gradients
and climate. Major changes in vegetation cover through
the Last Interglacial and Holocene are clearly shown in the
July air temperature reconstruction curve, whereas minor
changes seem to be better depicted in the growing season
sunshine reconstruction curve. We thus suggest that July
air temperature is the climate parameter that has driven the
major vegetation changes through the Last Interglacial and
the Holocene at Fog Lake, and that these vegetation changes
might have been induced by changes in growing season
sunshine which affected the length of the vegetation period
available to tundra species, especially during September.
During the Last Interglacial, summer warming and
lengthening of the growing season helped the development
of a shrub tundra vegetation on eastern Baffin Island.
Increasing deciduous shrub abundance (e.g., Betula) during
the Last Interglacial is an important result, as it suggests
that the directional changes that occurred on eastern Baffin
Island are consistent with experimental tundra warming.
A shift from herbaceous to woody tundra would have
important implications for processes and interactions
within tundra ecosystems and between tundra and the
atmosphere, notably through a decrease in albedo. An
increased cloudiness (or decreased sunshine) is expected to
accompany a climate warming. It is thus important that we
improve our understanding of how a change in shrub cover
and sunshine likely influence the behaviour of the climate
system. This study demonstrates that growing season
sunshine conditions can be reconstructed from arctic pollen
assemblages, thus providing information on feedbacks
associated with cloud cover and summer temperatures, and
therefore growing season length.
COMMUNITY-BASED INUIT HERITAGE
RESEARCH: LESSONS FROM A NINEYEAR PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN AN INUIT
COMMUNITY GROUP AND A SOUTHERN
UNIVERSITY
Friesen, Max ([email protected])
Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, 19
Russell St., Toronto, ON, M5S 2S2
From 1999 to the present, the Kitikmeot Heritage
Society of Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, and the University of
Toronto have engaged in a research partnership dedicated to
local cultural history as expressed in Traditional Knowledge
and archaeology. Through the years, the personnel and
goals of this project have gradually changed, and its latest
manifestation is as a key part of one of the Government of
Canada’s International Polar Year research projects. In this
paper, I will outline the different phases through which this
partnership has developed, report on the perceived value
to both of the participating groups, and reflect on practical
aspects of what does and does not work in cooperative
research situations like this one.
GROUND ICE STUDIES ON HERSCHEL ISLAND
IN THE WESTERN CANADIAN ARCTIC – A
USEFUL PALEOENVIRONMENTAL PROXY
TOOL
Fritz, Michael1 ([email protected]), H. Meyer1, L.
Schirrmeister1, H. Lantuit1, N.J. Couture2 and W.H. Pollard2
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research,
Research Unit Potsdam, Telegrafenberg A 43, 14473
Potsdam, Germany
2
Department of Geography and Global Environmental
and Climate Change Centre, McGill University, Montreal,
Québec, H3A 2K6
1
Herschel Island lies approximately 4 km off
the Yukon Coastal Plain within the zone of continuous
permafrost in the western Canadian Arctic. The
island is a terminal moraine resulting from a push of
the Laurentide Ice Sheet during the Early to Middle
Wisconsin and represents the likely easternmost edge
of Beringia. The region presumably remained ice-free
during the Late Wisconsin glaciation and has therefore
been intensively affected by periglacial processes for at
least the last 50 ka BP. Ground ice is ubiquitous on the
island and contributes to the shaping of the landscape
since deglaciation. Cryostratigraphic, cryolithological and
stable isotope analyses (δ18O, δ D) have been performed
on various ground ice types (e.g. ice wedge ice, segregated
ice, texture ice, potentially buried glacier ice) recovered to
unravel their genetic processes, their relative age as well
as responsible freezing processes and different temporal
periods of ground ice aggradation and degradation. Since
ground ice is a valuable record of paleoclimate information
regarding the prevailing temperatures during precipitation
and ice formation, it can be used for paleoenvironmental
reconstructions.
Ice wedges on Herschel Island have begun to
form in outwash and morainic deposits of Wisconsin age
80
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
after deglaciation, when dry and harsh climatic conditions
supported frost cracking. A recovered Pleistocene ice wedge
– recognised by its truncation by the early Holocene thaw
unconformity – is remarkably depleted in its mean δ18O
isotope signature (−29 ‰) compared to all other occurring
ice wedges (–24 to –21 ‰) that penetrate the unconformity
or that are not truncated. Thus, significantly colder
winter temperatures are assumed during the formation
of Pleistocene ice wedges in contrast to Holocene and
more recent ones. Evidently, Herschel Island comprises ice
wedges that formed likely prior to the Holocene Thermal
Maximum (HTM) and afterwards up to the present.
Within glacially-affected and ice-rich Herschel
Island sediments, bodies of massive ice are exposed whose
appearance and isotopic composition is completely different
from all other sampled ground ice types. δ18O-isotopes are
strongly depleted (between -33 and -37‰) thus suggesting
a Pleistocene origin with slope and d-excess near the global
meteoric water line (GMWL), which indicate that the
moisture is likely of meteoric origin without substantial
alterations. The question arises, whether the ice body
aggraded prior to glaciation as massive segregated ice and
was then deformed by glacier ice thrust. Or if the ice was
originally basal glacier ice that was buried by supraglacial till
as a remnant of the Laurentide ice lobe.
METHODS AND APPROACHES TO LINKING
INUIT KNOWLEDGE AND SCIENCE FOR THE
UNDERSTANDING OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN
ARCTIC REGIONS
Furgal, Chris1 ([email protected]), C Fletcher2, C
Dickson3
Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent
University
2
Department of Anthropology, University of Alberta
3
Council of Yukon First Nations
1
Inuit communities are considered to be some
of the most vulnerable populations to climate and
environmental change globally. Their close relationship
with the land, coastal geographic location, and reliance on
the local environment for aspects of diet and economy, in
addition to the current dynamic state of social, cultural,
economic and political change in many regions places
these communities at particular risk to perturbations in
the local environment. Historically, traditional knowledge
systems have been critical in supporting response to local
scale change and stress among many Indigenous groups.
Currently, local observations and knowledge of changes in
climatic conditions coming from Inuit and other Indigenous
communities in the Arctic represent some of the best and
only local scale data on human-environment interactions
in these changing environments. Although there is growing
support for the complementary use of Inuit or other
Indigenous knowledge and science the acceptance of their
combined use still remains contentious. This presentation
will provide an analysis of methods and approaches used
to link Inuit and other forms of Indigenous knowledge
and science through a review of existing and past research
in the areas of climate change in northern regions. The
analysis identifies three general categories showing promise
for understanding how convergence or complementary
use may occur. They include: parallel observation and
analysis, serial observation and analysis and collaborative
observation and analysis. A fourth category, parallel, serial
or collaborative conceptualization is also identified. The
majority of projects conducted to date have employed
either parallel or serial observation in which convergence
or data connections are made in a retrospective manner.
Very few projects to date have proactively developed and
conducted collaborative work involving both Indigenous
knowledge and science on these subjects. Projects in
which 1) a common application or goal exists (e.g. human
safety and climate change, weather prediction); 2) there is
a common geographic and temporal foci and scale for the
work (e.g. investigation of a specific location or ‘Cultural
Landscape Unit’ such as polynya), 3) there is a common
phenomenon being investigated (e.g. weather persistence /
unpredictability), or 4) there is a common unit of analysis
between the two systems (e.g. climate indicator of relevance
or importance to the community e.g. factors influencing ice
safety) show greatest promise for supporting convergence
between Inuit knowledge and science. Finally, it is argued
that the complementary nature of these knowledge systems
may only be realized if processes and efforts are established
to: i) understand the issue from both perspectives; ii)
establish meaningful and reciprocal research partnerships
with knowledge holders and communities; iii) utilise and
improve cross-cultural collaborative research methods; and,
iv) establish and maintain open and ongoing dialogue. Many
of the community-based approaches to research presented
in this session provide examples of lessons learned in this
regard.
81
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Spatial patterns of Holocene
paleoclimatic change in the Canadian
Arctic Islands
Gajewski, Konrad1, Sarah Finkelstein2 ([email protected]
utoronto.ca), M Peros1, M-C Fortin1, T Paull1
Laboratory for Paleoclimatology and Climatology,
Department of Geography, University of Ottawa, Ottawa,
ON, Canada K1N 6N5
2
Department of Geography, University of Toronto, 100 St
George Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3G3
1
A greater understanding of the potential
impact of climatic change on terrestrial and freshwater
ecosystems can be obtained by observing how climate
variability of the past affected Arctic ecosystems. Fossils
extracted from lake sediment cores are used to identify
long term environmental change and reconstruct past
climates. However, few records spanning the Holocene
have been produced from the Canadian Arctic, and the
spatial patterns of historical climate variability across the
region remain poorly known. We present data from a
series of lake sediment cores from across the Canadian
Arctic Islands to quantify spatial variability in Holocene
paleoclimates, and to determine local effects of climatic
changes on ecosystems. A multi-proxy approach is used
to provide independent paleoclimatic records. Due to the
availability of calibration datasets of ecological data, it is
now possible to attempt quantitative reconstructions of
past temperatures and biological production. Pollen, diatom
and chironomid-based paleoclimate reconstructions, as well
as high resolution analyses of biogenic silica and sediment
properties, are broadly coherent within one site, although
there remain some differences between paleoclimate values
estimated by the different proxies. Using fossil pollen data
and an extensive modern calibration set, we estimate early
Holocene temperatures of 1-2 degrees C higher than the
early 20th century across a broad area of the Canadian
Arctic; this «Holocene Thermal Maximum» occurred about
10000 to 6500 cal yr BP in the western Canadian Arctic
at site KR02 on Victoria Island, and at about 9000 cal yr
BP in the central Arctic at Lake PW02 on Prince of Wales
Island. Elevated biological production across different
trophic levels, measured using a combination of biogenic
silica, percent organic matter and the concentrations
of microfossils, is also noted at that time at many sites.
Neoglacial cooling is observed in many records after 4000
cal yr BP; the transition to cooler climates is often associated
with declines in diatom production, and a rise in diatom
diversity. Millennial-scale climate variability is identified in
both terrestrial and freshwater fossil sequences. For the
past millennium, these changes are broadly coherent across
several cores, with some spatial variability both in terms
of timing and magnitude across the Archipelago. Nonanalogue conditions, that is, communities in the past which
do not resemble any observed today in the Arctic, have been
identified, as has been found in temperate regions, but it is
still unclear if this is due to insufficient calibration data or
true non-analogue conditions. Although significant progress
has been made in mapping Holocene paleoclimates across
this region, more progress is needed on modern calibration
of the proxies, taxonomic harmonization, obtaining better
chronologies and increasing the density of sites available for
reconstructions.
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON ARCTIC
TERRESTRIAL FOOD WEBS: EXAMPLES FROM
THE BYLOT ISLAND LONG TERM STUDY
Gauthier, Gilles1 ([email protected]) and M.-C.
Cadieux1
Département de biologie et Centre d’études nordiques,
Université Laval, Québec, Québec, G1V 0A6
1
Measuring the impact of climate change on arctic
wildlife populations is exceedingly difficult for several
reasons. First, mechanisms of actions are complex, are still
poorly known and are often indirect, e.g. either through the
food (bottom-up) or predators (top-down) of an animal.
Second, short-term trends are difficult to interpret because
of the large natural variability of the climate. Third, it is
virtually impossible to manipulate the climate to disentangle
its effects on wildlife. I argue here that a profitable approach
is to combine long term monitoring of key species of
the food web in combination with short term studies
aimed at improving our understanding of the mechanisms
involved. I will illustrate that with examples from the work
that my colleagues and I have been conducting on snow
geese and lemmings on Bylot Island, Nunavut, over the
past 2 decades. Plant production in wetlands of this site
has increased 84% over the period 1990-2007. This is
likely a direct consequence of climate warming because
air temperature and precipitation were the most influential
factors on plant production, and our study area has
experienced a strong warming rend (2.1 C over the last 30
years). Climatic variations appear to be the most important
driver of the annual production of snow geese as shown
by the close association between the breeding phenology or
their breeding effort and air temperature in spring. As the
summer temperature and plant production both increased,
one could think that this would have beneficial effects on
82
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
geese. However, our analysis also revealed some unexpected
negative effect of warm temperature, as gosling growth
was reduced in years with warm spring temperature and
early snow-melt, possibly because such conditions may
lead to a mismatch between the peak in plant quality and
hatching date of goslings. In lemmings, we found evidence
that their 3 to 4-year cycle of abundance may have been
disrupted, as recent peaks of abundance were weaker than
older ones. The strong warming trend detected could be one
explanation for the low recent abundance of lemmings, as
other sites in the circumpolar world experiencing warming
have also found similar collapse of the lemming cycle. This
phenomenon could have far-reaching impacts on the whole
tundra food webs as lemmings are the primary prey of
most tundra predators and play a key role in the population
dynamics of these predators and of alternative prey species
due to shared predators.
smaller concentration, which enhance precipitation and air
dehydration. Results with the 1D and 3D model show that
the DGF has an important effect on cloud, atmospheric
dehydration, and temperature over the Central and Eastern
Arctic, which is the coldest part of the Arctic. Cloud ice is
significantly reduced and the total atmospheric water path
is decreased by as much as 12%. This results in a surface
cooling ranging between 0 and –3K. Moreover, the lower
tropospheric cooling over the Eastern and Central Arctic
strengthens the atmospheric circulation at upper level, thus
increasing the aerosol transport from the mid-latitudes
and enhancing the DGF. Over warmer areas, the increased
aerosol concentration (caused by the DGF) leads to longer
cloud lifetime, which contributes to warm these areas.
Modelling of the effects of
acidic aerosols on arctic cloud
microstructure and surface radiative
budget during winter
Gislason, Robin ([email protected])
Girard, Éric1 ([email protected]), Alexandru Stefanof1,
Jean-Pierre Blanchet1, Rodrigo Munoz-Alpizar1 and Yves
Dubois1
The Schools on Board program is a major outreach
program of the Circumpolar Flaw Lead (CFL) system study
- a $40M Canadian-led international research project that
examines the physical-biological coupling within the flaw
lead system near Banks Island in the Western Canadian
High Arctic.
In celebration of the International Polar Year,
Schools on Board hosted 2 International Field Programs,
and 1 circumpolar Inuit field program (CIFP). The CIFP
is the field program Schools on Board will focus on in this
presentation.
The CIFP was truly a unique field program in
the sense that it involved circumpolar Inuit students from
the Canadian Inuit Regions; Inuvialuit Settlement Region,
Nunavut, and Nunavik, as well as students from Alaska,
Greenland, and Russia.
The program addressed the CFL’s Two Ways
of Knowing philosophy by combining both Traditional
Knowledge and western science research field projects in
one unique field program. The highlights of this two ways of
knowing field program included;
1. Students collecting TK research in their home
communities before coming onboard the field program
2. Students participating in community visits in both
Inuvik and Sachs Harbour, NT
3. Students were fully immersed in the science fieldwork
activities onboard the CCGS Amundsen, Canada’s premier
research ice breaker
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, UQAM
1
The effect of pollution-derived sulphuric acid
aerosols on the aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions is
investigated. Observations suggest that acidic aerosols can
decrease the heterogeneous nucleation rate of ice crystals
and lower the homogeneous freezing temperature of haze
droplets. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that
the cloud thermodynamic phase is modified in polluted
air mass (Arctic haze). Cloud ice number concentration
is reduced, thus promoting further ice crystal growth by
the Bergeron-Findeisen process. Hence, ice crystals reach
larger sizes and low-level ice crystal precipitation from
mixed-phase clouds increases. Enhanced dehydration of the
lower troposphere contributes to decrease the water vapour
greenhouse effect and cool the surface. A positive feedback
is created between surface cooling and air dehydration,
accelerating the cold air production. This process is referred
to as the dehydration-greenhouse feedback (DGF).
Simulations using 0D, 1D and 3D models are
performed to assess the potential effect of the DGF on the
Arctic cloud microstructure and surface radiative budget.
Results with the explicit size bin 0D model show that acidic
aerosols promote the formation of larger ice crystals in
THE 2008 SCHOOLS ON BOARD CIRCUMPOLAR
INUIT FIELD PROGRAM
Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of
Manitoba
83
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
4. An elder/youth/scientist knowledge exchange
workshop took place onboard the CCGS Amundsen;
community members from Sachs Harbour, NT participated
in the one day workshop onboard the ship
5. Follow-up activities with Inuit students will occur
throughout the fall/winter seasons with an output minimum
of student posters, oral presentations, and booklet
publications
FOOD SECURITY IN WESTERN GREENLAND: A
CASE STUDY FROM QEQERTARSUAQ
Goldhar, Christina1 ([email protected]), J. Ford2
([email protected]), U. Grønvold3, L. Berrang-Ford4
Department of Geography, Memorial University of
Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador,
A1B 3X9
2
Department of Geography, McGill University, Montréal,
Québec, H3A 2K6
3
Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland
4
Department of Geography, McGill University, Montréal,
Québec, H3A 2K6
1
This article presents results from an exploratory
study of food security in the community of Qeqertarsuaq,
Greenland, characterizing food security of community
members and identifying the exposure-sensitivity and
adaptive capacity of the food system to present and future
climate changes. Approximately 8% of Qeqertarsuaq
residents were classified as food insecure in this study; a
value that is higher than the Canadian average of 9%, as
assessed by the Canadian Community Health Survey (Health
Canada, 2005). While food security levels may be high in
Qeqertarsuaq relative to Canadian examples, the ability to
obtain culturally (and nutritionally) important Greenlandic
foods among certain groups is cause for concern. Women,
elders and non-hunters are at particular risk due to restricted
traditional food access and reliance on community food
sharing systems. Of all women surveyed 46% indicated that
Greenlandic foods made up less than half of their diet in
the last year while 21% of men consumed similar amounts
of Greenlandic foods. As Greenlandic food security is
contingent upon access to these highly valued foods further
research is needed to identify strategies for increasing
Greenlandic food access and ensuring community food
security in small, mixed subsistence-cash economies in the
context of social, economic, and climatic changes.
Identification of Natural and Human
Induced Trends and Variability of 30
Year Canadian Arctic Aerosols
Gong, Sunling L.1 ([email protected]), S. Sharma1,
W.R. Leaitch1, D. Toom-Sauntry1
Air Quality Research Division, S & T Branch, Environment
Canada
1
The trends and inter-annual variations of the
30 year Canadian Arctic aerosols were analyzed and are
separated into both human and natural contributions. It
is found that both sulphate and black carbon aerosols are
continuing the decline trend but start to level off. The trends
are consistent with the decline trends of anthropogenic
emissions largely in Europe and North America from
1990s. After de-trending the time series of sulphate, the
inter-annual variations were indentified and correlated with
two indices derived from the 700 hPa geo-potential heights.
Together with the emissions from Europe and North
America, the indices can re-produce the 80% of the trends
and inter-annual visibilities of the Arctic aerosols
RECENT OBSERVATIONS ON THE
DISTRIBUTION AND DYNAMICS OF
FRESHWATER IN THE HUDSON BAY SYSTEM
Granskog, Mats A.1,2,3 ([email protected]), Z.
Kuzyk1,4, R. Macdonald5, S. Senneville6, J. Martin7, J-E.
Tremblay7, C-J. Mundy6,1, D. G. Barber1, G. Stern4,1
Department of Environment & Geography, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2
2
Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, POB 122, FIN-96101
Finland
3
present address: Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296
Tromso, Norway
4
Freshwater Institute, Department of Fisheries & Oceans
Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N6
5
Institute of Ocean Sciences, Department of Fisheries &
Oceans Canada, Sydney, B. C., V8L 4B2
6
Institut des sciences de la mer (ISMER), Université du
Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec, G5L 3A1
7
Québec-Océan and Département de Biologie, Université
Laval, Québec, Québec , G1V OA6
1
Freshwater, both from runoff and sea-ice
formation and melt, profoundly affects the functioning of
the Hudson Bay system (HBS). The system is vulnerable to
human disturbance including climate change, as evidenced
84
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
by changes in runoff and sea ice conditions. In contrast
to the total fluxes, which are relatively well known, where
and how long the freshwater resides in the Bay remain
open questions. These questions pose a particular challenge
because of the complex water masses and exchanges in
the HBS and the very limited data that contains tracers of
freshwater source. Here, we combine temperature, salinity,
dissolved nutrient and oxygen isotope data gathered in late
summer, 2004-2007, to describe horizontal and vertical
variations in composition of waters in the HBS, with special
focus on the distribution of freshwater components.
Summer surface waters, which form a ubiquitous
surface mixed layer 5-25 m thick in the Bay, exhibit strong
inshore-offshore gradients, related to concentration of
river water within a narrow coastal domain (<100-150 km
from shore). The influence of sea-ice melt increases toward
the interior basin. Using information from a 3-D ocean
model, we estimate that the (surface) freshwater transport
in this corridor is high and residence times during the
ice-free season correspondingly short, in the order of 2-4
months for river water transiting through southwestern
Hudson Bay. Despite the short transit time there is evidence
for significant loss of colored dissolved organic matter
(CDOM).
Subsurface waters also appear to play a key role
in the freshwater cycling in the HBS. Subsurface waters
exhibit strong lateral compositional gradients. Near-freezing
subsurface layers (at about 40-90 m depth), enriched
in brine and river water and thus presumably formed
through convection during previous winter(s), were present
particularly in the southern parts of the Bay. In the north
there is less evidence of these layers and it appears that
they are replaced by subsurface advection by the end of
the summer. The temperature and nutrient properties of
the replacement waters imply contributions from Hudson
Strait inflow and deep waters within the Bay. Deep waters
from different parts of the Bay were also variably enriched
in brine and river water. Their properties varied from year
to year, consistent with interannual variability in deep
water overflow from Foxe Basin to Hudson Bay an/or
dense water formation on the Bay’s own shelves. Overall,
our results indicate that surface and subsurface layers are
interconnected through dense water formation in winter,
and play different roles in storing and exporting freshwater.
It is likely that this interconnection is sensitive to climate
variables which then alter the dynamics of freshwater. The
composition of the subsurface and deep waters suggests a
net export of sea-ice melt from the HBS in summer, which
is significant for understanding variation in freshwater
export downstream (e.g. the Labrador current).
STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE
AMUNDSEN GULF EDDIES
Gratton, Yves1 ([email protected]), Louis Prieur2,
Jean-Éric Tremblay3 and Alfonso Mucci4
Québec-Océan, INRS, Centre eau, terre et environnement,
Québec, Qc, Canada
2
Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, 06238
Villefranche-sur-Mer Cedex, France
3
Québec-Océan, Département de biologie, Université Laval,
Québec, Qc, Canada
4
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill
University, Montreal, Qc, Canada
1
The source of freshwater, nutrients, dissolved
and particulate material found in the Amundsen Gulf can
be both local and remote. One coherent feature that can
transport freshwater, mass and even complete ecosystems
over large distances is the eddy. Canada Basin eddies have
been recently observed to last for months. They can be
generated in late fall or winter as far as the shelf break in
the Chukchi Sea or formed locally at freezing time and /
or melting time. One eddy was observed in Franklin Bay
in December 2003 during CASES (Canadian Arctic Shelf
Exchanges Study) and two more were observed in the
Amundsen Gulf in January and March of 2008 during
CFL (Circumpolar Flaw Lead Study). The 2003 eddy was
probably generated locally while the 2008 eddies may have
drifted in from the Canada Basin. In this paper, we discuss
the biological, chemical and physical properties of the
observed Amundsen Gulf eddies and speculate on their
possible generating mechanisms.
PASSING THE TORCH - ENGAGING YOUTH IN
GLOBAL ISSUES THROUGH EXPERIENTIAL
LEARNING
Green, Geoff ([email protected])
Through the award-winning ‘Students on Ice’ (SOI)
program, more than one thousand students, scientists and
educators have gained a new understanding and respect
for the planet. ‘Students on Ice’ provides the extraordinary
opportunity for today’s youth (and tomorrow’s leaders) to
better understand the Poles, the Planet, the implications
of environmental issues, and teaches them how to get
involved and active in local, national and global solutions.
These unique, educational ship-based expeditions give youth
the rare opportunity to mentor with world-class scientists,
researchers, experts, teachers, artists and young leaders.
85
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
The program encourages youth and young adults to pursue
careers in polar research, applied sciences, environmental
studies and more. In his role as Students on Ice founder &
executive director, and as a member of Canada’s National
Committee for the IPY, Geoff passionately addresses
the environmental issues facing the Pole Regions today
– and by extension, the interconnectedness of the entire
global ecosystem. Having led more than 100 expeditions
to both the Polar Regions over the past 20 years, Geoff ’s
presentation will take the audience on an inspiring journey
from one end of the Earth to the other. He will also address
some of the upcoming SOI expeditions which include
a pioneering Antarctic University Expedition, another
important contribution to the IPY legacy of engaging
youth and young adults in understanding the importance
and urgency of protecting the Poles and the Planet. The
Students on Ice – IPY Arctic & Antarctic Expeditions 20072009 are the most comprehensive educational expeditions
for youth of their kind. They serve as powerful and unique
international platforms to create change, inspire, educate,
give cause for hope, and raise awareness globally. The IPY
expeditions to date have involved over 130 international
students, aged 14-19, including 35 northern aboriginal
youth from the Yukon to Nunatsiavut. The students
traveled on these transformative adventures together with
a team of 30 scientists, environmentalists, artists and polar
educators. Geoff will talk about his most recent experiences
as expedition leader of the ship-based journeys and the
unique and powerful experiences lived by the youth and
educators who have participated in the Student on Ice
International Polar Year expeditions to the Arctic and
Antarctic thus far. Students on Ice (www.studentsonice.
com) is empowering youth through experiential learning
and fostering opportunities for them to live their creativity
and inspire change in their lives, their communities, and the
Planet. Geoff ’s presentation will speak about the success
of Students on Ice and share stories of youth that have
returned home as ambassadors and leaders for our planet’s
environment, with new levels of inspiration and motivation
for the future. There has never been a more important time
for the world to have active and motivated youth who can
help change the way societies manage themselves for a more
sustainable future.
INVESTIGATION OF THE DEHYDRATIONGREENHOUSE FEEDBACK TRIGGER USING
SATELLITE MEASUREMENTS
Grenier, Patrick1 ([email protected]), J.-P.
Blanchet1 and R. Muñoz-Alpizar1
Université du Québec à Montréal
1
Datasets from CloudSat radar reflectivity and
CALIPSO lidar backscattering measurements provide a
new regard on Arctic winter cloud systems, as well as on
the way aerosols determine their formation and evolution.
Especially, links between the cloud ice crystal size and the
surrounding aerosol field may be further investigated. In
this communication, the satellite observations are used to
heuristically separate polar thin ice clouds into two crystal
size modes, and an aerosol index based on the attenuated
backscattering and color ratio of the sampled volumes is
used for identifying haze in cloud-free regions. Statistics
from 386 Arctic satellite overpasses during January 2007
reveal that regions with the highest proportion of thin
ice clouds having large ice crystals at their top are the
same for which the aerosol index is highest. Moreover, a
weak but significant correlation between the cloud top ice
effective radius and the above-cloud aerosol index suggests
that more polluted clouds tend to have ice crystals with
higher effective radii, in all sectors investigated. These
results are interpreted in terms of a sulphate-induced
freezing inhibition effect. Direct implications for the Arctic
climate are also discussed, mainly in the framework of the
dehydration-greenhouse feedback.»
BIRCH SHRUBS IN THE CANADIAN LOW
ARCTIC MAY RESPOND RELATIVELY QUICKLY
TO CLIMATE WARMING
Grogan, Paul ([email protected])
Department of Biology, Queen’s University, Kingston,
Ontario, K7L 3N6
The structure and functioning of arctic terrestrial
ecosystems can be strongly influenced by the presence
of deciduous shrubs. Their distinctive growth form and
tissue chemistry alter microclimate and tend to enhance net
carbon storage at the ecosystem-level. Deciduous shrubs are
also an important food source for caribou during summer.
Furthermore, since these shrubs tend to absorb more
incoming radiation than other species, they may contribute
a significant positive feedback to regional climate warming
where they proliferate. Climate warming trends at high latitudes since
1980 seem to correlate well with satellite observations of
increased seasonal photosynthetic activity over the following
decade, especially in low arctic tundra regions where shrubs
are relatively common. A variety of experimental studies
at differing scales across the Arctic indicate that growth of
86
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
tundra deciduous shrubs can be significantly enhanced by
warming. Birch in particular is able to respond relatively
rapidly to changes in temperature and resource availability
because of the plasticity inherent in its short shoot/long
shoot growth habit. Together these results, and aerial
photographic data, suggest that enhanced growth and
expansion of deciduous shrubs may be an important factor
driving increases in overall ecosystem net carbon gain across
the Arctic as the climate warms and the growing season
extends. However the magnitudes of growth enhancement
observed in the experimental warming studies is typically far
lower than the response to chronic large fertiliser additions,
suggesting that although shrubs have the potential to greatly
increase in density and landcover, actual increases may be
quite modest over decadal time scales.
Here, I report the first data from a Canadian
low arctic tundra site where a range of experimental
manipulations (summer warming, snowfences, caribou
exclosures, fertilisation) has been running since 2004. These
experiments are located in birch hummock tundra – a lowarctic ecosystem-type that extends from the MacKenzie
valley right across northern Canada to the Hudson Bay.
Initial measurements indicate that tundra birch growth was
much more strongly stimulated by warming at our site than
in any previous warming studies elsewhere. These results
suggest that birch responses to climate warming may vary
substantially across the Arctic.
LIGHT PRECIPITATION AT COLD
TEMPERATURES DURING APRIL OF 2008 IN
BARROW ALASKA
Gultepe, Ismail1 ([email protected]), R. Rasmussen2, J.
Cherry3, and J. Milbrandt4
Cloud Physics and Severe Weather Research
Section,Meteorological Research Division, Science and
Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Toronto,
Ontario M3H 5T4, Canada.
2
NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, Colorado 80307-3000,
USA
3
International Arctic Research Center & Institute of
Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, P.O.
Box 757335, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7335, USA.
4
Numerical Weather Prediction Research Section,
Meteorological Research Division, Science and Technology
Branch, Environment Canada, Dorval, QC H9P 1J3,
Canada
1
The main objective of this work is to study
light snow precipitation (LSP) rate (<1 mm hr-1) and its
occurrence during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol
Campaign (ISDAC) and the Fog Remote Sensing and
Modeling (FRAM) field programs that took place at
the U.S. Department Of Energy (DOE) ARM Climate
Research Facility in Barrow, Alaska, for the April of 2008.
The objectives of ISDAC project were related to clouds,
aerosols, and climate. On the other hand, FRAM focused
on LSP and cold fog/frost that reduce the visibility (Vis).
Objectives of both projects were complimentary each other
to better understand cloud-climate interactions, and cloud
and fog processes e.g. LPS/frost at the surface. During the
project, numerous in-situ measurements were obtained,
including droplet and ice particle size distributions,
wind, precipitation, lidar and radar retrieved parameters,
and Vis. The LPS measurements collected by the OTT
distrometer, YES TPS (Yankee Environmental Systems
total precipitation sensor), Vaisala VRG101 and FD12P,
and DMT FMD (Droplet Measurement Technologies
fog measuring device). Vis related to precipitation
measurements were also collected by Vaisala FD12P, ETS
(EnviroTech Sentry), OTT distrometer, and DMT FMD
instruments. During measurements, FD12P reported the
LSP cases accurately compared to other instruments. Vis
for small particles was indicated by both FD12P and FMD
but ETS Vis sensor missed the particles with low number
concentrations. The YES TPS and Vaisala VRG101 usually
missed LSP conditions and underestimated precipitation
rates for conditions with strong winds (>3 m s-1). It is
concluded that 1) LSP conditions in the Arctic occur often
but it is not detected accurately, 2) LSP occurrence was
~90% over snowing conditions during April of 2008, 3)
snow precipitation occurrence (>0.05 mm h-1) was ~18%
of time, and 4) LSP can affect the surface heat and moisture
budgets, hydrological cycle, and comparisons with regional
and global model simulation results. These suggest that
mean annual snow precipitation rates and accumulation
amounts over the Arctic regions need to be revised to
consider LSP.
PAN-ARCTIC SEA ICE MASS BALANCE
OBSERVATIONS - STATUS AND CHALLENGES
Haas, Christian ([email protected])
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University
of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E3
Sea ice is an important element of the Arctic
system, and its areal extent shows arguably the most
dramatic change among all other elements, with
fundamental consequences for the physical, biogeochemical,
87
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
ecological and human domains. The observed reductions of
summer ice extent are much more rapid than predicted by
most climate models, pointing to a lack of understanding of
the underlying processes governing the sea ice mass balance.
In addition, there are only few systematic ice thickness
measurements which could provide detailed information
about mass balance changes due to ice redistribution and
deformation, or due to variations in ocean and atmospheric
heat fluxes. The presentation will review the current status
of pan-Arctic ice mass balance observations, including
activities using ice profiling sonars, airborne laser and
electromagnetic profiling, ice-mass-balance buoys, and
satellite altimetry, and their integration with observations
of oceanic and atmospheric boundary conditions. Most
recent results obtained during the IPY by a consortium
of researchers from Canada, Germany, Norway, the USA,
and Russia will be presented, particularly from airborne
electromagnetic sounding, which was performed in various
regions of the Arctic and shows variable magnitudes of ice
thickness change. The presentation will also discuss future
activities and opportunities to enhance the observational
data base, and their value for improved model development.
As long as satellite methods are not sufficiently validated, ice
mass balance observations will depend on airborne, marine,
or submarine logistics and surveys, which gradually become
more challenging particularly due to the increasing cost of
fuel. Access to the Arctic sea ice cover is a key challenge
for the gathering of systematic, pan-Arctic ice mass balance
data.
CLIMATE-DRIVEN SHIFTS IN QUANTITY AND
SEASONALITY OF RIVER DISCHARGE FROM
THE HEADWATERS OF THE MACKENZIE
RIVER BASIN OVER THE PAST MILLENNIUM:
IMPLICATIONS FOR RIVER-OCEAN
INTERACTIONS AND NATURAL RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT IN THE NORTH
Hall, Roland I.1 ([email protected]), B.B. Wolfe2, T.W.D.
Edwards3, S.R. Jarvis2, R.N. Sinnatamby1, Y. Yi3, J.W.
Johnston2
Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo,
Ontario, N2L 3G1
2
Department of Geography & Environmental Studies,
Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3C5
3
Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences,
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1
1
Shrinking headwater glaciers, decreasing alpine
snowmelt runoff, and declining river discharges at the
headwaters of the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB) continue
to alter the seasonal distribution and flux of water, materials
and heat to downstream landscapes and the Arctic Ocean.
Rapidly increasing industrial development (e.g., Oil Sands)
also raises concerns over the future availability of water
resources for continued economic growth and to maintain
integrity of downstream ecosystems. Assessment of
contemporary relations between climate and river discharge
is limited by the short duration of meteorological and
hydrometric records, and so longer hydrological records
are needed to evaluate the responses of river discharge to
a range of natural climatic conditions. Here, we assemble
high-resolution 1,000 year paleohydrological records from
multiple proxies measured in lake sediment cores obtained
from a flood-prone oxbow lake, a climate-sensitive upland
perched basin, and two lowland basins in the PeaceAthabasca Delta adjacent to Lake Athabasca, as well as
from a lagoonal pond on nearby Bustard Island in Lake
Athabasca, to examine the effects of changing climate
and runoff generation on the quantity and seasonality
of river discharge at the headwaters of the MRB. Our
reconstructions include a broad range of climatic conditions
during the medieval (ca.1000 to 1530 CE), Little Ice Age
(LIA; 1530 to 1890) and post-LIA intervals. As we will
show, the site-specific paleohydrological trajectories are
complex at the landscape scale, but can be reconciled by
considering the quantity and seasonality of river discharge
originating in the eastern Rocky Mountains in the context
of climate and glacier mass balance variability over the
past 1000 years. Glacier expansion in the Rocky Mountains
during the medieval (mainly 1100-1380 and 1450-1505)
created hydroclimatic conditions conducive for frequent,
severe ice-jam flooding downstream, but that did not sustain
river discharge and Lake Athabasca water levels beyond
the spring melt period. Glacier advances during the LIA,
in response to colder conditions between the sixteenth
and nineteenth centuries, resulted in delayed generation
of snowmelt runoff at the headwaters and reduced
the frequency and magnitude of ice-jams downstream,
but sustained higher river discharge that elevated water
levels in Lake Athabasca despite locally arid conditions
and reduced contributions from local precipitation. The
hydrological conditions of the twentieth century are unique
in the context of the past millennium, characterized by
low frequency and magnitude of ice-jam floods and low
Lake Athabasca levels -- a probable outcome of shrinking
headwater glaciers and decreasing alpine snowmelt runoff
since the conclusion of the LIA. The temporal perspective
offered by these paleohydrological reconstructions indicates
that climatic changes over the past millennium have led
to characteristic responses in the quantity and seasonality
of streamflow generated from the hydrographic apex of
88
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
North America. A key feature is that the hydrograph of the
twenty-first century may be evolving towards conditions
unprecedented over the past 1000 years. Continuing
reduction in both peak and total discharge clearly
underscores the need for stringent allocation of freshwater
resources in these watersheds, and effective management of
downstream ecosystems and coastal areas.
The Arctic polar stratosphere and
mesosphere during IPY
Harvey, V. Lynn ([email protected])
Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University
of Colorado
The International Polar Year (IPY) is an
international scientific program focused on intensive
observations in the Arctic and Antarctic from March 2007
to March 2009. As part of this effort, we have established
a web site to show near-real time monitoring of the
Arctic troposphere and stratosphere. In the stratosphere,
the position and vertical structure of the Arctic vortex
and anticyclone circulation systems provide a global
context to aid in the interpretation of single-site lidar
temperature measurements collected during IPY winters.
Three-dimensional animations of the Arctic vortex
and anticyclones will illustrate current conditions in the
stratosphere and mesosphere as well as notable events
during last winter 2007-2008. Temperature measurements
from the Poker Flat Observatory are interpreted based on
the air masses in which the lidar measures. Summer profiles
show very little variability in the stable summer anticyclone
while winter and fall data vary considerably depending on
whether the vortex or Aleutian anticyclone is sampled. This
talk will introduce our IPY web site as a means to encourage
coordinated measurements during the 2008-2009 winter.
FLYING INTO THE EYE OF A POLAR LOW
Hay, Carling1 ([email protected]) Moore,
G.W.K.1
Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto,
Ontario, M5S 1A7
1
Surrounded by mountains, glaciers, and the
cold waters of the North Atlantic, Greenland’s coastal
communities experience some of the world’s most extreme
weather. One severe event that can affect Greenland is
known as a polar low. The most common definition of a
polar low requires that the maritime mesoscale cyclone be
small but intense. The cyclone needs to have gale force
surface winds and must form north of the main baroclinic
zone. Storms that meet these conditions put both mariners
and coastal communities in danger. Greenland’s small
population and northern location make data measurements
sparse; and severe weather events difficult to forecast. The
Greenland Flow Distortion Experiment (GFDex) was an
IPY project designed to overcome this challenge. With the
use of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements
(FAAM), 12 missions were flown throughout a 3 week long
campaign. This included a flight on February 25, 2008 that
was designed to study the 3D structure of a polar mesoscale
cyclone in the Norwegian Sea. The flight consisted of two
high-level dropsonde legs through the system’s centre of
circulation, as well as a low-level leg close to Greenland
to examine the influence of the topography on the
system’s wind field. In order to investigate the dynamics
and evolution of the cyclone, a mesoscale simulation was
performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting
(WRF) model. With an inner domain resolution of 3km,
the model output was able to reproduce the dominant
features observed in-flight. This included the presence of a
low-level jet approximately 100 km offshore. The in-flight
measurements combined with the model output shed light
on the structure and dynamics of this mesoscale cyclone,
suggesting that it is does fall in the class of severe maritime
storms known as a polar low.
CARBON DIOXIDE AND METHANE FLUXES
FROM TUNDRA ENVIRONMENTS AT DARING
LAKE, NWT: EXAMINATION OF CARBON
CYCLING MECHANISMS AND SPATIAL AND
TEMPORAL FLUX VARIATION.
Hayne, Shari1 ([email protected]), E.R.
Humphreys1 and K. Wilson1
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies,
Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6
1
Arctic ecosystems consist of a heterogeneous
mix of vegetation types over short distances. Processes
controlling arctic terrestrial carbon dynamics are complex,
occurring at various spatial and temporal scales. This
causes the exchange of carbon between the tundra and the
atmosphere to be highly variable across arctic landscapes.
This leads to significant uncertainty when trying to predict
how the carbon budget of this landscape may respond to
short-term variations in weather and long-term climate
89
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
change.
The objectives of this study are 1) to assess the
temporal and spatial variability of Carbon dioxide (CO2)
and methane (CH4) efflux within different arctic tundra
ecosystems and 2) quantify and understand the mechanisms
that control CO2 and CH4 efflux in order to relate these
processes to a changing climate. CO2 and CH4 fluxes and
subsurface concentrations were measured at a variety of
vegetation community plots over the growing season of
2008 at Daring Lake, NWT (64°52’ N, 111°34’ W), a site
within the zone of continuous permafrost in the Southern
arctic. Vegetation community plots included sedge fen, low
shrub, and heath tundra. Opaque and clear static chambers
were used to quantify carbon efflux and net ecosystem
exchange of CO2, respectively. Simultaneous monitoring of
abiotic (soil and air temperature, water table and active layer
depth, soil moisture, net radiation, precipitation) and biotic
(leaf area index) variables occurred.
Research activities were in collaboration with the
Canadian Tundra Ecosystem Carbon Study established
in 2004 at Daring Lake (P.I.: Dr. Peter Lafleur, Trent
University). Two micrometerological towers are already
constructed within the research area measuring tundraatmosphere exchanges of CO2 and water vapour since
2004 and 2006. One tower is located at a fen site, which has
tussock and hollow topography and is dominated by mosses
and sedges. The other tower is located within an upland
area characterized by a mixture of mesic lichen heath mat
tundra and shrub-hummock tundra (Lafleur & Humphreys,
2008). The results from these towers suggest that over a 3yr period growing season (May 15-Aug 31) CO2 uptake is
greater in the fen (85 +/- 13 g C/m2, mean +/- SE) than in
the mixed tundra (66 +/- 3 g C/m2) largely due to reduced
ecosystem respiration at the fen.
The results of chamber and subsurface sampling
within the fetch of the towers aim to provide further
understanding of component processes in this larger scale
carbon exchange. For example, chamber measurements
will be used to identify which vegetation communities/
topographical areas are responsible for the bulk of the
CO2 and CH4 emissions and which areas respond most
to seasonal variations in temperature and moisture.
Additionally, as fluxes of CH4 within the fetch of these
towers have not been investigated, including measurements
of CH4 will provide a more complete picture of the total C
budget and the radiative forcing potential of these sites.
SEX-SPECIFIC CLIMATIC EFFECTS ON THE
SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF A NORTHERN
UNGULATE
Hendrichsen, Ditte1,2 ([email protected]), N.M.
Schmidt2, G. Nachman1 and M.C. Forchhammer2
Biological Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2200
Copenhagen East, Denmark
2
Department of Arctic Environment, National
Environmental Research Institute, University of Aarhus,
4000 Roskilde, Denmark
1
The spatial component of species behavioural
ecology is central for our understanding of life history
evolution and population processes. The recent dramatic
changes in climate suggest that even short-term
environmental changes may induce significant variation in
long-term adaptive patterns of spatial distribution. Here we
analysed the spatial distribution of different age-sex groups
of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) in relation to climatic
variability, using 10 years of data from the comprehensive
long-term monitoring programme at Zackenberg, Northeast
Greenland. We used a recently developed modification to
Ripley’s K-function to compare models with different types
of environmental heterogeneity, investigating how the interannual variation in spatial distribution of muskoxen was
influenced by NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetation
Index), snow cover, vegetation cover and altitude. Our
results showed that whereas the distribution of males was
similar in snow rich and snow poor years, the distribution
of females with calves changed between years. The factors
explaining the spatial distribution varied between snow
rich and snow poor years, but with similar effects on male
and female groups. Our results show that male and female
muskoxen perceive environmental factors differently and,
more importantly, suggest that, in general, effects of largescale environmental changes such as climate change may be
highly sex-specific in sexual dimorphic species.
TRENDS IN TUNDRA VEGETATION OVER THE
PAST 20 YEARS: ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM
DATA SETS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL
TUNDRA EXPERIMENT (ITEX)
Henry, Greg1 ([email protected]) and S. Elmendorf1
([email protected])
Department of Geography, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2
1
There are a growing number of studies showing
responses of northern (polar) ecosystems to recent climate
warming. In arctic terrestrial systems, the notable changes
have included increased cover of shrubs in observational
90
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
and experimental warming studies. However, there are very
few long-term data sets available throughout the tundra
biome to examine whether and how these systems are
changing. The International Tundra Experiment (ITEX),
a network of researchers and sites throughout the tundra
biome, was established in 1990 and vegetation changes in
experimental and control plots have been measured since
1992 in some sites. Control plot data from long-term
experiments, such as ITEX, represent a unique resource for
exploring how tundra vegetation may be responding to these
changes. We present preliminary results from a synthetic
analysis of long-term vegetation trends in a select set of
arctic and alpine sites. Patterns suggest that total aboveground growth is increasing, largely as a result of increases
in shrubs and graminoids. Such patterns largely support
predictions based on warming experiments, and suggest
climate-induced vegetation change may already be occurring
in many tundra areas.
when estimated daily zooplankton consumption declined
to < 5% of that of the historic population. In recent years
zooplankton consumption has increased significantly as the
bowhead population grows. Population growth continues,
and zooplankton consumption will continue to increase.
The historic “freeing up” of a vast amount of zooplankton
biomass undoubtedly had major impacts on ecosystem
structuring and processes, and increased consumption
by a growing population will again result in changes. A
better understanding of bowhead population dynamics
and foraging ecology is needed to better predict ecosystem
changes, and using these results as input into mass-balance
ecosystem models would be instructive.
EXPLOITATION AND RECOVERY OF BOWHEAD
WHALES IN NORTHWEST HUDSON BAY:
IMPLICATIONS FOR ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS
Hofgaard, Annika1 ([email protected]), N. Eide1,
G. Rusch1, R. May1, D. Hagen1, L. Erikstad2, D. Halley1, J-O.
Gjershaug1, J. van Dijk1 and B. Willman1
Higdon, Jeff W.1,2 ([email protected]) and S.H
Ferguson1,2
1
Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, MB R3T
2N6
2
Department of Environment and Geography, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2
1
Bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) were historically
abundant in northwest Hudson Bay, Canada before
commercial whaling started in 1860. By the early 1900s
voyages were no longer profitable and bowhead whales had
been reduced to severely low numbers. In recent decades the
population has shown significant recovery, and bowheads
are again becoming common in northwest Hudson Bay.
Bowheads are a mid-trophic level species that may have
significant impacts on species both higher and lower in
the food chain. It seems likely that the near extinction,
and rapid (and continuing) recovery, of this species would
have significant effects on local ecosystem structuring. We
use a simple population model and historic harvest data to
estimate bowhead biomass and zooplankton consumption
rates in northwest Hudson Bay from 1860 to the present.
The historic bowhead population in northwest Hudson Bay
likely numbered over 600 animals of all age and sex classes
and consumed nearly 200 tonnes of zooplankton per day.
Within two short decades the population declined by ca.
80%, and reached a nadir in 1910 (mean 30, 95% CI 0-126)
LAND USE AND CLIMATE DRIVEN
ALTERATION OF TROPHIC INTERACTIONS
IN TUNDRA SYSTEMS: AN ALPINE EXAMPLE
FROM 62ON
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, N-7485
Trondheim, Norway
2
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, N-0105 Oslo,
Norway
Demands for goods and services from tundra
systems is multifold and in constant change. Arctic areas
are regionally exposed to intense human use but a large part
of the Arctic still has low degree of exploitation. However,
eventually, change is to come at a broad scale around
the circumpolar north in time with changed sea routes,
improved accessibility to arctic resources, and increased
tourism. Intensified land use ultimately will change arctic
systems from being primarily climate driven to being climate
and land use driven. Further in the future, the land use
component will, hypothetically, move towards the role of
a more dominant ecosystem driver although the speed will
vary among trophic levels and climatic regions.
To understand causes of change, disentangle the
effects of the various underlying factors and produce
reliable scenarios for the future a large set of reference
sites is needed, representing the diversity of Arctic climate
and land use regions. The IPY framework is ideal for this,
but the representation at circumpolar level will still, for
the foreseeable future, be restricted. However, study sites
in northern alpine areas can contribute valuable added
knowledge. “Alpine 62oN” is a regional scale project in
Norway aiming at deepening knowledge on climate and land
91
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
use driven changes in trophic interactions and consequences
for ecosystem services. The project (2007 - 2010) uses
baseline environmental and land use data derived from
digital cartography, DEMs and other geo-referenced data,
and sampled biological data in randomly selected sets of 1x1
km grid units in three alpine regions in central Norway with
oceanic, intermediate and continental climates, respectively.
The environmental and land use data includes e.g. altitude,
landscape mosaic (e.g. abundance of water bodies and
mires), terrain ruggedness, climate section, meteorological
data, snow cover regime, distance to forest covered areas,
and proportion of shrub covered areas; Infrastructure
variables such as distance to roads, power lines and
buildings; Land use variables such as frequency and timing
of grazing by domestic and semi-domestic animals, hunting,
and legal carnivore population regulation. The biological
data includes numerous variables linked to four key biotic
components representing different trophic levels: vegetation
(species composition, physiognomic structure, recruitment
after disturbance), herbivory (voles, lemming, hare, sheep,
reindeer), small and meso-carnivores (mustelids, arctic fox,
red fox), and one species of large carnivores (wolverine).
Carbon and nitrogen flows through selected food chains are
being quantified through stable isotope analysis
Preliminary results are presented along with
interpretation of short- and long-term consequences of
changes in land use and climate. Both trophic-level specific
results and trophic-level interaction data will be used in
construction of scenarios for alpine tundra ecosystems
under changing climate and land use regimes. In addition
to the central Norwegian focus, the project is designed to
enable latitudinal analyses of tundra ecosystem functioning
through inclusion of standardized data from other regions
along a north-south arctic-alpine transition across Norway.
PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE HUDSON BAY
ECOSYSTEM MODEL
Hoover, Carie1 ([email protected])
Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4
1
This is the first study to create an ecosystem model
of Hudson Bay, and while there are many components
which remain unknown, this type of model allows the
opportunity to identify areas needing more research while
continuing to assess the ecosystem. Using the Ecopath with
Ecosim software, a complete ecosystem model was created
with special attention to higher trophic level organisms,
where a majority of the research in this region has been
focused. To date there are 15 marine mammal functional
groups, 11 fish groups, 10 invertebrate groups and one
primary production group. Mid and lower trophic level
organisms were estimated from various studies, massbalance methods and comparisons with other ecosystems.
Collaborations with various research groups have provided
the opportunity to access unpublished data and incorporate
the use of expert opinions for parameter estimates where
published data were lacking. Preliminary results indicate that
the composition of the ecosystem is not unlike other polar
regions of similar latitude. Monte Carlo simulations provide
confidence limits to estimated parameters. Harvest data for
marine mammal and fish species have been incorporated
to assess the impact on the ecosystem. While the model
remains to be validated, preliminary temporal simulations
demonstrate the impact various levels of harvest may have
on the ecosystem.
MODELING ARCTIC STORM WAVES BY SWAN
IN THE SOUTHERN BEAUFORT SEA
Hoque, Md. Azharul1 ([email protected]), Steven M.
Solomon1, William Perrie2, Bash Toulany2, Ryan Mulligan2
Natural Resources Canada, Bedford Institute of
Oceanography, 1 Challenger Drive, Dartmouth, Nova
Scotia, B2Y 4A2, Canada
2
Fisheries and Ocean Canada, Bedford Institute of
Oceanography, 1 Challenger Drive, Dartmouth, Nova
Scotia, B2Y 4A2, Canada
1
Predicted changes in the global climate are expected
to be most severe at high latitudes. Changes in the Arctic
climate will likely involve greater ice-free open water areas
and for longer periods of time and potentially increasing
storm activity. These changes will lead to increasing wave
energy in the southern Beaufort Sea. As interest in the
oil and gas resources in the regions grows, forecasting
and hindcasting of wave conditions becomes increasingly
important for industrial and community development as well
as for examination of the safety and vulnerability of existing
structures and sites of cultural importance. In this study
the wave model SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) is
implemented for wave hindcasting in the southern Beaufort
Sea. SWAN, a third generation spectral wave model,
is widely used for computation of wave fields in shelf
seas, coastal areas and lakes. The model represents wave
generation, propagation and dissipation by whitecapping,
bottom friction and depth-induced breaking. SWAN is
implemented in non-stationary mode over two nested
grids: a coarse resolution (0.15°x0.05°) domain and a fine
92
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
resolution (0.015°x0.01°) domain that covers the Mackenzie
Delta and adjacent coastal waters. Wind fields are from the
Meteorological Service of Canada Beaufort (MSCB) wind
reanalysis, which produced an hourly wind hindcast for
the period 1985-2005 at 3442 grid points over the coarse
grid computational domain. ETOPO2 bathymetry is used
for coarse grid hindcasting. For the nested region, a fine
resolution (0.015oX0.005o) bathymetry is generated based
primarily on data from Canadian Hydrographic Service
charts and field sheets. Measured water level at Tuktoyaktuk
is used as model input for storm surge. The ice cover is
determined from chart issued by the Canadian Ice Service.
Moving boundaries of the ice edge during storms are
incorporated by considering the computational grid points
with greater than 50% ice as land points with no wave
generation or propagation.
Eight storms during the MSCB wind hindcasting
period are studied. Five storms are selected (from 1985,
1986, 1987, 1991 and 2004 respectively) for model
verification. Computational results are compared with
observations using time series of wave parameters,
spectral distributions as well as statistical analysis. Model
predictions are in good agreement with the observations.
After validation of the model, four severe Arctic storms
(from 1985, 1993, 1999 and 2000 respectively) are studied
to evaluate wave conditions in the Mackenzie Delta
and adjacent coastal waters. Severe waves are found to
be predominantly from the northwest direction. Fully
developed seas in the northwest quadrant of the nested
region reached wave height and peak period of 6.1 m and
10 s respectively in the 1999 storm; and 2.76 m and 6.7 s in
the 2000 storm. Although the storm intensities were similar
during the 1999 and 2000 storms, waves were substantially
higher in the 1999 storm because of the large ice-free fetch
in the western Arctic Ocean. The model can be used for
operational wave forecasting as well as for studies of the
impacts of severe Arctic storms and climate change on
coastal processes in the southern Beaufort Sea.
COMMUNITY ADAPTATION AND
VULNERABILITY IN NORTHERN NORWAY:
SOME PRELIMINARY CAVIAR FINDINGS
Hovelsrud, Grete K.1 ([email protected]), Halvor
Dannevig1, Jennifer West1, Helene Amundsen1, Stine
Rybråten1
In this paper we present some preliminary findings
on the exposure-sensitivity to climatic and other social,
environmental and economic changes, from four different
CAVIAR case communities in northern Norway. Our focus
is on the linkages between the environmental conditions,
including climate, and the community livelihoods in terms
of natural resource use. We will explore how the local
communities have identified the same or similar climatic
exposures (e.g. increasing temperatures and/or precipitation,
extreme events), but that the local consequences
(sensitivities) of these exposures vary between the
communities. We suggest in a preliminary analysis that this
is likely a function of differential local adaptation/adaptive
capacity. Our case study sites are the coastal communities
of Hammerfest, Kjøllefjord, Nesseby in Finnmark County,
and the Lofoten archipelago in Nordland County. In each
the focus is on understanding community adaptation and
vulnerability to climate change by exploring important
linkages between the community, natural resources, and
other relevant social, economic, institutional factors that
might facilitate or constrain adaptive capacity locally. In
Hammerfest a major increase in economic activity due
to recent offshore gas and petroleum activities poses
challenges to the social cohesiveness and environmental
sustainability. Uncertainties over changes in sea level,
wave height, storm surges and ocean currents – and the
implications for pollution, whether in the harbour, along
the coastline or within fish stocks, represent additional
challenges. For Kjøllefjord changes in ocean temperature,
sea ice extent, and surface temperatures in the Barents Sea
region have been linked to changes in the distribution and
migration of key commercial fish stocks climate change,
and have an impact on vulnerability and adaptation in the
coastal fisheries. In Lofoten, increased ocean temperatures
affect the spawning areas of cod, shifting the fishery
activities northward. Together with socio-economic drivers
of change such as the current management policies for the
fishery sector, it may contribute to abandonment of already
marginalized communities. For Nesseby a variety of possible
climate triggered events have been registered. Increasing
Autumnal Moth attacks are destroying vast areas of birch
wood and berry plants, and the ecosystem in the Varanger
Fjord is changing: blue whiting and king crab are now parts
of the ecosystem. The exposure-sensitivities to change
that are being analyzed have, consistent with the CAVIAR
framework, been identified as important and relevant to
local livelihoods by community members.
CICERO-Center for International Climate and
Environmental Research-Oslo
1
93
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
MAPPING AND MONITORING SEDIMENTARY
PROCESSES AND FLUXES ACROSS FJORD
DELTAS - BAFFIN ISLAND
Hughes Clarke, John1 ([email protected]), S. Brucker1, A. van
der Werf1, I. Church1 and K. Iwanowska1
Ocean Mapping Group, Dept. Geodesy and Geomatics
Engineering, University of New Brunswick, NB, E3B 5A3
1
The modern sedimentology, benthic ecology
and oceanography of fjords in the Baffin Island region
is strongly influenced by the influx of fresh water and
sediments from ice-proximal rivers and streams. These
streams are discharging across recently developed deltas
at the head and flanks of fjords. The morphology of the
deltas and adjacent basins varies strongly, depending on the
preexisting topography (much of it bedrock or glacial drift)
and the provenance of the sediments within the interior
watersheds.
Airborne and spaceborne remote sensing clearly
indicate the morphology of the subaerial deltas and the
fluctuations and extent of sediment laden plumes. Existing
knowledge of typical fjord subaqueous environments dates
back to the SAFE experiments (1983-85) prior to the advent
of precise seabed imaging. As part of ArcticNet a new
multibeam mapping program has been developed to image
the detailed morphology associated with both the proximal
and distal mass wasting processes active on the submerged
delta fronts and adjacent fjord basins. In one case (Oliver
Sound), we already have the first repetitive mapping
results, indicating the style, rate, and extent of modern
mass wasting. As part of the program, the summertime
(August/September) oceanography and suspended sediment
concentrations in the plume are investigated through
underway profiling coincident with the multibeam mapping.
This provides a snapshot (albeit after the main melt phase)
of the active oceanography and suspended sediment
transport in the fjord. A complimentary dense coring and
grab program has also been initiated to groundtruth the
sedimentary facies imaged.
By precisely imaging the present state of these
depocentres, and establishing the current processes, future
changes in the style and volume of sediment influx can be
established. Coring in the basin is providing a past history
of sedimentation to compare with future, possibly climateinduced, changes.
RISK AND REWARD: HAZARDS OF HUNTING
THE BOWHEAD WHALE
Huntington, Henry ([email protected])
Huntington Consulting, Eagle River, Alaska
Iñupiat and Yupik whalers in Alaska pursue one
of the largest animals on the planet: the bowhead whale.
They do so from small boats in icy waters, often camping
on shorefast sea ice. The hunt has always been hazardous,
from environmental conditions, the reactions of the whales,
accidents with whaling equipment and explosives, and so
on. The reward has also been great: many tons of meat and
maktak, providing for the whaling crews, feasts and festivals,
and for extensive sharing that is so culturally important
around the Arctic.
In recent years, against the background of hazard
that has always been part of whaling, the question of
natural hazards has become increasingly prominent as the
sea ice environment has changed in several ways. First,
shorefast ice has become less reliable. The large, grounded
pressure ridges that provide stability and create a safe zone
have become less common, leaving more and more of
the ice vulnerable to breaking off. In 1997, 140 whalers in
Barrow were carried out to sea when the ice broke between
them and shore. Thanks to helicopters and GPS, no lives
were lost and much of their equipment was also retrieved.
But the margin of safety was thin.
Second, weather has become less predictable in
many respects. Around St. Lawrence Island in the northern
Bering Sea, Yupik whalers have noticed that spring weather
is more variable, reducing their whaling opportunities while
increasing the risks that come from being on the water in a
small boat. A few years ago, tragedy struck in Gambell when
a boat with young children swamped and lives were lost.
The boat had been helping tow a whale to shore when the
weather deteriorated.
Third, thinner ice has made it harder to find
suitable places to haul a 50-ton whale out of the water for
butchering. Whalers in Wainwright on the northern coast
now begin their scouting of whaling camps and trails by
seeking a suitable butchering site, something they never had
to worry about before. When it can take hours and hours to
haul a large whale out of the water, watching the ice break
underneath it can be discouraging.
Changes in ice and weather create objective hazards.
Knowledge about those changes and the new conditions
that are created affect the subjective hazard associated with
whaling. If whalers are unfamiliar with the new conditions
and the indicators of safety or danger that now apply,
they may either take on greater risk than they realize, or
94
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
overcompensate and lose opportunities to hunt because they
have unnecessarily returned to shore.
The transmission of knowledge about sea ice and
whaling is an essential part of the equation. Even if the old
ways no longer hold perfectly, they nonetheless provide a
foundation for adaptation. Modern equipment and searchand-rescue capability can help reduce risk, but not nearly
as effectively as prevention based on sound knowledge and
awareness of risk.
SIKU-INUIT-HILA: CONNECTING
COMMUNITIES AND SCIENTISTS THROUGH
COMMUNITY EXCHANGES, EXPERTS GROUPS,
AND MEASUREMENTS
Huntington, Henry1 ([email protected]), S. Gearheard2,
A. Mahoney2, L. Holm3, I. Angutikjuak4, T. Oshima5, W.
Matumeak6, J. Sanguya4, I. Sanguya4, G. Tigullaraq4, M.
Kristiansen5, Q. Nielsen5, J. Leavitt6, N. Leavitt6, and R.
Barry2
Huntington Consulting, Eagle River, Alaska
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado
3
Inuit Circumpolar Council, Nuuk, Greenland
4
Clyde River, Nunavut
5
Qaanaaq, Greenland
6
Barrow, Alaska
1
2
The Siku-Inuit-Hila (Sea Ice-People-Weather)
project involves Inuit, Inughuit, and Iñupiat from Clyde
River, Nunavut; Qaanaaq, Greenland; and Barrow, Alaska,
respectively, along with academic researchers from several
institutions. The project has three major components.
The first component includes a series of “sea ice
knowledge exchanges,” visits by all participants (residents
of all three communities plus the visiting researchers) to
each of the study locations for participant observation.
During these trips, the emphasis is on travelling the sea ice
together. The sea ice itself acts as the common denominator
for the participating hunters and elders from different
communities and scientists from different disciplines. The
host community leads each visit, allowing the visiting team
members to experience local hunting and travel techniques
and to exchange knowledge about diverse issues such as
tools, clothing, food, and navigation.
The second component involves regular meetings
of sea ice experts in each community. Led by local team
members of Siku-Inuit-Hila, these working groups
provide an opportunity to assess current sea ice conditions
throughout the sea ice season and to document local
knowledge of sea ice, ranging from traditional stories and
mythology of sea ice, to sea ice terminology, to extreme
events, to strategies for hunting and travelling in different
sea ice environments.
The last component involves the establishment
of a sea ice monitoring network in the three communities.
Trained by the project’s sea ice physicist and supported by
a handbook created especially for the local monitors, local
technicians measure physical properties of sea ice and snow
on a weekly basis at 2-4 stations installed at each community.
Local sea ice experts chose the location of the stations
according to key areas of importance for sea ice use. In
combination with local historical records, available climate
data, and local knowledge, the data from the observing
network provides detailed information about local and
regional sea ice processes.
The different components of the project are tied
together in a number of ways. For example, the expert
working groups review the latest data (visualized graphically)
collected in the sea ice monitoring program, sparking
discussion about current conditions and progression of
the sea ice season. In turn, local knowledge about currents,
winds, snow accumulation, and other environmental factors
affecting sea ice characteristics and processes documented
during expert meetings are used to help understand the sea
ice station data. For example, local knowledge of changing
ocean currents near Qaanaaq have helped to explain early
and dramatic thinning of sea ice during spring in recent
years. The team visits to each community and the ongoing
expert meetings provide the face-to-face and discussion
time needed to continually link different components of the
project and work toward multi-layered research products in
the form of journal articles, maps, and a book.
EXCHANGE FOR LOCAL OBSERVATIONS
AND KNOWLEDGE IN THE ARCTIC: DATA
MANAGEMENT SUPPORT FOR COMMUNITYBASED ARCTIC OBSERVING NETWORK
Huntington, Henry1 ([email protected]), S. Gearheard2, C.
McNeave2, and M. Parsons2
Huntington Consulting, Eagle River, Alaska
National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of
Colorado, Boulder, Colorado
1
2
Over the last decade, Arctic residents and
indigenous peoples have been increasingly involved
in research concerning their communities and their
environment. Arctic communities have made significant
contributions to understanding recent environmental
change, and community-based research, including traditional
95
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
knowledge research and community-based monitoring,
will be an important part of IPY activities and any Arctic
Observing Network (AON). One of the greatest challenges
of local and traditional knowledge (LTK) research and
community-based monitoring to date has been effective and
appropriate means of recording, storing, and managing data
and information. It has been a challenge to find effective
means of protecting sensitive information while also
making community-based data and information available to
Arctic residents and researchers, as well as other interested
groups such as teachers, students, and decision makers.
Without a network and data management to support LTK
and community-based research, a number of problems
have arisen such as: misplacement or loss of extremely
precious data (e.g., information from Elders who have
passed away); lack of awareness of previous studies and
repetition of research in the same communities resulting in
research fatigue and waste of resources; and a reluctance or
inability to initiate or maintain community-based research or
monitoring because no data management system is available.
There is an urgent need for effective and appropriate means
of recording, preserving, and sharing data and information
being collected in Arctic communities. ELOKA seeks to
fill this gap. In 2006, ELOKA responded to the NSF IPY
Announcement of Opportunity to ‘develop and deploy a
pan-Arctic observing system that will measure the full range
of continuing environmental changes underway.’ ELOKA
was successful in obtaining funding and is working toward
providing the needed support to local and traditional
knowledge research, and community-based observations
and monitoring, which are key components to any Arctic
Observing Network (AON). ELOKA will provide a data
management and networking service for communitybased research that keeps control of data in the hands of
community data providers, while still allowing for broad
searches and sharing of information. We understand
that the development of a circumpolar network and data
management service for Arctic LTK and community-based
observations will take time, collaboration, and input from
many sources. Our hope for IPY is to get ELOKA off the
ground and build a strong foundation for its development.
To reach this goal, ELOKA has been launched through
partnerships with several community-based projects that
represent different regions, cultures, and data management
needs. We are developing data management systems and
testing their utility with our partners. We expect to be able
to offer data services to more projects in the near future
as we refine our system and learn more about the needs of
different community-based projects around the Arctic.
DEMOGRAPHICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL
CONDITIONS ARE UNCOUPLED IN THE
PRIBILOF ISLANDS SOCIAL ECOLOGICAL
SYSTEM
Huntington, Henry1 ([email protected]), S. Kruse2, and A.
Scholz2
Huntington Consulting, Eagle River, Alaska
Ecotrust, Portland, Oregon
1
2
The communities of St. Paul and St. George are
located on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, in the southeastern
Bering Sea. The islands have been inhabited by Aleut people
since the late eighteenth century, when Russian traders
brought them there to hunt Northern fur seals (Callorhinus
ursinus) for their pelts. The islanders have established a
strong sense of identity and place, as demonstrated by their
unwillingness to relocate when that option was proposed
in the 1960s. Until it ended on St. Paul in 1984 (having
ceased earlier on St. George), commercial seal hunting
was the dominant economic activity on the islands. Since
then, the Pribilofs have engaged in commercial fishing, fish
processing, fisheries support services, capital improvements
projects, ecotourism, and other activities, none of which has
yet provided a lasting economic basis for the communities.
As a contribution to an islands-based effort to
understand and promote effective management of the
Pribilof Islands as a social-ecological system, we examined
current and recent conditions on the islands to assess local
perceptions of and prospects for economic, social, and
environmental well-being. We also gathered data on a suite
of environmental, economic, and demographic indicators.
We found few correlations between environmental
conditions and socioeconomic or demographic indicators.
Furthermore, responses differed between the two
communities. The lack of apparent connection between
population levels and economic or environmental stimuli
is likely attributable to one or more of several factors: (a)
modest economic dependence on the environment, (b)
predominance of other economic inputs to the islands’
economies, (c) islanders basing residence choices largely
on non-economic factors, and (d) islanders’ tolerance for
economic fluctuations and uncertainty.
These results suggest economic analysis alone
is insufficient to explain the dynamics of this socialecological system, contrary to many other case studies and
an expectation of tight coupling and clear connections
between society and ecology. It appears that in the case
of the Pribilof Islands at least, resilience and vulnerability
are the products of multiple factors, producing a variety
96
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
of responses among individuals and at times divergent
responses between communities.
The community of Aklavik in the NWT has
initiated a research project working with youth and elders
to explore dietary choices. The study is based at the Moose
Kerr School and is carried out in partnership with the
Arctic Health Research NT project lead, Aklavik Health
Committee, Moose Kerr School principal, teachers, youth
and elders in the community. The research project explored dietary choices made
in the community. The research project was integrated
into the youth’s daily studies and they participated in the
project through the administration of dietary recalls,
compiling recycling data and conducting interviews with
elders in the community. The findings were compiled and
the students made conclusions about the dietary choices in
the community. The students findings were compiled using
video methods.
This presentation will focus on the partnerships
between the Arctic Health Research Network and the
Moose Kerr School, methods for youth participation and
project outcomes will also be highlighted.
better research projects. Ittaq leads and supports diverse
research projects ranging from the documentation of
traditional knowledge to studies in geology, glaciology,
health, adaptation to environmental change, alterative
energy options, and beyond. Some of the projects are
linked to national and international studies, while others
are designed, executed, and delivered entirely within the
community for local use. Whether led by local, government,
industry, or university researchers, Ittaq provides projects
with quality services such as access to local research
expertise, logistics support, guiding, traditional knowledge
input, environmental monitoring, sample/data collection
and processing, interpreting/translating, outreach design
and facilitation, and liaison work with local and territorial
individuals and organizations. With a focus on facilitating
collaboration between local and visiting experts, Ittaq
allows both groups to benefit. For example, scientists can
include local expert knowledge as part of their project,
access expert help for land travel, and contract trained
individuals to carry out data collection, observations, or
oversee equipment maintenance or experiments year-round.
Local Inuit benefit from jobs in research, training in various
scientific disciplines and skills, exposure to and experience
in science and technology, and scientific input into locallyled projects. Ittaq actively seeks partnerships with science
projects in Nunavut that are interested in collaboration and
currently has major projects with Natural Resources Canada,
the University of Colorado, the State University of New
York at Buffalo, the Government of Nunavut, and the Inuit
Circumpolar Council.
This presentation will outline Ittaq and how it came
to be the first Inuit led, community-based research centre
in Nunavut. We will present how Ittaq itself is an interface
for knowledge exchange and we will share our successes,
challenges, lessons learned, and hopes for the future.
INUIT LED RESEARCH IN NUNAVUT: LESSONS
FROM THE ITTAQ HERITAGE AND RESEARCH
CENTRE, CLYDE RIVER, NUNAVUT
LINKING LANDSCAPE CONDITIONS AND
COMMUNITY PLANNING IN ARCTIC
COMMUNITIES
Illauq, Nick, Shari Gearheard ([email protected]
org), Attakalik Palluq, Peter Paneak, Reesie Churchill, Mike
Jaypoody, Jaypetee Killiktee, Tina Kunilusie
Irvine, M. L.1 ([email protected]), T. Bell1 and I. R.
Smith1,2
DIETARY CHOICES IN AKLAVIK, NORTHWEST
TERRITORIES, YOUTH AND ELDERS
PROMOTING CHANGE
Illasiak, Velma1,3 ([email protected]), Chatwood, Susan2
([email protected]), Archie, Billy2,3 and Buckle, Annie2,4
Moose Kerr School
Arctic Health Research Network NT
3
Aklavik Health Committee
1
2
Ittaq Heritage and Research Centre, Clyde River, Nunavut
The Ittaq Heritage and Research Centre was
established by local residents of Clyde River, Nunavut, in
2007. One of Ittaq’s goals is to increase local participation
in, and direction of, research in the community,
simultaneously creating local job opportunities and
Geography Department, Memorial University, St. John’s,
NL, A1B 3X9
2
Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB, T2L 2A7
1
This study examines aspects of the physical
landscape in order to assess issues of infrastructure stability,
and how this may be affected under proposed future
climate changes. Additionally, the project determines how
97
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
this information can be integrated into local and regional
community planning and development guidelines. To
lessen community vulnerability, successful planning and
infrastructure growth must incorporate environmental
characteristics, in addition to the commonly reviewed social,
economic and cultural aspects. This presentation focuses
on community-scale vulnerability and landscape instability
in Kangiktugaapik (Clyde River), Baffin Island, Nunavut.
Vulnerability is assessed by categorizing the stability of the
landscape for infrastructure development and determining
individual and community responses to the identified
hazards. This work draws upon the Community Adaptations
and Vulnerability in Arctic Regions framework (cf., Ford
and Smit 2004) and will contribute to the Nunavut Climate
Change Adaptation Plan. Methodological approaches used to assess hazards
include surficial mapping and shallow permafrost coring.
Through field observations, aerial photograph mapping,
substrate analysis, thaw depth measurement and ground
surveys, a surficial geology map is being created; mapped
features include surficial materials, periglacial processes,
hydrology, and human/natural disturbances. Using a
portable permafrost drill, (cf., Calmels et al. 2005), shallow
cores, 10cm in diameter and up to 3.2m in length, were
extracted from 14 sites; laboratory analyses this fall will
test for volumetric ice content, grain size and salinity. All
information collected will be combined to create a landscape
hazard map, employing a three-category classification
scheme based on vulnerability for infrastructure. Preliminary terrain mapping and core analysis reveal
information on the glacial history of the area, sea level
trends, and permafrost conditions. Two key hazard types
have been identified in this analysis: ground instability and
impacts of hydrology. For example, most of the community
is built on saline permafrost, comprised of raised marine
silty-sand that in some areas contains high ice content.
Ground thaw is causing uneven subsidence, damaging
infrastructure not adapted to withstand such movement.
Moreover, thermal erosion related to artificial ponding of
meltwater and rainfall, and physical erosion along stream
channels and coastal bluffs, are causing permafrost and ice
wedges to thaw, also damaging infrastructure.
This research contributes to ArcticNet’s integrated
regional impact studies in the context of landscape
sensitivity and climate change adaptation in coastal arctic
communities. Work conducted in Kangiktugaapik will serve
as a methodological template that can then be applied to
other Nunavut communities. This research has benefited
from a key partnership with the Ittaq Heritage and Research
Centre, a local initiative that facilitates and provides research
guidance. Research outputs also contribute to Natural
Resources Canada’s Enhancing Resilience in a Changing
Climate Program, and is being conducted in collaboration
with the Government of Nunavut and the CanadianNunavut Geoscience Office. Calmels, F., O. Gagnon and M. Allard. 2005. A portable
earth-drill system for permafrost studies. Permafrost and
Periglacial Processes 16: 311-315.
Ford, J. and B. Smit. 2004. A framework for assessing the
vulnerability of communities in the Canadian Arctic to risks
associated with climate change. Arctic 57: 389-400.
FROM FIELD WORK TO PUBLICATION:
ENSNARING A FUTURE SCIENTIST
Johannessen, Sophia1, G. Potentier1 and Robie Macdonald1
([email protected])
Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada,
Sidney, British Columbia, V8L 4B2
1
After being introduced to a DFO Research
Scientist during a poster session for Schools on Board, a grade
11 student from Glenlyon-Norfolk School in Victoria,
British Columbia spent the summer of 2007 working
at the Institute of Ocean Sciences. She participated in
a sampling cruise in the Strait of Georgia, where she
assisted in the collection and sub-sampling of sediment
cores and sorted and measured juvenile fish. In the
laboratory she measured coloured dissolved organic matter
with a spectrophotometer, and she took on a project to
characterize the distribution of dissolved and particulate
organic carbon in the Strait of Georgia, during which she
learned to formulate and test hypotheses. The organic
carbon work has been developed into a paper accepted
for publication in the journal Marine Environmental Research,
with the student as second author. This particular example
has illustrated that within a two-month summer term, a
motivated high-school student can experience many aspects
of conducting scientific research.
MARINE MONITORING AND RESEARCH
STUDIES IN GREENLAND
Juul-Pedersen, Thomas1 ([email protected]), S. Rysgaard1, J.
Mortensen1, K. Arendt1 and D. Mikkelsen1
Center of Marine Ecology and Climate Impact, Greenland
Institute of Natural Resources, P.O. Box 570, DK-3900
Nuuk, Greenland
1
Climatic changes will likely affect the environmental
98
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
conditions in Greenland. Particularly the highly productive
coastal waters around Greenland are of interest as they play
an important cultural and economical role. A network of
projects was therefore initiated to improve our knowledge
of past and present conditions of the Greenlandic marine
ecosystems and to better be able to observe and predict
future changes. A central aspect of these projects is the
link to the Greenland Ice Sheet and the possible changes to
glaciers and freshwater runoff, along with changing sea ice
conditions. The basis for this work is continuous monitoring
of a sub-arctic (Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland) and a
high-arctic (Young Sound/Tyrolerfjord, NE Greenland)
marine ecosystem, combined with in situ and laboratory
experimental work. The sub-arctic Godthåbsfjord system is
ca. 150 km long and covers 2013 km2 with an average depth
of 250 m (max 620 m). Sea ice only occurs regularly in the
inner-parts and smaller branches of the fjord. Furthermore,
the fjord is connected to the Greenland Ice Sheet through
several glaciers and consequently receives a substantial
freshwater input from icebergs and meltwater in addition
to terrestrial runoff. Year-round monthly sampling near the
fjord entrance depicts two peaks in primary production in
May and July. Part of the annual primary production (76 g
C m-2 yr-1 from 2005-08) is channelled through the pelagic
food web (15 % is grazed by copepods), while the majority
is vertically exported or advected. Thus, the fjord is net
autotrophic throughout the year which is also reflected
in very low pCO2 levels. Compared to historical data
from the fjord, pelagic primary production has decreased
significantly over the past 50 years (159 g C m-2 yr-1 from
1955-65), particularly in spring and fall. The decrease may
partly be attributed to increased meltwater runoff from the
Greenland Ice Sheet delivering large amounts of suspended
matter reducing the light availability for phytoplankton.
Furthermore, large scale changes in oceanographic
conditions offshore may also play a role in regulating the
spring bloom.The high-arctic Young Sound/Tyrolerfjord
system is ca. 90 km long and covers 390 km2 with an average
depth of 100 m (max 360 m). Sea ice generally start forming
in late-September and lasts until mid-July. Pelagic primary
production (10 g C m-2 yr-1) is mainly utilized by the pelagic
food web, while organic material from the Greenland
Sea and land (32 g C m-2 yr-1) contributes to sustaining a
rich benthic community. Thus, the Young Sound is net
heterotrophic. A regional climate model (HIRHAM4) for
Greenland predicts increased precipitation and warmer air
temperatures by the end of this century, which is expected
to increase the ice and meltwater input from the Greenland
Ice Sheet. At present it is difficult to predict how this will
affect primary production in the Godthåbsfjord system.
However, the model also predicts a doubling of the ice-free
period by 2100, which combined with an expected increased
input of nutrients through a stimulated estuarine circulation,
may triple annual primary production in the Young Sound/
Tyrolerfjord system.
ATMOSPHERIC MONITORING OF PERSISTENT
ORGANIC POLLUTANTS AT THE ZEPPELIN
MOUNTAIN RESEARCH STATION (NYAALESUN, SVALBARD: INDICATIONS FOR
CLIMATE CHANGE INFLUENCES ?
Kallenborn, Roland1 ([email protected]), Hung, Hayley2 (hayley.
[email protected])
Norwegian Institute fo Air esearch (NILU), Instituttsveien
18, NO-2027 Kjeller, Norway
2
Science and Technology branch, Environment Canada, 495
Dufferin Street, Toronto, ON M3H 5T4 Canada)
1
Persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) have been
monitored at the Zeppelin station ( Ny-≈lesund, Svalbard,
Norway) for almost two decades. A core program including
4 cyclodiene pesticides, 2 hexachlorocyclohexaneisomers (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 6
dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane derivatives (DDT) as well
as 33 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) has been performed
during the entire monitoring period.
As a part of the ongoing Arctic Monitoring
and Assessment Programme (AMAP) a temporal trend
evaluation has been performed for the entire monitoring
period (1993 - 2007) using digital filtration (DF) as statistical
tool developed by Environment Canada.
A first evaluation revealed that during the past 810 years an increased frequency of atmospheric long-range
transport episodes occurred. Becker et al (2008) identified
a clear correlation between the characteristic patterns of
the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the variability of the HCH
concentrations found for Zeppelin air samples.
Due to DF assessments for most of the POPs
downward trends have been established. However, for the
volatile hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as well as for selected
PCBs levels are continuously increasing during the past 4-5
years. This findings are clearly indicating changes in sources,
and/or distribution processes. In-depth discussions of the
results as well as the implications for potential influences of
climate change will be given in the presentation.
References: S. Becker, C.J. Halsall, W. Tych, R. Kallenborn, Y. Su,
H. Hung (2008) Long-term trends in atmospheric
concentrations of ?- and ?-HCH in the Arctic provide
insight into the effects of legislation and climatic
fluctuations on contaminant levels.
Atmos. Environ. 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.07.058
99
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
WARMING IN THE GREENLAND SEA:
IMPLICATIONS FOR ENERGY TRANSFER TO
HIGHER TROPHIC LEVELS
Karnovsky, Nina1 ([email protected]), J.
Welcker2, A. Harding3, Z. Brown1, A. Kitaysky4, W. Walkusz5,
S. Kwasniewski5, G. Gabrielsen2, D. Gremillet6
Department of Biology, Pomona College, Claremont, CA
USA
2
Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromso, Norway
3
Alaska Pacific University, Anchorage, AK USA
4
University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK USA
5
Institute of Oceanology, Sopot, Poland
6
CNRS, Montpellier, France
1
The purpose of this study was to examine the
impact of warming trends in the Greenland Sea on energy
flow to top predators. During IPY we studied the behavior
of seabirds foraging at three sites, each characterized by
contrasting oceanographic conditions. In the Greenland
Sea, Arctic water flows south from the Arctic Ocean along
east Greenland and warm water flows north from the
Atlantic Ocean. On the eastern side of Spitsbergen, cold
Arctic water flows south and then enters the Greenland Sea
and subsequently flows north again along the Southwest
coast of Spitsbergen as the Sorkapp current. Each of these
water masses carries with it different zooplankton species
which differ greatly in their energy content. Adjacent to
Greenland, there are high densities of the large, lipidrich copepod Calanus hyperboreus. The Atlantic influenced
water carries with it high densities of the small Calanus
finmarchicus. The Sorkapp current carries high densities of
the medium-sized Calanus glacialis. We examined the impact
the different physical and biological conditions of these
diverse water masses on little auks (Alle alle). Little auks are
zooplanktivorous seabirds that migrate to the Greenland Sea
in summer to feed in its productive waters. We chose this
species because it is sensitive to changes in oceanographic
conditions and it is a key component of Arctic marine
and terrestrial ecosystems. While flying to and from their
nest sites, little auks fertilize the tundra which herbivore
such as reindeer and geese take advantage of. Little auks
are also consumed in high numbers by land predators such
as the Arctic fox (Volpes lagopus). Furthermore, in some
Greenlandic communities, little auks are an important
food resource. To assess differences in the diving behavior
of little auks foraging under different conditions, we
used time-depth-recorders on little auks at each of the
three sites. In addition, we examined differences in the
stress levels of provisioning little auks through analysis
of their corticosteroid hormone levels. We compared the
zooplankton prey they feed their chicks under different
oceanographic conditions by collecting chick diet samples.
We found strong differences between little auks foraging in
warm, Atlantic derived water versus cold water with origins
in the Arctic Ocean. Recently, there have been large scale
increases in the temperature and the extent of Atlantic
water in the Greenland Sea. Because little auks are sensitive
to the heterogeneous conditions in the Greenland Sea, our
results provide a good model to understand how increases
in warm, Atlantic water impact energy flux to Arctic upper
trophic predators.
“AN ‘INCONSISTENT’ TRUTH”: THE ARCTIC
IN CANADIAN FOREIGN POLICY.
Kennair, John ([email protected])
Anthropology, Economics, and Political Science, Grant
MacEwan College, Edmonton, Alberta, T5J 4S2
Though Canada continues to lay claim over
its Arctic Archipelago, its message to the international
community has been less than consistent. Canada is an
Arctic nation, though its inabilities to control this region
bring its sovereignty into question: the legal status of
the Northwest Passage has still to be resolved; Canada’s
inchoate actions, with regard to the Law of the Sea
Convention (1982), has allowed other nations to gain
advantages in mapping the Arctic seabed; and Canada has
pursued an multilateral environmental strategy to protect
the region, but such strategies have been limited. In short,
with ‘climate change’ and the melting of the Arctic Ice
shelf, this issue has returned as a concern for Canada – one
that it can no longer vacillate upon. It needs a definite
strategy. The challenges in developing a Canadian foreign
policy strategy come from many angles. The latest threat
comes from Russian economic expansions, and there are
the ever present European interests. It is the American
challenge to the Northwest Passage that offers Canada the
best opportunity to build a united front to meet Canadian
interests in this region. A solution, however, is not just a
military one, but rather one that must be founded in both
politics and law: Canada must find a political solution that
can appease American security concerns and be formalized
in a binding legal means to protect its future interests. This
paper will explore these implications in foreign policy, using
the Northwest Passage as the case study, and offer some
suggestions for Canada’s future.
100
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
INPUTS OF MERCURY TO HUDSON BAY FROM
NELSON AND CHURCHILL RIVER DISCHARGE
2003-2006
Kirk, Jane1 ([email protected]), St. Louis, Vincent1
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta,
Edmonton, Alberta, T6E 2N7
1
Methylmercury (MeHg), a toxic form of Hg that
bioaccumulates through foodwebs, is present in some
Canadian high Arctic and Hudson Bay marine mammals
at concentrations high enough to pose health risks to
Northern peoples using these animals as food. It was
recently shown that methylation of inorganic Hg(II)
in Arctic seawater is an important source of MeHg to
Arctic marine foodwebs; however inputs of Hg to Arctic
marine waters from river discharge may also be substantial,
particularly to Hudson Bay. Although Hudson Bay is large,
it is shallow and is therefore greatly influenced by river
discharge. In fact, Hudson Bay has the largest drainage
system in Canada and receives a cumulative discharge of
~710 km3 year-1. Furthermore, of the few Arctic rivers that
have been examined, several are known to export large
quantities of total Hg (THg; includes both Hg(II) and
MeHg) to Arctic seas. Rivers draining into Hudson Bay
are of particular interest as several have been altered for
hydroelectric power production. When the landscape is
inundated due to river diversion and/or reservoir creation,
flooded soils and vegetation decompose creating anoxia
in the sediments and stimulating the microbial production
of MeHg, which can then be bioaccumulated through
foodwebs or exported to downstream waterbodies.
Beginning in 1970’s, ~75% of the flow of the Churchill
River was diverted into the Nelson River to increase its
hydroelectric power potential. Concentrations of MeHg
in fishes in many flooded lakes dramatically increased and
remained elevated above pre-impoundment levels for 2030 years. Interestingly, however, Hg inputs to Hudson Bay
from this system were never determined. We quantified Hg
inputs to Hudson Bay from Nelson and Churchill River
discharge by continuously monitoring concentrations of
unfiltered and filtered THg and MeHg in these rivers from
2003-2006. Surprisingly, concentrations of Hg, particularly
MeHg, were quite high in the Churchill River (THg and
MeHg concentrations were 1.96±0.8 and 0.18±0.09 ng L-1,
respectively) but low in the Nelson River (0.88±0.33 and
0.05±0.03 ng L-1, respectively). Furthermore, most of the
Hg in the Churchill River was in the dissolved form, and
is therefore likely DOC-bound Hg originating in the vast
wetlands surrounding the lower Churchill River. Therefore,
although Nelson River flows are ~7.5 times greater than
Churchill River flows, average annual THg and MeHg
exports from the Nelson River (111 and 6.9 kg, respectively)
were only 2-3 times greater than Churchill River exports
(36.9 and 3.5 kg, respectively). These results demonstrate
that for its size, the Churchill River is a large exporter of
MeHg to Hudson Bay and may be an important source of
MeHg to organisms feeding in the Churchill River estuary.
In fact, annual inputs of MeHg to Hudson Bay from this
small river are >3 times those from spring-time melt of
snow that has accumulated over Hudson Bay throughout
winter (1.1±0.8 kg year-1). Combined inputs of THg
from Nelson and Churchill River discharge are, however,
comparable to inputs of THg from Hudson Bay spring
snowmelt (177±140 kg year-1).
POPULARIZING ARCTIC SCIENCE: A MEDIA
RELATIONS PROGRAM TO PROMOTE
NORTHERN RESEARCH
Klinkhammer, Ruth ([email protected])
Arctic Institute of North America, 2500 - University Drive
NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4
International Polar Year has occurred at a time
when a firestorm of issues is coalescing around the
North. These issues, such as climate change, biodiversity
and Arctic sovereignty, are drawing media and public
attention to northern regions. It seems that every week the
Arctic is featured prominently in a news story in one of
Canada’s national or local news outlets. At the same time,
the communication of science to the public is receiving
increased attention from both academics and journalists.
Scholarly journals are devoted to the subject. Journalism
schools are developing courses and programs to help train
budding writers.
The Arctic Institute of North America is launching
a program that takes advantage of these two trajectories.
A grant from the federal IPY Training, Communications
and Outreach portfolio is being used to develop a media
relations program to popularize Arctic science. This project
will make research in academic journals about the North,
such as Arctic, Northern Review and Polar Research, more
accessible to northern and southern audiences by rewriting
select articles into easy-to-read formats. The articles will
then be sent to media outlets and posted to the Arctic
Institute website.
Our goal is to provide to interested persons solid,
complex information in an easy-to-read format. A key
feature of the project will be a focus on distributing the
results of research back to northern communities. Too
101
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
frequently, researchers conducting work in northern regions
fail to report results back to local communities. This project
will help address this issue by fielding stories of research
directly to journalists that work in relevant northern
communities. In addition, an intern will be hired to work in
the North as a community liaison and writer.
This project is taking place at a time when the
communication of science is increasingly important.
Science has always been a driver of innovative change and
technological advances. But the public is becoming aware
that every innovation has unintended effects. Spurred on by
highly visible controversies, such as the outbreak of Mad
Cow disease in the UK and the looming spectre of climate
change, the public mood is cautious when it comes to new
scientific developments. Yet, as levels of trust in traditional
sources of information are declining, faith in scientists
remains high. This project will provide information
on scientific discoveries and phenomena to the public
through a trusted source of information – the researchers
themselves.
2007. Stable isotope analysis (d15N, d13C) was used to
examine prey choice in bears across years and season
(comparison of tissues representing different dietary
time periods for individual bears) to evaluate how feeding
ecology can modify the exposure of polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) to apex predators.
We examined: 1) temporal and regional changes in the
feeding ecology of SBS polar bears; 2) variations in feeding
ecology by age and sex class; and 3) the interactions
between feeding ecology and blood concentrations of select
contaminants (PCBs and Hg). This examination investigates
the variation of contaminants from an individual (e.g., age
and sex cohorts) to an ecological (e.g., geographic trends
in contaminant exposure) perspective to provide a better
understanding of the causes and effects of contaminants in
wildlife in a changing environment.
ANNUAL AND INDIVIDUAL VARIATIONS
IN FEEDING ECOLOGY OF SOUTHERN
BEAUFORT SEA POLAR BEARS BY STABLE
ISOTOPE ANALYSIS: INTERACTIONS WITH
BLOOD PCBS AND HG
Kos, Gregor1 ([email protected]), Ariya, Parisa1,2
(parisa,[email protected])
Knott, Katrina K.1,2 ([email protected]), Torsten W. Bentzen1
and Todd M. O’Hara2
Department of Biology and Wildlife, University of Alaska
Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska USA 99775
2
Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, Institute of Arctic Biology,
University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska USA
99775
1
Polar bears are an important sentinel species to
study the effects of contaminants in wildlife and the health
of the arctic marine ecosystem because of their placement
at the top of the food chain. Changes in sea ice dynamics
and climate warming will alter prey availability in marine
environments, thus forcing polar bears to change prey
species, rely longer on catabolic processes, or use more
terrestrial sources of food (i.e., carcasses of subsistence
harvested bowhead whale, human sources) to meet
metabolic demands. Changes in prey selection or longer
periods of food deprivation in polar bears may result in
changes in contaminant exposure and / or toxicodynamics
among bears. We examined feeding ecology of polar bears
and the subsequent changes in contaminant concentrations
in Southern Beaufort Sea (SBS) polar bears during 2003-
(SEMI)VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
AT ALERT, NUNAVUT - SNOW PACK AND
BOUNDARY LAYER COMPOSITION
Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill
University, Montréal, Québec, H3A 2K6
2
Department of Chemistry, McGill University, Montréal,
Québec, H3A 2K6
1
The snow pack at Alert, Nunavut (82° 29’ 58’’ N,
62° 20’ 05’’ W) was analysed on-site for eighteen different
(semi)volatile organic compounds with halogenated,
aromatic and oxygenated functions. Concurrent sampling
was carried out for surface air samples, which were
determined for the same compound set upon return
to Montreal. The investigation of atmosphere-snow
interactions based on the determined concentrations was
the prime goal of the study, with the sampling date at the
start of the snow melt period between May 22 and June 2,
2006. Ancillary data collected included the assessment of
the snow metamorphism state, air and snow temperatures
and strata from depth profiles. Snow sample data was
collected employing solid-phase micro-extraction with gas
chromatography and flame ionisation detection (GC/FID).
Air samples were analysed in the lab with a home-built
cryo-trap GC/FID system. A depletion event (measured
concentrations < limit of detection; LOD) was observed
for eight compounds in snow or air (e.g. for trichloroethene,
benzene) on May 30. At the same time ground ozone
concentrations showed a sudden increase together with a
shift of air mass origin form polar to a source region over
102
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Ellesmere Island. 24-hr daylight supported melting and a
transformation from dendritic to highly metamorphous
snow and provided ample opportunities for photochemistry.
Varying concentrations were observed for the investigated
species (µg/L in snow and ng/L in air) with different
behaviour over the sampling period: o-Xylene shows
that dropping concentrations are accompanied by rising
concentrations in snow and vice versa. Bromoform on the
other hand shows high concentrations in snow (up to 33
µg/L), but concentrations below the LOD for air samples.
Depth profiles show enrichment of several species (e.g.
trichloroethene and chlorobenzene) in surface layer snow
(0-2 cm) suggesting an exchange between the snow pack
with overlying air for samples collected on June 2. A May 26
profile did not show this enrichment.
THE ROLE OF SYMPAGIC MEIOFAUNA FOR
THE FLOW OF ORGANIC MATTER IN ARCTIC
SEA-ICE FOOD WEBS
Kramer, Maike1 ([email protected]), R. Kiko1,2, S.
Siebert3, U. Struck4, I. Werner1
Institute for Polar Ecology, University Kiel, 24148 Kiel,
Germany
2
Alfred-Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research,
27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
3
Institute for Zoology, University Kiel, 24118 Kiel, Germany
4
Museum für Naturkunde, Humboldt University Berlin,
10099 Berlin, Germany
1
The brine channels within sea ice make up the
habitat of sympagic (ice-associated) organisms, including
– besides bacteria, funghi, algae and protozoans – also
metazoans > 20 µm, referred to as sympagic meiofauna.
This diverse group, in Arctic sea ice comprising copepods,
nematodes, rotifers, plathyelminthes, polychaete larvae and
cnidarians, can reach high abundances. We hypothesize
sympagic meiofauna to play an important role within the
sea-ice ecosystem, and for the flow of organic matter and
energy in polar marine food webs. Changes in Arctic seaice cover may dramatically change the composition of
sympagic meiofauna and the timing of ice-algae blooms,
and subsequent changes in the food-web structure are likely
to effect higher trophic levels. Understanding the trophic
role of sympagic meiofauna, including quantification of the
carbon storage within this compartment (i.e. the biomass)
as well as the carbon flux through the compartment
(i.e. grazing / predation rates) is crucial for prognosis
concerning the effects of climate change on the polar
marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, studies on sympagic
meiofauna are scarce, often focusing on few dominant taxa
(copepods, nematodes), or being restricted to analyses of
community composition. This is mainly due to the small
size, taxonomical constraints and challenges with handling
and culturing sympagic meiofauna, which complicate
experimental and analytical studies. Consequently,
knowledge on the ecology of this group is sketchy, in
particular concerning its trophic role.
To close this gap of knowledge, we combine
abundance and biomass studies, feeding experiments, gut
content analyses and the use of biochemical tracers. New
data from two recent expeditions to the Central and Siberian
Arctic (ARK-XXII/2, August–September 2007) and to
the Western Canadian Arctic (CFL, March–June 2008)
show that meiofauna abundances were within the range
of earlier studies, but diversity was higher than previously
observed: taxa new to this habitat, such as rhabditophore
plathyelminthes and the cnidarian Sympagohydra tuuli,
occurred regularly and, for the first time, rotifers were found
to be an abundant component of the sympagic community
also in the Western Canadian Arctic. Feeding experiments
conducted with animals from both expeditions have
revealed that, contrary to previous assumptions, sympagic
meiofauna does not predominantely graze on algae.
Copepods and plathyelminthes feed on algae and ciliates,
for the copepod Tisbe sp., also cannibalism and coprophagy
were observed, and the cnidarian Sympagohydra tuuli preys on
rotifers and copepod nauplii. To reveal in situ diets, we have
specifically adapted the methods for stable isotope, fatty
acid and gut content analyses for application to sympagic
meiofauna. First results from stable isotope analyses are
presented. Quantitative evaluations of feeding experiments
show that predation rates vary by 1-2 orders of magnitude
within predator taxa and can fluctuate strongly with time.
Opportunistic feeding and highly variable ingestion rates
are probably adaptations to fluctuating food availability in
the highly dynamic sea-ice ecosystem. A distinct response
of predation rates to predator density was observed for
the copepod Halectinosoma sp., indicating intraspecific
concurrence. We discuss potentials and constraints of
modelling for the estimation of the feeding impact of
sympagic meiofauna.
103
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
PARASITE BIODIVERSITY, CLIMATE CHANGE,
AND ARCTIC ECOSYSTEMS: WHY SHOULD WE
CARE?
Kutz, Susan1 ([email protected]), E. Hoberg2 (Eric.
[email protected]), and B. Elkin3 ([email protected]
gov.nt.ca)
Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, University
of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta Canada, T2N 4N1,
2
Animal Research Services, US Department of Agriculture,
Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705,
3
Environment and Natural Resources, Government of
the Northwest Territories, PO Box 1320 Yellowknife, NT,
Canada X1A 2L9.
1
Parasites, both macro- (worms, arthropods,
protozoa) and micro- (viruses, bacteria, prions) are
important components of the biodiversity of all ecosystems
(Hudson et al., 2006). They are integrated within the
food webs and are powerful evolutionary drivers. At an
individual host level they can alter physiology, behaviour,
and productivity and at a population level they can force
population cycles and drive host populations to extinction.
They can cause subtle ongoing, disease with low mortality
rates or they can result in explosive disease outbreaks and
mass mortality events. They influence intra and inter-specific
interactions and can lead to parasite-mediated competition
among species. As is apparent from the increased rate of
emergence of infectious disease globally, many parasites
are powerful invaders, opportunists, and generalists (e.g.,
West Nile Virus). Under suitable ecological settings hostswitching is common, often with catastrophic results to
people, domestic animals, and wildlife (Brooks and Hoberg
2006, 2007). In the Arctic, parasites have evolved to persist
under harsh environmental conditions and in many cases
in areas of low host density. Current empirical research
and predictions suggest that climate warming will release
many of these parasites from environmental constraints
and result in invasion of new host and parasite species from
more southern latitudes (Kutz et al., 2005; Hoberg et al.,
2008a, 2008b). Anecdotal reports indicate that northward
range expansion is already happening with the moose
winter tick in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Thus,
under the current climate change scenarios we anticipate
profound effects on parasite biodiversity and abundance,
host-parasite interactions, emergence of disease, and the
sustainability of wildlife populations. Despite the clear and
broadly accepted importance of parasites in the resilience
and dynamics of ecosystems, and the immediate threat
of climate change on arctic host-parasite systems, our
knowledge of parasite biodiversity in northern wildlife is far
from complete. This is reflected in our ongoing discoveries
of new species of helminth parasites, new geographic
locations and new host records in arctic ungulates over
the last 15 years (Kutz et al., 2004, 2007). In this paper we
present lessons learned from past and ongoing research
on parasites in Arctic ungulate populations. In particular
we discuss i) the impacts of climate change on parasite
biodiversity and abundance and the effects on hostparasite interactions and the sustainability of arctic wildlife
populations, ii) the IPY funded parasite research program
of the CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment
network, iii) the critical need for enhanced biodiversity
monitoring and archival repositories, and iv) future research
and management directions. Brooks, D.R. and E.P. Hoberg
(2006) Journal of Parasitology 92: 426-429.Brooks, D.R.
and E.P. Hoberg (2007) Trends in Parasitology 23: 571-574.
Hoberg, E.P. et al. (2008a) Emerging Infectious Disease 14:
10-17.Hoberg, E.P. et al. (2008b) Rev. sci. tech. Off. Int. Epiz.
27: In press.Hudson, P.J., et al. (2006). Trends in Ecology and
Evolution 21: 381-385.Kutz, S.J. et al. (2004). Integrative and
Comparative Biology 44: 109-118.Kutz, S.J. et al. (2005) Proc.
Royal Soc. B. 272: 2571-2576.Kutz, S.J. et al. (2007) Canadian
Journal of Zoology 85: 1143-1156.
SOURCES, PATHWAYS AND SINKS OF
PARTICULATE ORGANIC MATTER IN
HUDSON BAY: EVIDENCE FROM LIGNIN
DISTRIBUTIONS
Kuzyk, Zou Zou1,2 ([email protected]), M.
Goñi3, G. Stern1,2 and R. Macdonald1,4
Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2
2
Freshwater Institute, Fisheries & Oceans Canada, 501
University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N6
3
Oregon State University, College of Oceanic Atmospheric
Sciences, Corvallis, Oregon, USA, 97331
4
Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries & Oceans Canada,
9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, British
Columbia, V8L 4B2
1
Hudson Bay is a large, estuarine, shelf-like sea at the
southern margin of the Arctic, where changes in seasonal
ice cover and river discharge appear already to be underway.
Here we present lignin data for dated sediments from eleven
box cores and evaluate sources of terrigenous carbon,
transport pathways, and whether terrigenous organic matter
has been influenced by recent environmental change.
Lignin yields (0.04 to 1.46 mg/100 mg organic carbon)
decreased from the margin to the interior and from south
104
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
to north, broadly reflecting the distribution of river inputs.
Lignin compositional patterns indicated distinct regional
sources with boreal forest (woody gymnosperm) vegetation
an important source in the south, vs. tundra (nonwoody angiosperm) in the north. Lignin patterns suggest
redistribution of a fine-grained, mineral-associated fraction
of the southern-derived terrigenous carbon to the northeast
part of the Bay and ultimately into west Hudson Strait with
the Bay’s cyclonic coastal circulation. A small component
of the carbon makes it to the central basins of Hudson Bay
but most of the terrigenous organic material in that area
appears to derive from resuspension of older, isostaticallyrebounding coastal and inner shelf deposits. Most modern
plant debris appears to be retained near river mouths due to
hydrodynamic sorting, with the exception of the southwest
inner shelf, where these materials extend > 30 km from
shore. Temporal changes in the composition of terrigenous
organic carbon recorded in most of the southern Hudson
Bay cores perhaps reflects increases in erosion and crossshelf transport from coastal deposits, possibly mediated
by change in ice climate. In contrast, temporal changes
in the northwest may relate to changes in the supply of
modern plant debris under recent warmer conditions. On
the western shelf, changes may relate to ice climate and
the distribution of northern coastal water and/or changes
in the delivery of materials by the Churchill River due to
water diversion. Although the cores show evidence of
change related to the ice climate, there is little evidence that
ice itself transports terrigenous organic carbon within the
system.
IMPACT OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND
PERMAFROST LANDSCAPE DISTURBANCES ON
RUNOFF GENERATION AND SOLUTE LOADS
AT CAPE BOUNTY, MELVILLE ISLAND, 2006-2008
Lafrenière, Melissa J.1 ([email protected]) and
S.F. Lamoureux1
Department of Geography, Queen’s University, Kingston,
Ontario K7L 3N6
1
Climate change in the Arctic is projected to
substantially affect winter snowpack, summer precipitation,
and active layer development. There is significant interest in
the response of permafrost and surface runoff to changes
in climate because permafrost and water exert significant
control over most ecosystem and surface processes such as
terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical processes, sediment
erosion, and water supply and quality. The research
program at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory
(CBAWO) has included the comprehensive monitoring
of surface water hydrology and hydrochemistry from two
adjacent watersheds since 2003, with the aim of developing
a long term record to investigate the relationships between
climate change, landscape conditions, runoff volumes and
solute, sediment and nutrient fluxes.
This research investigates the impact of climate
warming and active layer detachments on the response
of runoff and hydrochemical regimes in the two main
catchments at Cape Bounty, Melville Island, NU (74.5°N,
109.5°W) over three consecutive melt seasons (2006, 2007
and 2008). The 2006 end of winter snowpack was high, and
the melt season was relatively cool with respect to 2007 and
2008. Record summer temperatures and summer rainfall
in 2007 lead to the extensive active layer detachments
(ALD) in the West catchment, as well as a number of
minor detachments in the East catchment. ALD continued
to develop and expand throughout the 2008 melt season,
which was similar to 2007, although the end of season
snowpack and mean July temperatures were lower than the
previous year. Hence, this inter-annual comparison includes
pre- and post-disturbance data and provides the basis for
assessing the catchment scale impacts of geomorphic
disturbances on runoff and hydrochemical regimes.
Stream discharge and electrical conductivity (EC)
were monitored, and samples were collected for major
ion concentrations and the oxygen isotope composition
(δ18O) of water in both streams. Rapid increases in EC
and strong isotopic enrichment in late July and early August
in both catchments in 2007 and 2008, suggest that warm
July temperatures and late season rainfall events lead to
increases in active layer meltwater contributions to late
season runoff in both streams. The similarity of the isotope
enrichments in the two rivers and the relatively high rates of
EC increases in the East River during 2007 suggest that the
active layer disturbances had limited immediate impact on
water sources and solute acquisition at the catchment-scale.
CONNECTING COMMUNITY OBSERVATIONS
AND EXPERTISE WITH THE FLOE EDGE
SERVICE
Laidler, Gita1 ([email protected]), R. DeAbreu2, P.
Elee3, C. Furgal4, T. Hirose5, Theo Ikummaq6, E. Joamie7,
M. Kapfer5, and D. Piekarz8
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies,
Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Dr., Ottawa, ON, K1S
5B6
2
Canadian Ice Service, Marine and Ice Services Directorate,
Environment Canada, 373 Sussex Drive, Block E., Ottawa,
1
105
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
ON, K1A 0H3
3
P.O. Box 142, Cape Dorset, NU, X0A 0C0
4Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Gzowski
College, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive,
Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8
5
Noetix Research Inc., 265 Carling Ave., Suite 403, Ottawa,
ON, K1S 2E1
6
P.O. Box 53, Igloolik, NU, X0A 0L0
7
P.O. Box 127, Pangnirtung, NU, X0A 0R0
8
Northern Science and Technology, Science Assessment and
Integration Division, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin
Street, Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4
Building on previous collaborative research in
the Nunavut communities of Cape Dorset, Igloolik, and
Pangnirtung, the Polar View Floe Edge Service (www.
noetix.ca/floeedge) was expanded to these three Baffin
Island communities in May, 2007 with funding support
from the Northern Ecosystem Initiative (Environment
Canada), and the Inuit Sea Ice Use and Occupancy Project
(Government of Canada International Polar Year Program).
This new service implementation was a result of several
years of working together with community organizations
and key individuals, as well as building larger collaborative
networks with government and other researchers, in order
to better merge community interests with scientific funding
priorities. Initial expansion of the service was followed up
with local information sessions and a research workshop in
each community to:
1. publicly introduce the service and provide tips on
accessing and interpreting the image products
2. work with the local hosts of the Floe Edge Service (i.e.
Hamlet employees), several local sea ice experts, and several
other community organization representatives, to undertake
a preliminary evaluation of the service utility in order to
tailor products to community needs and priorities.
This presentation will examine the utility of
local workshops - from both community and research
perspectives - in creating opportunities for knowledge
exchange and intersection, as well as the challenges and
learning that arose through such exchanges, including:
• communication (cross-cultural, and inter-generational)
• incorporating Inuit expertise into image products
• drawing from Inuit and scientific expertise to
understand seasonal and long-term sea ice/weather changes
• moving from collaboration to decision-making
contributions
Combined, these initiatives aimed to enhance the
local utility of sea ice and weather monitoring/forecasting
products, and to improve region-specific services and
information access for travel, land/sea ice use, and safety of
northern residents.
RAPID EARLY HOLOCENE DEGLACIATION OF
HUDSON BAY
Lajeunesse, Patrick1 ([email protected]) and
G. St-Onge2,3
1
Centre d’études nordiques & Département de géographie,
Université Laval, Québec, Québec, G1V 0A6
2
Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski (ISMER),
Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec, G5L
3A1
3
GEOTOP, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3P8
Deglaciation of Hudson Bay was a rapid and
catastrophic global event marked by the drainage of Glacial
Lake Agassiz-Ojibway at ~8.5 ka BP and the following
division of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) into the Keewatin
Ice Sector (KIS) to the west and the Québec-Labrador
Ice Sector (QLIS) to the east. In this paper, we report on
the dynamics of the collapse of the LIS in Hudson Bay
based on marine geophysical data coupled with terrestrial
geomorphic and radiochronological data. Here we show
that the drainage of Lake Agassiz-Ojibway took place
subglacially under buoyant glacial ice (i.e., an ice shelf) in
Hudson Bay, indicating a thin and unstable ice cover at time
of deglaciation. Flutings mapped on the seafloor and on the
Belcher Islands provide further evidence for the previously
reported James Bay ice stream that flowed from the center
of the bay towards Lake Agassiz-Ojibway (southeastward)
shortly before its drainage. In the same manner as the
recent collapse of the Larsen B ice shelf in Antarctica, this
ice stream might have also contributed in thinning the LIS
in Hudson Bay prior to the drainage by creating a dense
network of crevasses. This gradual thinning of the ice cover
caused a hydraulic lifting of the LIS that then triggered the
lake outburst flood. Following the lake drainage and the
marine incursion, the western margin of the QLIS began
stabilisation phase along a hill range on the eastern coast
of Hudson Bay between ~8.45 and 8.2 ka BP. The timing
of this stabilisation leaves only little time for the LIS to
disappear from Hudson Bay before its margin reached the
western coast of northern Québec, further supporting a
rapid collapse of the LIS scenario in the region.
106
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
VARIATIONS IN ANNUAL CYCLES OF VERTICAL
PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON EXPORT ON
ARCTIC SHELVES: A COMPARISON BETWEEN
THE LAPTEV SEA, NORTHERN BAFFIN BAY
AND THE BEAUFORT SEA
Lalande, Catherine1 ([email protected]) and
L.Fortier1
Québec-Océan, Université Laval, Québec, Québec, G1V
0A6
1
The rapid decline in sea ice cover is expected to
cause large variations in the fate of organic carbon over
the different Arctic continental shelves. Long-term moored
sediment traps were deployed in 2005-2006 at 200 m in
the Beaufort Sea and Northern Baffin Bay in the Canadian
Arctic and in the Laptev Sea in the Siberian Arctic to
compare the magnitude and nature of particulate organic
carbon (POC) export over these continental shelves.
Annual POC fluxes ranged between 1.6 and 5.9 g C m-2 y-1
with the highest annual POC flux observed in Northern
Baffin Bay and the lowest annual POC flux observed over
the Mackenzie Shelf in the Beaufort Sea. Each annual
cycle exhibited an increase in POC export a few weeks
before, during, or immediately following sea ice melt in
May or June, but showed different patterns for the rest of
the deployment periods. Enhanced primary production,
discharge from the Lena River, and resuspension events
contributed to periods of elevated POC export over the
Laptev Sea slope. High POC fluxes in Northern Baffin Bay
reflected periods of elevated primary production in the
North Water polynya, whereas in the Beaufort Sea sediment
resuspension contributed to most of the large export events.
Our results suggest that the Laptev Sea will likely sustain the
largest increase in POC export in the next few years due to
the potentially large reduction in ice cover and increase in
the Lena River discharge. The variability observed among
the annual cycles of POC fluxes reinforces the importance
of measuring POC export over different Arctic shelves to
assess the eventual variability of carbon export in response
to climate change.
LATITUDINAL VARIATIONS OF SNOW
PROPERTIES USING PASSIVE MICROWAVE
BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE AND IN-SITU
MEASUREMENTS OVER EASTERN CANADA
Langlois, Alexandre1 ([email protected]), L.
Brucker2, A. Royer1, M. Fily2, G. Picard2, L. Arnaud2, C.
Derksen3, K. Goïta1, A. Walker3, P. Cliche1 and P. HarveyCollard1
Centre d’Applications et de Recherches en Télédétection,
Université de Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada.
2
Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de
l’Environnement, CNRS-Université de Grenoble, France.
3
Climate Research Branch, Meteorological Service of
Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
1
Snow thermophysical properties are known to be
sensitive to climate variability and change and are of primary
importance for hydrological and climatological processes
in northern regions. Specifically, spatial and temporal
variations of snow extent and thickness are good indicators
of warming climate, and better tools are required to assess
those changes from space. Previous studies looking at the
linkages between passive microwave brightness and snow
properties had reasonable success over flat and vegetationfree surfaces, but lingering uncertainties remain with regards
to the role of vegetation and snow grain size distribution
in the extinction of the signal. Of particular relevance, new
adequate methods to characterize snow grains in-situ are
required to assess the variations observed in the measured
and predicted brightness temperatures.
A latitudinal transect study was conducted over
northern Québec, Eastern Canada in February 2008,
spanning from southern boreal forest towards northern
taiga and tundra during the Canadian IPY campaign.
Moreover, detailed gridded sampling of snow and
vegetation properties was conducted in three areas (8 x 14
km) of boreal forest, taïga and tundra. Similar sampling
also occurred along a north-south helicopter transect with
a spatial sampling resolution of 40 km from 50 to 58°
N encompassing the gridded areas. Coincident AMSR-E
passive microwave brightness temperatures were extracted at
18 and 36 GHz in both vertical and horizontal polarizations
both along the transect and at the three sites. On the
ground, a method was developed to retrieve snow grain
information using infrared photography. The method makes
use of an infrared-converted digital camera which measures
the reflectance between 823 and 1000 nm. The reflectance
is converted into snow grain diameter using the method of
published snow optical model, which is expected to provide
great improvement for microwave emission modeling.
Using the latitudinal information of snow properties and
brightness temperatures, snow multi-layered thermodynamic
models (CROCUS and SNOWPACK) information will
be coupled to microwave emission models (MEMLS and
HUT), in order to enhance the brightness temperature
predictions widely used in regional snow studies. This paper
presents the results of the ground campaign as well as some
preliminary modeling results.
107
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Keywords: Latitudinal transect, passive microwave,
snow grain, specific surface area, infrared reflectance,
snow metamorphism model, microwave emission model,
brightness temperature simulation.
WATER MASS DISTRIBUTION ON THE
MACKENZIE SHELF AND THE AMUNDSEN
GULF AS DETERMINED BY TOTAL ALKALINITY
AND δ18O DATA
Lansard, Bruno1 ([email protected]), A. Mucci1, L.
Miller2, R.W. Macdonald2 and H. Thomas3
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill
University, Montréal, Québec, Canada, H3A 2A7
2
Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia,
Canada, V8L 4B2
3
Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University,
Halifax, New Scotia, Canada, B3H 4J1
and a mean δ18O of -1.60 ±0.14 ‰. At 200 m depth, a
strong thermocline separates the PW from the Atlantic
layer water (ALW) which has mean TA and δ18O values of
2300 ±11 μmol kg-1 and 0.24 ±0.06 ‰, respectively. The
Canadian basin deep water (CDW) is found below 1000 m
depth in the Beaufort Sea and carries TA and δ18O values
which are slightly higher than those of the ALW.
This typical distribution is counter balanced by
a seasonal and inter-annual variability which is mainly
driven by meteorological conditions. In this presentation,
we examine the water mass distribution, its modification
and variability on the Mackenzie shelf with regards to the
carbonate system.
1
1
Sea ice formation leads to brine rejection and
contributes to the formation of dense water that sinks to
intermediate and greater depths. Hence, high latitude areas
can act as a sink for atmospheric CO2 and thus represent a
direct pathway for CO2 exchange between the atmosphere
and the deep ocean. The sites of deep water formation in
the Canadian Arctic are unknown and the analysis of water
masses is a first step towards this objective.
During the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange
Study (CASES) and the Circumpolar Flaw Lead project
(CFL) an extensive dataset including total alkalinity (TA),
dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH and δ18O of seawater
was collected on the Mackenzie Shelf and the adjacent
Amundsen Gulf. This study area is a complex zone because
of the interaction of numerous water masses, as revealed
by temperature-salinity diagrams. The identification of
water masses and their distribution within the study area
was successfully accomplished using an optimum multiparameter analysis (OMP) based on temperature, salinity,
dissolved O2 concentrations, TA and δ18O.
Surface waters (depth<100 m) display a strong
seasonal variability and are composed of a mixture of the
Polar Mixed Layer (PML), fresh water from the Mackenzie
River (MW), and sea ice melt (SIM). Water originating
from the Mackenzie River is characterized by low δ18O (-20
‰) and low TA (<1600 μmol kg-1) values whereas sea ice
melting generates higher δ18O (-2.0 ‰) and very low TA
(<400 μmol kg-1). Below the upper halocline (depth>100m),
three water masses are clearly identified. A first water mass
is characterized by a 33.1 salinity and is of Pacific origin
(PW). The PW layer has a mean TA of 2280 ±8 μmol kg-
COMPARING THE LAST FIFTY YEARS OF
EROSION IN THE CANADIAN AND RUSSIAN
ARCTIC
Lantuit, Hughes1 ([email protected]), Atkinson, D.2,3,
Couture, N.4, Pollard, W.4, Overduin, P.1, Grigoriev, M.5
,Rachold, V.6, Grosse, G.3, Hubberten, H. W.1
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research
(AWI), Research section Potsdam, Telegrafenberg A43,
14473 Potsdam, Germany
2
International Arctic Research Center, Fairbanks, Alaska
3
University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska
4
McGill University, Montréal, Canada
5
Permafrost Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Yakutsk, Russia
6
International Arctic Science Committee, Stockholm,
Sweden
1
The erosion of Arctic coasts has received
considerable attention from the media over the last two to
three years, resulting in the generalization of yearly rates
of erosion captured locally over short amount of time to
longer periods and to the entire Arctic coastline. In reality,
coastal erosion in the Arctic is a complex and highly variable
spatially and temporally. In this study, we use rates from
the Bykovsky Peninsula (Russia) and from Herschel Island
(Canada) to highlight the difficulty of capturing erosion
over long sretches of coast. We show that erosion has
often been increasing and/or decreasing in connection with
events occurring in the backshore zone such as thermokarst
and/or the longshore movement of sedimentary features,
both above and under water. We highlight the need for an
integrated approach to coastal dynamics at the Arctic scale
to refine the current diagnostic and provide better boundary
conditions parameters to modellers attempting to create
predictive models of erosion
108
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
PHYTOPLANKTON BIOMASS, PRIMARY
PRODUCTION AND EXPORT IN THE HUDSON
BAY SYSTEM
Lapoussière, Amandine1,2 ([email protected]
qc.ca), C. Michel2, M. Gosselin1, J.-E. Tremblay3, Y. Gratton4
and M. Poulin5
Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski, Université du
Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec, G5L 3A1
2
Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg,
Manitoba, R3T 2N6
3
Départment de Biologie, Université Laval, Québec, Québec,
G1K 7P4
4
Institut National de Recherche Scientifique, Eau Terre
Environnement, Québec, Québec, G1K 9A9
5
Research Division, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa,
Ontario, K1P 6P4
biomass and the sinking material was mainly in the form of
amorphous detritus and bacterial carbon. In spite of that,
export ratio were high in this region (average = 0.55). This
study highlights that the Hudson Bay system encompasses
a range of hydrographic conditions which lead to strong
regional patterns in primary production and export during
early fall.
1
Surface hydrographic conditions (salinity and
temperature), surface nutrient concentrations (nitrate
(NO3) and silicic acid (SiOH4)), total chlorophyll a (chl a)
biomass (BT), total primary production (PT) and organic
material sinking export were determined in the Hudson Bay
system (i.e. Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait and Foxe Basin)
in September-October 2005. The surface hydrographic
conditions and nutrient distribution differed among three
distinct regions, i.e. Hudson Strait, eastern Hudson Bay
and western Hudson Bay, which also showed contrasted
patterns of production and sinking export. Hudson Strait
had a marine signature with high salinity (32.3) and low
temperature (2.1°C), high nutrient concentrations (3.97
and 4.72 µM for NO3 and SiOH4, respectively), high
PT (189 mg C m‑2 d‑1) and the highest BT of the system
(23 mg chl a m‑2). In this region, the suspended carbon
biomass was dominated by diatoms and was exported
mainly as amorphous detritus and intact cells. Nevertheless,
the export ratio (i.e. sinking export to primary production
ratio) was the lowest (average = 0.20) of the Hudson Bay
system. The eastern and western Hudson Bay regions were
contrasted in that the former experienced a stronger riverine
influence. This was evident from lower salinity (26. 8 vs
29.4), higher temperature (7.6°C vs 4.4°C), higher SiOH4
(5.26 vs 2.39 μM) and lower NO3 concentrations (0.35 µM vs
0.55 µM) to the east compared to the west. BT and PT were
higher in eastern than western Hudson Bay (23 mg chl a m‑2
and 248 mg C m‑2 d‑1 vs 16 mg chl a m‑2 and 96 mg C m‑2 d‑1,
respectively). In eastern Hudson Bay, diatoms dominated
the suspended biomass and were exported as part of fecal
pellets produced by herbivorous zooplankton. In this region,
export ratios were low (average = 0.29). In western Hudson
Bay, ciliates and choanoflagellates dominated the suspended
SEABED SEDIMENT CHARACTERISTICS,
PROCESSES, AND LANDFORMS IN THE
NELSON RIVER ESTUARY, HUDSON BAY,
MANITOBA, CANADA
Leclair, Suzanne1 ([email protected]), Stéphane
Lorrain1, Marie-Hélène Briand2, Kevin Sydor3, and Tariq
Aziz3
Environnement Illimité, 1453 St-Timothée, Montréal,
Quebec, H2L 2N7
2
RSW Inc., 1010 de la Gauchetiere west, Suite 500,
Montréal, H3B 0A1
3
Manitoba Hydro, Water Resources Development and
Engineering, 540-444 St.Mary Ave., Winnipeg, R3C 3T7
1
Rivers flowing into Hudson Bay provide sediments
that may ultimately be delivered to the Arctic Ocean, and
hence understanding sedimentary processes in estuarine
zones is critical for e.g., assessing global sediment budget
or characterizing Northern habitats. Despite this, the
sedimentology of the Nelson River estuary - the main
freshwater and sediment contributor to Hudson Bay, was
not well known until this study. As part of an extensive
multi-year monitoring program initiated by Manitoba
Hydro, grab sampling was done at more than 100 stations
over a 1200 km2 area of the Nelson River Estuary. In 2006,
offshore deep stations were surveyed. In 2007, sampling
was done in the estuary reaches and tidal flats on both
North and South shores of the Hudson Bay. The 2007
survey also included ground investigation of the processes
and landforms at the mouth of smaller streams discharging
directly to the Bay. In addition, aerial georeferenced
videos were produced along all coasts of the study area.
Sediment samples were sent to the laboratory for grain
size and chemical analyses such as Total Organic Carbon
(TOC), Carbon: Nitrogen Ratio (C:N), etc., and maps
were produced to illustrate the spatial variation of these
characteristics.
Here we present results describing the dominant
sediment size in various parts of the estuary, e.g., along
the Nelson channel, on the North versus South shores of
the Bay, etc., and the occurrence of ice-related erosion or
109
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
deposition. The spatial distribution of grain-size, TOC
and C:N values will be related to the spatial distribution
of freshwater/sediment input to the estuary, and main
processes and bed/landforms. Future studies will include analysis of substrate
relationships with flow velocity field and suspended
sediment concentration in order to better understand the
hydro-sedimentary dynamics of the Nelson River Estuary.
METAMORPHOSIS OF THE ARCTIC
TERRESTRIAL FOOD WEBS: BETWEEN
COLLAPSE OF NATIVE SPECIES AND
EXPLOSION OF EXOTIC PREDATORS?
Lecomte, Nicolas1 ([email protected]), D. Ehrich1,
N. G.Yoccoz1, R. A. Ims1, E. Fuglei2, H. Steen2, R. Aanes2, S.
T. Killengreen1 and J.-A. Henden1
Department of Biology, University of Tromsø, Tromsø,
Norway, N-9037
2
Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway, N-9296
1
Arctic terrestrial ecosystems are facing drastic
changes in their structure and function, with the collapse
of some key herbivores populations (e.g. lemmings) and the
increasing presence of exotic predators (e.g. red foxes). Such
recent metamorphosis raises conservation issues for native
predators such as arctic foxes. Yet, how widespread these
changes are still remains unclear. Here we present evidence
for the competition between arctic and red foxes at our IPY
study sites located in Northern Norway and Western Siberia.
This competition occurs through the overlap in both prey
and habitat use, where the dominant red fox excludes arctic
fox from the richest areas. Historically, native predators have
switched between small-mammal prey and migratory birds
during the former regular cycles. Thus, we expect alternative
prey to constitute a more important part of the diet for
native predators in the near future. The resulting picture of
the terrestrial Arctic will then imply structural conversion of
animal guilds as well as a greater reliance of this ecosystem
upon allochthonous flows of energy.
HOLOCENE CLIMATE CHANGES IN THE
MAIN AXIS OF THE NORTHWEST PASSAGE
INFERRED FROM DINOCYST ASSEMBLAGES:
A POSSIBLE INFLUENCE OF THE ARCTIC
OSCILLATION AT THE MILLENNIAL TIME
SCALE
Ledu, David1 ([email protected]), A.Rochon1, A. de
Vernal2 and G. St-Onge1
1
ISMER-UQAR and GEOTOP, Université du Québec à
Rimouski, 310 Allée des Ursulines, Rimouski, QC G5L 3A1,
Canada
2
GEOTOP Université du Québec à Montréal, C.P. 8888,
Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3P8, Canada
Instrumental data in the Arctic reveal an important
decline of both sea-ice thickness and extent between 1978
and 2000. In order to better understand the Arctic longterm climate variability, 2 piston cores were collected along
the main axis of the Northwest Passage, in Lancaster Sound
(core 2004-804-009 PC) and Barrow Strait (core 2005-804004 PC). Both cores have been sub-sampled every 10 cm for
the analysis of dinoflagellate cyst (dinocysts) assemblages.
Transfer functions were used for the quantitative
reconstructions of sea-surface parameters. Radiocarbon
ages indicate that both cores span the last 10 000 cal yrs BP.
Sedimentation rates range from 122 to 45 cm/ka and from
28 to 122 cm/ka for cores 009 and 004 respectively, allowing
for a centennial to millennial time scale resolution.
Grain size analyses show the prevalence of the
fine fraction in the major part of both cores, except at the
base where higher percentages of sand and high magnetic
susceptibility values are recorded. This is accompanied in
core 009 by high detrital CaCO3 content and high C/N
ratio.
Core 009 shows four different zones based on the
relative abundance of dinocysts. The first zone between 600
and 560 cm (12 180 to 11 000 cal yrs BP) is characterized by
the absence of dinocyst and other palynomorphs suggesting
high terrigeneous inputs. The second zone, between 560
and 260 cm (11 000 to 7500 cal yrs BP) is dominated by the
heterotrophic taxa Brigantedinium spp. and Islandinium
minutum. Quantitative reconstructions indicate summer
(August) temperatures 2oC colder than modern conditions
and sea-ice cover of about 10 month/years (1 month
more than at present). The third zone, between 260 and
60 cm (7500 to ~ 2900 cal yrs BP) is characterized by an
increase in the relative abundance of the phototrophic taxa
Operculodinium centrocarpum, Spiniferites elongatus/
frigidus and Pentapharsodinium dalei. This is marked
by reconstructed summer (August) temperatures slightly
warmer than today. Finally, the fourth zone, from 60 cm to
110
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
the core top is again dominated by the heterotrophic taxa
Brigantedinium spp. and Islandinium minutum and marks
the establishment of modern conditions.
Core 004 reveals an absence of phototrophic
taxa and the dominance of Brigantedinium spp. and
Islandinium minutum throughout the length of the
sequence. An increase in the relative abundance of the
three taxa Islandinium minutum var Cezare, Echinidinium
aculeatum and cyst of Polykrikos arctic morphotype
between 500 and 400 cm (9200 to 6500 cal yrs BP) suggest
a correlation with the lowest part of the zone 3 of core 009.
This is accompanied by reconstructed summer (August)
temperatures 1.5oC warmer than modern conditions.
From 6500 cal yrs BP to the late Holocene, both cores
show opposite trends (warmer/colder in Lancaster Sound,
colder/warmer in Barrow Strait).
We associate the records at the base of both
cores as the results of the Laurentide-Innuitian readvance
during the late Pleistocene associated with a glaciomarine
sedimentation. After a thermal maximum in the early/
middle Holocene, opposite trends could be the results
of the Arctic Oscillation creating a marked East/West
variations in sea-ice cover.
LINKING COMMUNITIES AND SCIENTISTS:
IDENTIFYING CHALLENGES AND COMMON
GOALS OF WILDLIFE RELATED RESEARCH IN
NUNAVUT
Lee, David1 ([email protected]), Mitch Campbell2
Nunavut Tunngavik Inc., P.O. Box 280, Rankin Inlet,
Nunavut, X0C 0G0
2
Department of Environment, Government of Nunavut,
P.O. Box 120, Arviat, Nunavut, X0C 0E0
1
We examine current approaches that link
communities and scientists through case studies of
natural resource management research in Nunavut. The
difference in cultural perspectives and language pose unique
challenges for scientists and communities engaged in
research monitoring environmental change. For example,
there is an expectation that Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit (Inuit
knowledge) will be utilized respectfully. Efforts have been
made to quantify and to qualify local and traditional Inuit
knowledge. Steps forward likely include expanding our
understanding of the range and depth of core values held
and expressed by individuals. We need to understand better
the history and backgrounds of communities and scientists
including the role of standing and access to resources. It is
critical to clarify goals, methods and potential consequences
of research activities prior to their commencement
through adequate consultation with communities and
accommodation of community concerns. Community
members and scientists often share common goals, but
uncertainty associated with scientific results and Inuit
knowledge often create challenges in understanding. This is
especially relevant for understanding the potential impacts
of climate change on arctic systems. Inuit and scientists
need to engage each other respectfully with shared common
goals in order to incorporate meaningfully each other’s
observations and perspectives of arctic environmental
change.
SEASONAL CHANGES IN PELAGIC AND
SYMPAGIC ALGAL FOOD QUALITY
Leu, Eva1 ([email protected]), S. Falk-Petersen1, J.E. Søreide2
and J. Berge2
Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, N9296 Tromsø, Norway
2
University Studies in Svalbard, P.O. Box 156, N-9171
Longyearbyen, Norway
1
The ice cover in high Arctic marine ecosystems puts
severe limitations on the productive period for autotrophic
organisms representing the basis of the marine food web.
Upon the return of the sun in spring, sea ice algae start to
grow underneath the ice, where they are able to produce
substantial amounts of biomass despite very low light
intensities. Thereby, they extend substantially the period of
high-quality food available for herbivorous zooplankton
and ice fauna. The pelagic algal bloom usually starts only
when the ice breaks up and can therefore occur very late
in the season at high latitudes. During the Norwegian IPYproject CLEOPATRA we carried out an extensive seasonal
study of the lower trophic levels in high Arctic Rijpfjorden
(Nordaustlandet, Svalbard). The aim of the project is to
investigate the role of light for timing, quantity and quality
of primary and secondary production in a seasonally icecovered ecosystem. In 2007, Rijpfjorden was ice-covered
from early February until mid July. Sea ice algae were
found from March to June, with the highest biomass in
late April and early June. The pelagic bloom peaked in late
June, approximately two weeks prior to ice break up. Algal
food quality expressed as fatty acid composition changed
substantially throughout the different seasons. The highest
amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found
in ice algae in April (37%) and in pelagic POM after the
major bloom event in July (up to 50%), respectively. Algal
food quality depended both on taxonomic composition and
111
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
THE PREVALENCE OF HUMAN
PAPILLOMAVIRUS AND ITS IMPACT ON
CERVICAL DYSPLASIA IN NORTHERN CANADA
physiological state, with the latter reflecting the prevailing
environmental conditions. We suggest that the observed
differences in the timing of primary production of high
nutritional quality have implications for the life cycle of
potential grazers.
Towards an understanding of the
implications of shrub cover change in
Nunavik
Lévesque, Esther ([email protected]), A. Cuerrier ,
S. Boudreau2,4, J. Gérin-Lajoie1, B. Tremblay1, C. Lavallée1, C.
Spiech1
1,2
3
Département de chimie-biologie, Université du Québec à
Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, G9A 5H8
2
Centre d’études nordiques
3
Institut de recherche en biologie végétale, Université de
Montréal, H3C 3J7
4
Département de biologie, Université Laval, Québec, G1K
7P4»
1
Shrubs are dominant above the treeline in most
tundra ecosystems and they are already observed to increase
in abundance in some parts of the North. The warming
trend in Nunavik started relatively late compared to other
parts of Arctic Canada yet, in some areas, community
members are already noticing an increase in vegetation
cover. In other communities, however, no clear evidence
of vegetation change is reported. Our group is studying
the impact of vegetation changes near communities
with a range of approaches including ethnobotany, plant
population ecology and dendrochronology. We focus on
berry producing species and on various shrubs for which we
evaluate cover changes due to new colonisation from seeds
and to increased growth of established plants. Berry picking
is an important activity in all northern communities. Berries
producing shrubs are abundant and well known for their
inter-annual variability in productivity. This productivity may
benefit from warmer seasons only if the increasing shrub
cover does not out-compete the lower berry producing
species. Shrub density and height may impact snow pack
distribution, soil temperature and other physical variables
as well as herbivores. We will present results illustrating the
variable and dynamic nature of shrub cover in Nunavik and
attempt to present an integrative view of the processes at
play using scenarios for regions with rapid vs slow change.
Li, Y. Anita1 ([email protected]), P. Brassard2, A.
Corriveau3, I. Sobol4, B. Hanley5, T. Wong6 A. Severini7, S.
Chatwood, G. Johnson9, Y. Mao1
Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public
Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9
2
McGill University Health Centre, McGill University,
Montréal, Québec, H3A 1A1
3
Department of Health & Social Services, Government
of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife, Northwest
Territories, X1A 2L9
4
Department of Health & Social Services, Government of
Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut, X0A 0H0
5
Department of Health & Social Services, Government of
Yukon, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 2C6
6
Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control,
Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A
0K9
7
National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency
of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3E 3R2
8
Arctic Health Research Network, Yellowknife, Northwest
Territories, X1A 3X7
9
Department of Cytopathology, Dynacare Kasper Medical
Laboratories, Edmonton, Alberta, T5J 5E2
1
Background: Cervical cancer rates are higher among
aboriginal populations than the general population
in Canada. Since Human Papillomavirus (HPV) are
highly associated with cervical cancer and the routine
screening tool - Pap test- is less than ideal, it is essential to
understand the prevalence of HPV infection and identify if
incorporating HPV test into routine screening will be more
effective for cervical cancer prevention. Objectives: The objectives are to determine the prevalences
of type-specific of HPV infections and cervical dysplasia
among women in northern Canada, to determine the
impacts of social, demographic, and behavioural factors
on HPV infection, and to provide evidences for decision
makers to establish more effective programs for cervical
cancer prevention and control. Methods: The targeted population are women living in
territories in Canada, the Northwest Territories (NT),
Nunavut, and Yukon. The inclusion criteria are: women at
screening targeting ages, no cancer history, and attending
routine clinics for Pap test. Data collection is incorporated
into the routine sample collection for Pap test by physicians
or community health nurses, therefore no extra samples are
112
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
required. After the Pap testing, the remaining specimens are
sent to the National Microbiology Laboratory in Winnipeg
using Luminex assay for HPV typing. Women who agreed
to be collected their risk factor information are asked to
sign a consent form and answer a questionnaire which is
self- administered with nurse assistance. Questionnaire data
will not be collected in Nunavut. Pap test results, HPV
types, and risk factor data will be linked for analysis by the
Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control of the
Public Health Agency of Canada. A descriptive analysis
of socio-demographic characteristics will be performed.
The prevalences of HPV type-specific infections and
cervical dysplasia will be calculated with 95% confidence
intervals. Multivariate logistic regression analyses will be
used to explore the associations between type-specific HPV
infections and cervical dysplasia as well as the associations
between risk factors and type-specific HPV infections.
Potential benefits: This project will contribute to the
knowledge of HPV prevalence among women in Northern
Canada. The results may be useful for the development of
strategies to prevent HPV infections and reduce the burden
of illness associated with high-risk HPV infections. It is also
expected to demonstrate that more effective cervical cancer
screening programs can be developed by incorporating HPV
test with the conventional Pap test as tools. Current status: More than 5,000 samples from the NT
and Nunavut have been tested for HPV types. The NT and
Yukon are both in the process of collecting questionnaire
data.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEA ICE-COVER
AND BENTHIC CARBON TURNOVER IN THE
AMUNDSEN GULF
Link, Heike1 ([email protected]), D. Piepenburg2,
T. Tamelander3, M. Damerau4, P. E. Renaud5 and P.
Archambault1
Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski, Université du
Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec, G5L 3A1, Canada
2
Mainz Academy of Sciences, the Humanities and
Literature, c/o Institute for Polar Ecology of the University
of Kiel, Kiel, D-24148, Germany
3
Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of
Tromsø, Tromsø, N-9037, Norway
4
Institute for Polar Ecology of the University of Kiel, Kiel,
D-24148, Germany
5
Akvaplan-niva AS, Polar Environmental Centre, Tromsø,
N-9296, Norway
1
Dynamics of the tight pelagic-benthic coupling,
as reported from a number of Arctic shelf seas, are likely
to respond significantly to changes in external forcing.
It has been shown, for instance, that benthic carbon
mineralization, measured as sediment oxygen demand, is
enhanced by the input of a strong food pulse represented
by sedimenting sea ice algae. To estimate the effect of global
warming on carbon cycling in marine Arctic ecosystems,
it is important to understand how the rapidly reducing sea
ice-cover and associated ice algae will influence benthic
processes. In this study we investigated the variation in
benthic carbon turnover under different conditions of icecoverage in the Amundsen Gulf between March and August
2008. Sediment cores were obtained over both a temporal
gradient, sampling the same study site under closed ice cover
in spring and open water in summer, and a spatial gradient
of ice-edge – open water in early summer. Sediment carbon
turnover was generally low compared to previous studies
and ranged between 10.7 mg C m-2d-1 and 43.9 mg C m2 -1
d . Preliminary results indicate that it increased over the
ice-cover – open water gradient at some sites, but remained
stable at others. We suggest that the proposed relationship
between benthic activity and ice coverage can be masked by
further factors such as e.g. water depth and is hence more
complex than commonly assumed. This insight would have
important implications for all efforts to understand and
predict the ecological effects of climate change in the Arctic.
Postglacial sedimentation and
environmental magnetism in the
Arctic Alaskan margin
Lisé-Pronovost, Agathe1, Guillaume St-Onge1, Francesco
Barletta1, Stefanie Brachfeld2, Leonid Polyak3, Dennis
Darby4
ISMER and GEOTOP, 310, allée des Ursulines, Rimouski
(Québec) Canada G5L 3A1, [email protected],
[email protected]
2
Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey, 1 Normal
Avenue, 07043, USA, [email protected]
3
Byrd Polar Research Center, Ohio State University, Scott
Hall Room 108, 1090 Carmack Road, The Ohio State
University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1002, [email protected]
4
Dept. of Ocean, Earth, & Atmospheric Sciences, Old
Dominion University, OEAS Main Office – OCNPS, 4600
Elkhorn Ave., Norfolk, VA 23529, [email protected]
1
Two long sedimentary sequences were recovered
on board the USCGC Healy in the Arctic Alaskan margin
as part of the Healy-Oden Trans Arctic Expedition
113
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
(HOTRAX) in order to reconstruct climate variability in
the Western Arctic during the Holocene. Here we present
the sedimentation history recorded in cores HLY050106JPC and HLY0501-08JPC (hereinafter referred to as cores
6JPC and 8JPC, respectively). Core 6JPC was raised from
the continental slope and core 8JPC was collected 100 km
southward on the continental shelf near Barrow Canyon.
On board, the piston cores were ran into a Multi Sensor
Core Logger for the determination of wet bulk density and
volumetric magnetic susceptibility, then split and described.
In the laboratory, the magnetic properties (natural,
anhysteretic, isothermal and saturation isothermal remanent
magnetizations) of both cores were determined using a
cryogenic magnetometer on u-channel samples with a 1-cm
downcore resolution. Cores 6JPC and 8JPC are composed
of several meters (9 and 12 m, respectively) of postglacial
sediments overlying glacial/deglacial deposits.
The chronology of core 8JPC is based on 8
accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) 14C dates, whereas
the chronology of core 6JPC was constrained by 1 AMS
14C date and a full vector paleomagnetic correlation
(inclination, declination and relative paleointensity)
using core 8JPC and other previously published and
independently dated high latitude sedimentary and volcanic
paleomagnetic records from Western North America. The
postglacial chronology of core 8JPC indicates sedimentation
rates as high as 348 cm/ka on the continental shelf near
Barrow Canyon from approximately 8000 to 5000 cal BP,
followed by a major decrease in sedimentation rates. Such a
rapid diminution is not observed on the continental slope at
core site 6JPC and at the nearby core site 5JPC, indicating
that despite their proximity to each other, cores 8JPC and
6JPC have considerably different sedimentation histories
as core 8JPC is located on the continental shelf and is
strongly controlled by changes in sea level and changes in
hydrodynamic conditions. Finally, centennial- to millennialscale variability is observed in several magnetic parameters
of both cores and will be explored.
Québec, H3B 0A1
3
Manitoba Hydro, Water Resources Development and
Engineering, 540-444 St.Mary Ave., Winnipeg, Manitoba,
R3C 3T7
The Nelson River is the largest contributor of
fresh water in Hudson Bay. Flowing to the East of the
Nelson, the smaller Hayes River drains a catchment with
similar surface materials, which range from fine-grained
glacio-marine sediments to ice-drifted boulders. The hydrosedimentary dynamics of the Nelson River estuary is still
not well known, hence making it difficult to estimate any
potential changes in the Bay or the Arctic Ocean further
away. In particular, the characteristics of suspended
sediments and their relationships with tidal propagation
and variation in turbidity of fresh-saline waters, which is
important to marine biota, needed to be investigated.
As part of an extensive Manitoba Hydro
monitoring program in the Nelson River estuary, up to
21 moorings with more than 50 loggers for measuring
temperature, salinity and turbidity were installed during
the summers of 2006 and 2007, and extensive suspended
sediment sampling was conducted at 9 of these stations
(limited, but detailed TSS profiles exist for 2005). In
addition to these estuary campaigns, upstream reaches
unaffected by tides on both the Nelson and the Hayes
Rivers were surveyed twice in 2008, under ice-cover shortly
before break-up, and again in early July. Isokinetic methods
included integrating the water column and point-integrated
sampling at selected depths, including the near bottom layer.
Here we present the spatial and tide-related
variation in sediment concentration and turbidity in the
Nelson River estuary, and compare these results with fluvial
conditions. Organic content and grain-size fraction of the
suspended loads in this fluvial-marine continuum will also
be described.
Results from this study will help computing sediment
budgets and modelling the hydro-dynamic processes in the
Nelson River Estuary.
WATER TURBIDITY AND SUSPENDED
SEDIMENT CHARACTERISTICS IN THE
NELSON RIVER ESTUARY, HUDSON BAY,
MANITOBA, CANADA
BELUGA CONTAMINANT LEVELS: AN
ECOSYSTEM APPROACH TO A SPECIES
SPECIFIC QUESTION
Lorrain, Stéphane1 ([email protected]), Jérôme
Gingras1, Suzanne Leclair1, Julie Thérien1, Marie-Hélène
Briand2, Kevin Sydor3 and Tariq Aziz3
Loseto, Lisa1,2 ([email protected]), G. Stern3,4, D.
Diebel5, T. Connelly5, B. Gemmill4, A. Prokopowicz6, L.
Fortier6, S. Ferguson3,4
Environnement Illimité, 1453 St-Timothée, Montréal,
Québec, H2L 3N7
2
RSW Inc., 1010 de la Gauchetiere west, suite 500, Montréal,
1
1
School for Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of
Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, V8W 3P6
2
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences,
114
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Sidney, British Columbia, V8L 4B2
3
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Freshwater Institute,
Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N6
4
Department of Environment & Geography, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2
5
Ocean Sciences Centre, Memorial University, St John’s,
Newfoundland, A1C 5S7
6
Dept de Biologie, Université Laval, Quebec, Quebec, G1K
7P4
Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) represent an
important food source and traditional way of life for Inuit.
Concerns of contaminants in country foods have resulted
in the need to understand beluga diet and dietary sources of
contaminants. In partnership with Inuvialuit communities
we examined beluga behaviour and ecosystem processes to
describe the trophic level transfer of mercury (Hg) to the
Beaufort Sea beluga whale population; a population that
has had some of the highest Hg levels. Resource selection
function was used to analyze satellite telemetry data to
describe beluga habitat use of sea ice concentrations and
bathymetry. Belugas were found to segregate into habitat use
groups defined by their length, sex and reproductive status.
To test if beluga were exposed to different dietary Hg levels
among habitat use groups we sampled whales representative
of the habitat use groups and collected likely prey items
that corresponded with those habitats. The diet biomarkers,
stable isotopes and fatty acids, were used to examine beluga
diet in relation to the factors driving habitat selection. Fatty
acid analysis revealed beluga predominantly fed on arctic
cod (Boreogadus saida), yet arctic cod diet biomarkers and Hg
levels differed among habitats. The δ15N and δ13C results
supported the fatty acid analysis and together showed that
habitat use was important in describing dietary Hg exposure.
In conclusion our results showed that the trophic level
transfer of Hg in food webs differed in each habitat and was
the driving factor in beluga Hg body burdens rather than
bioaccumulation over time. Therefore, using an ecosystem
approach provided important information about beluga
contaminant levels that can be further evaluated under
future climate scenarios.
HUDSON BAY: NEW FINDINGS AND
DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE STUDY
Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries & Oceans Canada,
9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, British
Columbia, V8L 4B2
2
Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2
3
Freshwater Institute, Fisheries & Oceans Canada, 501
University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N6
1
Luce, Myriam ([email protected]), M. Levasseur ,
M. Scarratt2, S. Michaud2, C. Lovejoy1, S.-J. Royer1,
M.Poulin3, R. P. Kiene4
1
Québec-Océan, Département de biologie, Université Laval,
Québec, Québec, G1V 0A6
1
One of the most striking impacts of global
warming in the Arctic is the reduction of the annual
ice cover, a process which could profoundly alter the
structure and dynamic of the pelagic ecosystem and
the related production and sea-air flux of climate active
trace gases such as dimethylsulfide (DMS). This paper
presents new information on the microbial metabolism of
DMS and its algal precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate
(DMSP) in Arctic waters, obtained during incubations
using radioactively marked 35S-DMSP. The measurements
were conducted across the Canadian Archipelago,
from Baffin Bay to the Beaufort Sea, during the fall of
2007 as part of the Canadian International Polar Year
program. DMSP and DMS concentrations in surface
waters tended to decrease westward and as the season
progressed. The physiological capacity of the bacteria to
use DMSP (DMSP loss rate constant) and the bacterial
DMS production efficiency (DMS yield) exhibited a similar
westward decrease. Significant positive relationships were
observed between DMS concentrations and the DMS
yield (R2=0.35, p<0.05), as well as between DMS yield and
total DMSP concentrations (R2=0.40, p<0.05). Bacterial
DMS production was driven by rates of dissolved DMSP
(DMSPd) consumption, which in turn was limited by the
concentration of DMSPd. In the context of a warming
Arctic, these results suggest that if a reduction in ice cover
leads to greater phytoplankton abundance, the associated
rise in DMSP concentrations could trigger an increase
in DMS concentrations through higher bacterial DMS
production and yield. This would lead to a greater sea-air
flux, with a potential cooling effect.
Macdonald, Robie W.1,2 ([email protected]),
Z. Kuzyk2,3 and S. Ferguson2,3
MICROBIAL PRODUCTION OF
DIMETHYLSULFIDE IN THE ARCTIC
1
Institut Maurice-Lamontagne, Fisheries and Oceans
Canada, Mont-Joli, Québec, G5H 3Z4
3
Musée Canadien de la nature, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 6P4
4
Department of marine sciences, University of South
Alabama, Mobile, Alabama, 36688
2
115
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Hudson Bay is a large, estuarine, shelf-like sea at the
southern margin of the Arctic. With this location, the Bay
is in the vanguard of polar change and, indeed, reduction
and change in sea ice cover seems to be already underway.
Accompanying the change in ice cover is alteration of
river discharge, both directly though water diversion and
indirectly through change in permafrost, wetland processes
and the hydrological cycle. The oceanographic changes
that may result from altered freshwater inputs (both ice
melt and river runoff) are still largely unknown, as are the
consequences of all these changes for the marine food web
and polar bears.
Marine research in Hudson Bay has been relatively
limited partly because of its remote location, seasonal sea
ice cover, and shallow coastal waters, and partly because
the marine resources have not attracted commercial
interest. Coastal conditions near river systems affected by
hydroelectric development have received the most attention,
while observations of Bay-wide circulation, water mass
properties, primary production and food web structure
are extremely sparse. It is significant that overviews of
knowledge of the Hudson Bay system, published twenty
years apart (Martini, 1986; Stewart and Lockhart, 2005),
draw mostly on data collected in the 1970s.
Recently, Hudson Bay has seen a re-invigorated
research effort supported largely by two multi-year,
multidisciplinary programs - MERICA (étude des MERs
Intérieures du Canada) and ArcticNet (http://www.
arcticnet-ulaval.ca/). New findings emerging from these
research efforts address sea ice, freshwater dynamics,
ocean surface chemistry, spatial and temporal variability in
primary production, carbon flux, ecosystem structure, and
proxies for reconstructing past conditions. The consequent
advances in our knowledge about how the Bay functions,
and its vulnerability to change, suggest this to be a critical
time to disseminate these findings in a dedicated journal
issue.
USE IT OR LOSE IT: ACTION AGENDA OR
ELECTION SLOGAN?
Macnab, Ron ([email protected])
Geological Survey of Canada (Retired)
During the recent federal election, the expression
“use it or lose it” was frequently articulated in conjunction
with calls for Canadians to respond to issues affecting the
present and future development of the North. Implied
in this phrase was a warning that inaction posed a threat
to Canada’s control of its northern regions, and that the
very notion of Arctic sovereignty was under threat unless
Canadians took early and strong action to exercise effective
stewardship of their northern lands and waters. The spectre
of outside pressures and threats was invoked at regular
intervals, presumably to mobilize concern among the
electorate and to inspire calls for action.
This message of “use it or lose it” was underscored
by several high-profile announcements of major initiatives
that were delivered in northern communities, and which
promised to set Canada’s polar house in order.
While there can be little doubt that concerted action
is required to deal with a host of current and emerging
problems in the North, it is by no means a certainty that
a failure to act would lead to a loss of Canada’s right to
exercise sovereignty and control over its northern lands and
waterways. Except for tiny Hans Island that lies between
Greenland and Ellesmere Island, the country’s land territory
north of the Arctic Circle is widely recognized as Canadian,
and no part of it is perceived as a likely target for foreign
invasion or takeover.
Where the country’s northern waterways and
seabed are concerned, the UN Convention on the Law of
the Sea (UNCLOS) clearly spells out Canada’s rights and
obligations. There is contention between Canada and other
states concerning the status of the Northwest Passage as
an international waterway, but there has been little dispute
so far over rights of access to the other and more restricted
inter-island waterways of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago,
nor have there been open challenges to the provisions of
the Convention that regulate international usage of the
200 nautical mile zone north of the Archipelago. There are
ongoing disagreements with Denmark and the United States
concerning bilateral boundaries within 200 nautical miles
in the east and the west, respectively, but these do not alter
the fact that coastal states have specific rights in these zones
which must be respected by the international community.
Concerning use and control of the seabed, the
Convention grants significant rights to Canada within the
entire Exclusive Economic Zone, which in essence extends
from the country’s coastlines out to 200 nautical miles or to
bilateral boundaries with neighbouring states, encompassing
the entire Arctic Archipelago in the process. These
provisions include the exclusive right to explore, to exploit,
and to manage the resources of the seabed; no foreign state
can presume to engage in any of these activities without
Canada’s approbation.
The Convention also grants Canada the right
to extend certain sovereign rights into an Extended
Continental Shelf (ECS) which lies beyond 200 nautical
miles and where a coastal state has the authority to control
and to exploit the resources of the deep seabed. This same
right is available to Canada’s Arctic neighbours, which are
116
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
similarly engaged in their own ECS delimitations. At some
future date, it will be necessary for all Arctic states to engage
in negotiations with a view to devising an equitable sharing
of the seabed resources within their combined ECSs.
Indeed, last May the Arctic coastal states met in Ilulissat,
Greenland, to affirm their commitment to “the orderly
settlement of overlapping claims”. At the end of that
process, Canada and its Arctic neighbours will be able to
exercise undisputed control over seabed resources beyond
200 nautical miles.
Canadian sovereignty in the Arctic is firmly
enshrined in international law. While regulatory and
enforcement measures will no doubt be needed to prescribe
and to uphold that sovereignty in some areas, these would
not imply any loss or diminution of Canada’s authority to
control its northern land and sea areas. “Use it or lose”
might be a catchy political slogan, but it does not take into
account the verities of international law.
CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN HEALTHHOW DOES COLD EXPOSURE TROUBLE US?
Mäkinen, Tiina M.1 ([email protected]), J. Hassi1
Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu,
Finland
1
Projections of the changing climate indicate not
only permanently warmer weathers, but an increasing
amount of climatic extremes. This includes a higher
amount heat waves and cold spells, as well as high winds,
storms and precipitation. A cold environment causes
thermal discomfort, performance degradation, adverse
health outcomes and injuries. The adverse effects may be
potentiated in special population groups. The presentation
showcases results related to the effect of cold on human
health from Finnish population studies. According to
national questionnaire studies (FINRISK-surveys) of
people aged 25-74 yrs, different symptoms and complaints
are common in the general population. These are
musculoskeletal pain, respiratory (dyspnoea, wheezing of
breath, sputum production), episodic peripheral circulation
and cardiovascular symptoms (chest pain, arrhythmias).
Most of these emerge below -10°C, and the first symptoms
to appear are musculosceletal complaints (-3°C) and
sputum production (-5°C). Persons with a pre-existing
disease have an increased prevalence of respiratory, cardiac,
peripheral circulation and white fingers symptoms during
the winter compared with healthy individuals. Women are
more susceptible to cold-induced symptoms than men,
and the prevalence of symptoms show only little variation
with age. Respiratory symptoms are more common among
patients with asthma and chronic bronchitis compared with
healthy. Furthermore, for persons having asthma, chronic
bronchitis or emphysema the threshold temperatures for
respiratory symptoms to emerge are higher compared
to healthy individuals. A cold environment is associated
with respiratory tract infections (RTI), too. A population
study where diagnosed RTI episodes, outdoor temperature
and humidity in conscripts were analysed showed that a
decrease in temperature was associated with an increased
risk for upper (URTI) and lower (LRTI) respiratory tract
infections, and separately for common cold and pharyngitis.
Also, a decrease in absolute humidity was associated with
an increased risk for URTI and pharyngitis. Furthermore,
a decrease in temperature and humidity preceded the
occurrence of RTIs. Finally, according to national
questionnaires, the prevalence of annually occurring
superficial and more severe cold injuries in the general
population is 12.9% (330/2550) and 1.1% (95/8788),
respectively. The occurrence of frostbite is more common
in men, and frequent in industries such as agriculture,
forestry, industry and also among population groups such as
pensioners and unemployed. Risk factors for the occurrence
of frostbites are for example employment in an outdoor
occupation, higher amount of physical strain at work,
living in the north, having diabetes, mental depression and
Raynaud’s phenomenon. Based on the results environmental
and individual risk factors should be taken into account
when developing risk assessment and management strategies
for mitigating the adverse health effects of cold. Due to
the climate change, cold extremes will remain common,
and require development of national temperature related
warning systems. These extreme weather health warning
systems are more effective if they are especially focused on
specific populations groups at risk, such as people suffering
from chronic diseases (e.g. respiratory or cardiovascular
disease, diabetes), elderly people (and especially those
living alone), and people involved frequently in recreational
outdoor activities or outdoor work.
POLAR CLIMATE OUTLOOK FORUM: A
MECHANISM FOR IMPROVED ADAPTATION
STRATEGIES AND OUTCOMES
Malone. Leslie1 ([email protected]), Howard Cattle2,
Barry Goodison5, Jaakko Helminen3, Kumar Kolli1, Holger
Meinke4, Vladimir Ryabinin5, Eduard Sarukhanian1, Francis
Zwiers6
World Meteorological Organization (WMO), CP 2300, 7 bis
Av de la paix, CH1211, Geneva, Switzerland
1
117
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
WCRP CLIVAR Project Office, Southampton, UK
Climate Impact Consulting Limited, Espoo, Finland
4
Wageningen University, Wageningen, NL
5
World Climate Research Programme, Geneva, Switzerland
6
Environment Canada, Toronto, Canada
2
3
The people that live and work at high latitudes
have a great need for climate information, in order to
make effective decisions related to the rapid climate-related
changes that are occurring in these regions, and to the
socio-economic opportunities and risks that ensue. People,
communities, businesses and governments also would
benefit from learning how to make optimal use of the
available information in developing and implementing their
strategies for adaptation to climate variability and change,
and in conducting their lives in a changing environment.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
recognizes a unique opportunity, based on the legacy of the
International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY), for the National
Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) of its
Members to build collaborative mechanisms for generating
sustained, practical, operational products and services,
to meet user needs for climate risk management in Polar
Regions.
In tropical and sub-tropical regions, such
mechanisms, Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs),
have become a highly valued and regular activity of WMO
Members. RCOFs owe their increasing success to a number
of factors including predictability of the climate at seasonal
to longer time frames and to the direct participation of
user communities in the Forums. Recognizing the scientific
challenges of climate predictability in high latitude regions,
but also the acute vulnerability of Polar Regions to climate
variability and change, consideration must be given to
extending the benefits of the RCOF process to high
latitudes.
WMO, along with the World Climate Research
Programme (WCRP) and the IPY are working with
polar-relevant NMHSs, scientists from climate and
socio-economic fields, and a growing list of partnering
organizations to develop and implement a Polar Climate
Outlook Forum (PCOF). This forum would be a sustained,
regular international collaboration between climate and
user representatives with interests in Polar Regions, to share
currently available information, to identify additional user
requirements for climate information, products and services,
and to engage in awareness and technical training of both
climate providers and users. The PCOF is recognized as a
WMO legacy of IPY 2007-2008, and as a contribution to
the future WMO Global Cryosphere Watch (GCW).
The WMO/WCRP/IPY Workshop on CLIPS
(CLimate Information and Prediction Services) in
Polar Regions: Climate product generation, user liaison
and training, held 8-11 September 2008, St Petersburg,
Russian Federation, was the first step in building the
collaboration required for a PCOF. This workshop brought
together specialists from climate modeling, IPCC, ACIA,
observations, climate services, climate risk management,
and representatives of user communities (e.g. AMAP)
from both circumpolar regions. Steps are underway to
publish a concept paper and to develop and conduct a
survey of user requirements for polar regions. These efforts
will be undertaken in full collaboration with interested
organizations and related programmes active in the region.
This presentation will review in more detail the outcomes of
the Workshop, opportunities for further collaboration, and
future activities.
CLIMATE-CHANGE IMPACTS ON AN
EMERGENT ARCTIC SHORELINE, HALL
BEACH, NU
Manson, Gavin K.1 ([email protected]) and D.L.
Forbes1,2
Geological Survey of Canada, Bedford Institute of
Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, B2Y 4A2
2
Department of Geography, Memorial University of
Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, A1C 5S7
1
This research is undertaken in support of the
Nunavut Climate Change Adaptation Plan, as part of a
collaborative effort to foster adaptation planning across
Nunavut. In Hall Beach, where vulnerability to coastal
erosion is a particular concern, climate change is expected
to increase existing exposure. Adaptation measures such as
increased setback or retreat are currently being considered.
Understanding the coastal response to storms and other
environmental forcing under present and future climate
conditions is a prerequisite for development of appropriate
adaptation plans. Hall Beach is located on an emergent
coast in northwestern Foxe Basin. The area is low-lying,
with raised gravel beach ridges interspersed with bouldery
ground moraine. Thin-bedded grey limestone is exposed
locally near the shore, providing a ready source of gravel
and showing that the sediment cover is thin. Despite
the permafrost setting, there is little excess ground ice.
Fairweather and storm winds are predominantly offshore
from the northwest, but ice-free fetch is unrestricted to the
southeast and 65 to 150 km to the east through north. It
is thought that alongshore sediment transport is driven by
relatively rare storms from these directions in the fall prior
to freeze-up. The climatological median freeze-up date is
118
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
October 22 but in recent years freeze-up has occurred in
mid November, suggesting that storm-wave activity and
associated sediment transport may be increasing. Hall Beach
is situated in a broad bight fringed by gravel beaches with
minor sand. A 1 km wide shallow irregular bench extends
out to 6 m depth. Shoals adjacent to headlands to the north
and south are covered with shore-migrating sheets of pebble
gravel, providing a sediment source for beach progradation
in those areas. The most dynamic area is a barrier spit
complex that has been heavily impacted during construction
and reclamation of the nearby DEW Line site. Several
shore-normal ridges in this area have likely been modified
for use as barge landings, but now show a progression to
cuspate forelands and a related southward-prograding shoreparallel spit. Within the bight to the north, a 50 m wide
foreland with an erosional hotspot fronts the community of
Hall Beach. The foreland has occupied two quasi-stationary
locations. In location 1 it reached maximum extent in 1987,
then migrated approximately 250 m northwest by 1997 to
location 2, where it continues to prograde. The erosional
hotspot is located immediately north of the foreland and
threatens several residences. Shore protection was installed
in 2003 but was partly destroyed by a fall storm shortly
after completion and continues to succumb to sea ice and
wave impacts, possibly exacerbated by seepage. A subtle
headland north of the community anchors northwestward
directed spits and a breached spit-lagoon complex with spits
recurved southward into the lagoon. The morphology of
coastal features suggests bi-directional alongshore transport,
which appears to be important in controlling erosion and
deposition at Hall Beach. Continuing research is examining
storm waves and currents to gain a better understanding of
sediment transport and the impacts of changing climate on
coastal processes.
NITROUS OXIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN THE
AMUNDSEN GULF OF THE ARCTIC OCEAN
Maranger, Roxane1 ([email protected]), D. Nguyen1,
J.E. Tremblay2, G. Maltais-Landry1
Département des sciences biologiques, Université de
Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H2V 2X2
2
Département de biologie, Université Laval, Québec,
Québec, GIV 0A6
1
Nitrous oxide (N2O), a byproduct of both
nitrification and denitrification, is a potent greenhouse
gas with a global warming potential of 311 times greater
than CO2. Surpringly few measurements exist of N2O
concentrations in the ocean and none from the Arctic. We
measured N2O in the Amundsen Gulf in the high Canadian
Arctic from December 2007 until July 2008 in surface waters
and under the ice at several depths in the water column.
We observed an 50-60% increase in N2O concentrations
at all depths from December until the beginning April,
coinciding with an increase in the concentration of nitrate.
Concentrations of N2O remained high throughout April
and decreased during May. In a spatially explicit survey of
the Gulf during June and July, surface waters were always
slightly supersaturated (110%) but varied little among sites.
Given the observed increase N2O concentration with the
production of nitrate over winter and in the deeper waters
during the summer, nitrification is the most plausible
metabolic mechanism responsible for its production. Indeed
nitrification may be an important source of oragnic carbon
for the Arctic foodweb.
CHARACTERISTICS OF NARWHAL
VOCALIZATIONS FOR ACOUSTIC
MORNITORING
Marcoux, Marianne1 ([email protected]),
M. Auger-Méthé2 and M. Humphries1
Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Montréal,
Québec, H9X 3V9
2
Biology Department, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova
Scotia, B3H 4J1
1
Monitoring wildlife is essential to assess human
impacts. This is especially true for Arctic marine mammal
species that are both subjected to changes in their
environment and are harvested by local peoples. Because
marine mammals are vocal species, acoustic methods can be
used to monitor their population size and behaviour. As a
first step in designing an acoustic detection and monitoring
program, we characterized the acoustic repertoire of
narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in Milne Inlet, northern Baffin
Island. Narwhals produce characteristic whistle calls and we
analysed the whistles heard in one minute intervals from
35 hours of recordings. We quantified the calling rate, the
duration of whistles, the minimum and maximum frequency,
the number of inflection points and other features. We
also correlated the characteristics of whistles with the
behavioural states of narwhals. The acoustic frequency
produced by vessels that travelled in the area during the
recording period was also analyzed in order to determine
the possible impact of noise pollution on narwhals. Finally
we make recommendations for the implementation of an
acoustic monitoring program for narwhals in the Arctic.
119
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
LAKES IN THE CANADIAN REGIONAL
CLIMATE MODEL
Martynov, Andrey1 ([email protected]), L. Sushama1,
R. Laprise1
Canadian Regional Climate Modelling and Diagnostics
(CRCMD) Network, University
of Quebec in Montreal, Montreal (Quebec), Canada
Covering 9% of the Canadian territory, lakes are
an important element of Canadian climate system and are
essential for the regional climate modeling in Canada.
The current version of the Canadian Regional Climate
model (CRCM) incorporates a simple mixed layer lake
model, using the thermal flux residuals calculated by CRCM
using prescribed SST. This model simulates adequately
the influence of Great Lakes to the regional climate, but
not very flexible while changing domains due to the need
to recompute residues. In addition, this approach is not
applicable to the sub-grid lakes.
The next generation of the Canadian RCM will have many
advanced land-surface modules including interactive lakes,
both resolved and sub-grid type. The interactive coupling
of 1D lake models in CRCM is in progress. As a first
step, several lake models, including the Fresh water Lake
(FLake) and the Hostetler model were tested off-line in
conditions, reflecting different lake configurations (subgrid
and resolved, deep and shallow lakes). The second step,
including the development of the CRCM/lake models
interface, providing the interactive coupling of lake
models as well as tests and validation of coupled models,
is currently underway. First coupled simulations will be
presented and discussed.
1
OCEANIC FORCING OF RECENT WARMING IN
THE WESTERN ARCTIC
Maslowski, Wieslaw1 ([email protected]) and Jaclyn
Clement Kinney1
Department of Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School,
Monterey, CA 93943. USA
1
We analyze output from a high-resolution iceocean model of the pan-Arctic region forced with realistic
atmospheric data and validated with available observations
to determine the relative importance of internal oceanic
forcing of the recent Arctic sea ice melt. In particular, the
thermodynamic coupling at the ice-ocean interface in the
western Arctic Ocean is investigated. Under-ice ablation by
anomalously warm water advected from the Chukchi shelves
and distributed at the subsurface layer in the western Arctic
Ocean by mesoscale eddies is found to explain over 60% of
the total variance of sea ice thickness. We hypothesize that
the excess oceanic heat that in recent years has accumulated
below the surface during summer is a critical initial factor
in reducing ice concentration and thickness in the western
Arctic Ocean at the early melting season and onwards the
following year. Observational data of oceanic and sea ice
synoptic states such as collected during the IPY 20072008 and more realistic model representation of feedback
processes between the upper ocean and the atmosphere
under diminishing ice cover are critical to test this
hypothesis and to advance Arctic climate prediction.
MORE TALK, MORE ACTION : COOPERATIVE
APPROACHES FOR ADDRESSING CLIMATE
CHANGE ADAPTATION AT THE COMMUNITY
LEVEL IN NUNAVUT
Mate, David1 ([email protected]), Pugh, Lee Ann2,
Bowron, Beate3 Gearheard, Jake4, Illauq, Nick5, Gearheard,
Shari5, Ednie, Mark6, Forbes, Donald7 and Hart, Michelle8
Earth Sciences Sector, Natural Resources Canada, Québec,
Quebec, G1K 9A9
2
Department of Environment, Government of Nunavut,
Iqaluit, Nunavut, X0A 0H0
3
Canadian Institute of Planners, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5G3
4
Ilisaqsivik Society, Clyde River, Nunavut, X0A 0E0
5
Ittaq Heritage and Research Centre, Clyde River, Nunavut,
X0A 0E0
6
Earth Sciences Sector, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa,
Ontario, K1A 0E8
7
Earth Sciences Sector, Natural Resources Canada,
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, B2Y 4A2
8
Hamlet of Hall Beach, Hall Beach, Nunavut, X0A 0K0
1
Effective solutions for complex Arctic issues
such as climate change require cooperation between
communities, researchers and other decision-makers.
These collaborative relationships foster successful delivery
and impact of broad Arctic initiatives like ArcticNet and
International Polar Year. An ambitious and successful
approach for developing community-based cooperative
relationships in Nunavut has been underway since 2006.
This has been part of a large collaborative project initiated
by the Government of Nunavut, Natural Resources
Canada and the Canadian Institute of Planners. The goal
of this work is to link science, traditional knowledge
and territorial decision-making in order to build local
planning capacity and develop a Nunavut climate change
120
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
adaptation plan. To date, significant cooperative work has
been conducted in Clyde River, Hall Beach and Iqaluit and
some in Resolute, Arctic Bay, Pond Inlet, Qikiqtarjuaq,
Pangnirtung and Igloolik. New work and community
partnerships are being planned for 2008 in the Kivalliq and
Kitikmeot regions. The focus of this presentation will be
on the varied community-based approaches that have been
implemented in the above project. Examples from Clyde
River, Hall Beach and a new permafrost monitoring effort
will be used. Methods employed, lessons learned and the
impacts of these cooperative relationships will be discussed.
A comparison of cooperative relationships involving a
community-based NGO and hamlets will be provided as
well as a glimpse of an exciting new community-led research
centre (Ittaq Heritage and Research Centre, Clyde River).
In addition, a business case will be presented showing
how proper cooperative relationships have economic
benefits for communities and ensure successful delivery
for research projects. In summary, this presentation will
share experiences and provide information and advice to
assist other communities and researchers integrating local
expertise and scientific knowledge to help understand and
address local climate change issues.
context of near term, adaptive strategies and future adaptive
capacity. We apply a new institutional analysis approach
through an exploration of key linkages, relationships
and decision processes both within the civic government
structure and between the City and other jurisdictions and
levels of government, including two First Nations upon
whose traditional territory the City is situated. The goal is
to increase understanding of how the City of Whitehorse
works and thereby demonstrate the institutional capacity
of the City to adapt to a changing economy and a changing
environment.
Keywords: new institutionalism, adaptive capacity, social
capital, resilience, adaptation, climate change, governance,
sustainability.
DOES SEA ICE-ASSOCIATED VARIATION IN
DIET INFLUENCE THE TEMPORAL TRENDS
OF ORGANOHALOGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN
WESTERN HUDSON BAY POLAR BEARS?
McKinney, Melissa A.1,2 ([email protected]), E.
Peacock3 and R.J. Letcher1,2
Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa,
ON, Canada
2
Wildlife Toxicology and Disease Program, Wildlife and
Landscape Directorate, Science and Technology Branch,
Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
3
Department of Environment, Government of Nunavut,
Igloolik, NU, Canada
1
CLIMATE CHANGE AND INSTITUTIONAL
CAPACITY IN AN ARCTIC GATEWAY
COMMUNITY: A CAVIAR CASE STUDY OF THE
CITY OF WHITEHORSE
Matthews, Ralph1 ([email protected]) and R.
Sydneysmith1 ([email protected])
Department of Sociology, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1
1
This study is part of the international CAVIAR
Project (Climate Adaptation and Vulnerability in Arctic
Regions) funded by the International Polar Year and
led jointly by the Global Environmental Change Group
at University of Guelph, Canada and the Centre for
International Climate and Environmental Research,
Oslo, Norway. The focus on the City of Whitehorse,
Yukon provides a unique perspective on northern climate
vulnerability and adaptation issues through its focus on
a mid-size northern “Gateway City”. The presentation
discusses early results from first rounds of interviews in
which we explore issues of governance, planning, decision
making and organizational culture in the context of climate
and other changes facing the north. Working within the
framework of the CAVIAR project our specific focus is
on understanding the application of governance in the
Diet is the major route of organohalogen exposure
for top Arctic predators, like polar bears. Recent use of
stable isotopes and fatty acids as dietary tracers has revealed
differences in polar bear prey items at least over limited
time periods of 2-3 years, which has direct implications for
the interpretation of contaminant temporal trends. It has
been proposed that variation in the diet of Western Hudson
Bay (WHB) polar bears may be related to climate changeinduced, long term changes in ice coverage in the Bay, as
their main hunting location for marine mammals is the
winter sea ice. There has been a significant shift in the date
of ice break-up in WHB of approximately one week earlier
per decade over the last 30 years, coinciding with an increase
in mean annual air temperature over the same period as
measured at Churchill, Manitoba. In the present study, we
first investigated if dietary variation influences the temporal
trends of organohalogen contaminant concentrations in
polar bears. We analyzed archived fat samples of WHB
polar bears that were selected from years spanning 1991
to 2007 for stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) and fatty acids
121
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
(FA), as well as legacy chlorinated and emerging brominated
contaminants. Examining samples from all years together
demonstrated that, e.g., the sum-PCB concentrations were
correlated with δ13C values (r = 0.36, p = 0.007) and with
the FA index (represented by PC1 from a PCA of all dietary
FAs; r = -0.56, p = 0.000008), and that by controlling for
the influence of these diet variables, we were able to reduce
previously unexplained inter-annual variation in sum-PCB
concentrations. There was, however, no clear trend in δ13C
values or FA index over the entire 16 year time span, which
is probably due to the small number of years sampled
and the inter-annual fluctuation in diet. The date of ice
break-up has been occurring increasingly earlier, but also
shows large inter-annual fluctuation; we therefore examined
whether diet actually fluctuates as a function of ice breakup date. For the selected years, mean δ13C was positively
correlated with the ice break-up date. This supports the
hypothesis that temporal diet variation may, in part, be due
to climate change, but other influences cannot be ruled
out such as decreases in δ13C due to the incorporation
of δ13C-depleted CO2 from fossil fuel combustion into
Arctic marine food chains. In this study, we show that
organohalogen contaminant trends in WHB polar bears are
affected by alterations in diet, which may be mediated by ice
changes. As ice patterns shift in relation to climate change,
this research demonstrates that consideration of diet will
become increasingly useful for the interpretation of trends
and health consequences of contaminants for polar bears,
and possibly for other pagophilic Arctic species.
LATITUDINAL TRENDS IN PREDATION
PRESSURE: INVESTIGATING THE
VULNERABILITY OF SHOREBIRDS TO
CLIMATE INDUCED SHIFTS IN PREDATOR
COMPOSITION
McKinnon, Laura1 ([email protected]), P.A.
Smith2, F. Doyle3, J.L. Martin4, J. Bêty1, K. Abraham5, H.G.
Gilchrist2, E. Nol6, and R.I.G. Morrison2
Département de Biologie, Université du Québec à
Rimouski and Centre d’Études Nordiques, Rimouski,
Québec, G5L3A1
2
Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre
and Department of Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa,
Ontario, K1S5B6
3
Wildlife Dynamics Consulting, Telkwa, British Colombia,
V0J2X0
4
Département Dynamique des Systèmes Ecologiques,
Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Montpellier,
France
1
Wildlife Research & Development Section, Ontario
Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario,
K9J7B8
6
Ecology and Conservation Group, Environment and Life
Sciences Graduate Program and Biology Department, Trent
University, Peterborough, Ontario, K9J7B8
5
Recent studies have stressed the importance
of local interactions in defining species distributions
especially in the context of climate-induced shifts in species
distributions. Historically, species distribution models have
been rooted in simple species-environment relationships,
with little consideration for inter-specific interactions such
as predation. The extent to which local ecological processes
affect large scale bio-geographical processes, such as species
distributions, remains unclear. The ‘predation hypothesis’
suggests that the reduced predation pressure at higher
latitudes can be used to partly explain latitudinal gradients
in species richness. The eastern Canadian arctic exhibits
the greatest latitudinal range in shorebird distribution.
Shorebirds are among the longest distance migrants with
several species travelling up to 20,000 km from wintering
areas in South America to high arctic breeding grounds. It
remains a ‘migration paradox’ why long distance migrants
pass over suitable southern nesting habitats to nest in more
northern and often harsher climates of the high arctic. If
latitudinal trends in predation pressure exist in the arctic,
then reduced predation pressure at more northern sites
could compensate for increased costs of migration to these
sites. Here, we experimentally investigated spatial variation
in predation pressure on shorebirds by conducting artificial
nest experiments at 7 sites throughout the eastern Canadian
Arctic (Churchill, Akimiski, Is., Southampton Is., Coats Is.,
Prince Charles Is., Bylot Is., and Ellesmere Is.). Experiments
were conducted over a minimum of two years at each site
between 1996 and 2008 following a standardized protocol.
Survival analyses were conducted to test for the effects
of latitude, year and environmental variables. Testing for
a latitudinal gradient in predation pressure may confirm
its role in defining shorebird distribution in the arctic, and
reveal the vulnerability of shorebird populations to climate
induced shifts in predator composition.
122
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
DEVELOPING TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGICAL
INVENTORY METHODS THAT LINK
LAND SURFACE PROCESSES TO TUNDRA
ECOSYSTEMS IN TORNGAT MOUNTAIN
NATIONAL PARK RESERVE
FORECASTING THE SOLID-TO-LIQUID
RATIO OF SNOW PRECIPITATION IN HIGHRESOLUTION NWP MODELS
McLennan, Donald1 ([email protected]) and
Sergei Ponomarenko1
Recherche en Prevision Numerique, 2121 Trans-Canada
Highway, 5th floor, Dorval, QC, H9P 1J3
Parks Canada Agency, Ecological Integrity Branch, 25 rue
Eddy (25-4-S), Hull, QC, K1A 0M5
The horizontal grid-spacing of numerical weather
prediction models is continually increasing and highresolution cloud-resolving models are quickly becoming
important tools in operational meteorology. In these models,
the precipitation is predicted almost entirely from the cloud
microphysics parameterization scheme. The total frozen
precipitation comes from the sum of the precipitation of
the various ice-phase hydrometeor categories in the scheme.
Typically, the precipitation rate from the model is given
as the mass flux at the surface, which is used in turn to
compute the accumulated liquid-equivalent precipitation.
For some applications in the Arctic and other regions, the
depth of the unmelted snow that is forecast is desired.
Typically, this quantity is obtained by applying a solid-toliquid ratio, either an assumed value or one obtained by
some post-processing algorithm, to the forecast liquidequivalent amount. The methods, however, are generally
based on rules-of-thumb and do not always work well to
forecast snow depth.
In this study, we propose an approach of exploiting
information in the microphysics scheme to obtain an
estimate of the instantaneous bulk snow density. With
this, the volume flux of precipitating snow at the surface
can be obtained. The instantaneous solid-to-liquid ratio of
precipitating snow, which can change in time with changing
environmental conditions, can therefore be determined. The
approach to estimating the snow density is essentially to
compute a mass-weighted average of the bulk densities of
the precipitating ice-phase categories in the cloud scheme:
pristine ice crystals, large crystals/aggregates, and graupel
(rimed crystals). The bulk densities of pristine ice and
graupel are prescribed constants, while the density of the
large crystal/aggregate category is a diagnostic function
of the mean-mass equivalent-volume diameter, based on
distrometer measurements. While this method is simple
and still depends heavily on assumptions made in the
microphysics scheme, it is able to make use of information
in the model about the growth environment at given points
in time and space. For example, the solid-to-liquid ratio will
be relatively large, reflecting a low bulk snow density, for a
dry environment (i.e. no supercooled liquid water) in which
snow is grows by depostion only and the ratio will increase
further as the ambient temperate warms and the rate of
1
All of Canada’s national parks are in the process
of designing and developing ecological integrity (EI)
monitoring programs aimed at assessing and reporting
to Canadians any significant changes in park EI. Arctic
national parks have a special set of challenges to accomplish
this task, including the remoteness and size of the parks,
and the relatively subtle short and intermediate term
changes that may result from predicted climate change.
As a component of the design and implementation of EI
monitoring programs for arctic national parks, terrestrial
ecological inventories are being completed in 4 model
parks (Ivvavik NP, Torngat Mountains NPR, Wapusk NP,
Sirmilik NP) to provide baseline status of park terrestrial
ecosystems, and to link the distribution, composition and
structure of these ecosystems to the land surface processes
(for e.g., fluvial, depositional, aeolian, cryogenic) that
determine their distribution and character. A two-stage
approach is being developed where detailed ecosystem
mapping using high resolution aerial photography or satellite
imagery is being completed for a targeted ‘focal watershed’,
and intermediate scale satellite imagery (SPOT5) will be
used to complete the inventory across the park. In this
presentation we will show first year results from Torngat
Mountains NPR, including a Terrestrial Ecosystem Mapping
product for a focal watershed, McCornick Brook. We will
discuss the communities/ecotypes mapped, their links
to land surface processes, and how we intend to use this
information to design a long term EI monitoring strategy
for the watershed. We will also discuss the development of
vegetation classification using Canadian National Vegetation
Classification principles, how we use the vegetation
classification and community distribution to identify key
climatic zone boundaries (Submontane, Montane and
Alpine), and linkages between Coastal, Freshwater, Tundra,
and Glacier EI Indicators that are facilitated by this
inventory approach. Finally, we will outline plans to link the
detailed inventory to a broad scale terrestrial inventory for
the entire park.
Milbrandt, Jason ([email protected])
123
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
aggregation increases. On the other hand, if riming occurs
and graupel forms, the solid-to-liquid ratio will decrease.
A description of the method, as applied in the
cloud microphysics scheme of the Canadian GEM-LAM
model, will be presented along with demonstrations from
case studies on the GEM-LAM Arctic grid for cases in the
Baffin Island region.
A WINTER CARBON FLUX TIME SERIES IN
LAND-FAST SEA ICE
Miller, Lisa A.1 ([email protected]), Timothy
N. Papakyriakou2, Owen Owens2, Nes Sutherland1, R.
Macdonald1, and Alfonso Mucci3
Ocean Sciences Division, Institute of Ocean Sciences,
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2, Canada
2
Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of
Environment & Geography, University of Manitoba, 470
Wallace Bldg, 125 Drysart Road, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T
2N2, Canada.
3
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill
University, 3450 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3A
2A7, Canada
1
A winter time series (January – May) of carbon
fluxes and dynamics in land-fast ice of the southern
Beaufort Sea has shown that sea ice does not prevent airsea CO2 exchange. To the contrary, through deep winter
and into the start of the spring melt season, there appears
to have been a net carbon transport from the atmosphere
into the underlying water, via the sea ice. In deep winter, as
temperatures declined to their lowest values, a consistently
downward CO2 flux in the lower atmosphere was associated
with low inorganic carbon contents at the top of the sea ice
and very high pCO2 values within the ice, presumably due
to CaCO3 precipitation from highly concentrated brines. As
the season progressed, we observed very large fluxes (mainly
downward, but also some upward) in the atmospheric
boundary layer at times when the temperature was either
rising or at a temporary maximum, likely the result of
increasing ice permeability as brine channels expanded.
Throughout the time series, the total carbon content of the
ice increased significantly, but not enough to account for the
observed atmospheric fluxes. During the same time period,
the total carbon content of the surface waters below the ice
also increased, along with salinity, implying that the carbon
increase was due to drainage of ice brines. Because of the
uncertainties in the observed carbon fluxes and reservoirs,
we cannot say whether the budget is balanced for carbon
transfer from the atmosphere to the ice and into the water;
we can only say that some transport is occurring.
OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF SNOW
MICROPHYSICS IN ARCTIC MIXED-PHASE
CLOUDS
Morrison, Hugh1 ([email protected]), Amy Solomon2,
Matthew Shupe2, Ola Persson2, Jian-Wen Bao2, Paquita
Zuidema3, and Greg McFarquhar4
NCAR
NOAA
3
University of Miami
4
University of Illinois
1
2
Recent field experiments (e.g., SHEBA, MPACE,
ISDAC) have indicated the prevelance of mixed-phase
clouds in the Arctic, even at temperatures substantially
below freezing (less than -25 C). These clouds have a
large impact on the surface radiative fluxes and hence the
surface energy budget and sea ice mass balance. Despite
their importance, Arctic mixed-phase clouds are poorly
represented in current weather and climate models. Previous
studies have suggested that the treatment of ice and snow
microphysics plays a key role in simulating these clouds.
In this study, detailed observations of the snow particle
size distributions from SHEBA and MPACE are analyzed.
Results for low-level, shallow stratiform mixed-phase clouds
and deeper mixed-phase clouds associated with synoptic
disturbances are compared. It is found that the intercept and
slope of fitted exponential size distributions (for particles
larger than 100 microns) are much smaller in the shallow,
low-level mixed-phase clouds than the deeper clouds.
Implications for modeling of snow microphysical processes
are described. Finally, sensitivity of high-resolution
mesoscale model simulations of a low-level, mixed-phase
cloud observed during MPACE to the representation of the
snow size distribution are presented.
SEAFLOOR MAPPING OF THE CENTRAL
LABRADOR MARGIN: NEAR SURFACE
GEOLOGY AND GEOHAZARDS
Mosher, David C.1 ([email protected]), Sonnichsen,
G.V.1, Campbell, D.C.1, Piper, D.J.W.1, and Hughes Clarke,
J.E.2
Geological Survey of Canada - Atlantic, Natural Resources
Canada, PO Box 1006, Dartmouth, NS, B2Y 4A2
2
Ocean Mapping Group, Dept. Geodesy and Geomatics
Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton,
NB, E3B 5A3
1
124
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
The central Labrador margin is experiencing
renewed hydrocarbon exploration interests; 2008 land sales
commit a minimum of $180M to explore the region over
the next five years. The central Labrador continental slope is
being investigated to document seafloor instability features
and processes that may constrain hydrocarbon exploration
and development. Currently, there is minimal geoscience
knowledge or data availability to properly design or
regulate future deepwater drilling or development. Between
2005 and 2007, CCGS Amundsen collected 5730 km2 of
EM300 swath bathymetric data from 1000 to 3000 m water
depth, and follow-on geophysical and geological surveys
were conducted aboard CCGS Hudson. The resulting
reconnaissance-level data provide a regional geological
context to assess the nature, distribution and severity of
seafloor conditions and seabed instabilities.
The overall Quaternary geological architecture of
the Labrador margin is similar to southeastern Canadian
slopes, dominated by glacial processes. In the Labrador
margin case, however, glaciers reached the outer shelf
much later than to the south and there is an absence of
salt tectonics, a persistent and strong Labrador and North
Atlantic Deep current, and an abundance of near-surface
and surficial ice-rafted sediment. Multibeam data show the
degree of erosion of the Labrador margin is intensive but
highly variable. The Makkovik - Hopedale sector is highly
dissected, much like some of the eastern and western
parts of the Scotian margin, whereas in other areas there
is substantial net slope sediment accumulation, as off
Hamilton and southern Saglek Banks. Transverse troughs
(“saddles”) on the Labrador Shelf were conduits for ice
streams during glaciation and the sites of major sediment
input, creating trough-mouth fans on the continental slope
and rise. Erosional gullies and valleys on the upperslope
coalesce downslope to create a heavily incised margin,
probably resulting in coarse-grained sediment at or near the
seafloor. Stratigraphy in the flanks of the channels shows
a strong erosional phase followed by levee construction.
Additionally, BSRs are detected within these upper slope
sediments.
Similar to the southern Canadian margin, mass
transport deposits form a significant proportion of the
Quaternary sedimentary succession. Multibeam data
show large (50-100 m high) linear (1-5 km long) angular
protuberances standing proud of the seafloor at abyssal
depths. Correlation with seismic profiles show these features
to be the tops of protruding slide blocks transported within
a mass-transport deposit that is greater than 30,000 km2 in
area and hundred’s of metres thick. Bottom photos on these
features show them to be composed of diamict, thus likely
originating from shelf depths. From these preliminary data,
it would seem that risk of modern submarine landsliding
is low and similar to the Canadian margin to the south, but
significant coarse sediment in the shallow geologic section
due to more recent glacial deposition, IRD, allochthonous
blocks and erosional lag deposits will likely present
constraints to drilling and pipeline routing.
THE EFFECT OF CLIMATE, ENVIRONMENT
AND MAN ON VARIATIONS IN WILDLIFE
POPULATION FLUCTUATIONS IN GREENLAND
OVER 200 YEARS
Moshøj, Charlotte1,2 ([email protected]) & Mads. C.
Forchhammer1 & Valery Forbes2
Department of Arctic Environment, National
Environmental Research Institute, AU
2
Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change,
RUC
1
The underlying factors of species fluctuating
population dynamics has been the dominant focus of
attention in population ecology throughout much of this
century. In arctic regions where a severe climate with high
seasonal and annual variability and simplistic ecosystems
prevail, species of fish, birds and mammals display distinct
population fluctuations of varying temporal and spatial
scale. In Greenland, historical records, archaeological
findings and oral accounts passed on from Inuit elders all
document that the presence of wildlife species and their
population sizes have undergone pronounced fluctuations
throughout recordable historical time. The most detailed
accounts are found for the species that were harvested or
had economical value. While several recent studies from
northern latitudes have shown the relative roles of climate,
the exogenous and endogenous environment of species
and man as factors driving species population dynamics, the
relative contributions and potential interactions among these
factors remains unsolved. In Greenland, these fluctuations
in the harvests of individual species are believed to be
related to changes in climate, as well as variations in hunting
pressure. Dating back 200 years, these hunting records
therefore represent a unique time series for retrospective
modelling of annual and decadal fluctuations in relation to
long-term climatic data, environmental factors and temporal
variations in social and demographic parameters in the
existing society. The results of this study will model future
predictions of wildlife populations under changing climate
variables and human hunting pressure.
125
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
POLAR SUNRISE 2008 COMPARISON OF LIDAR
WATER VAPOR MEASUREMENTS FROM THE
IASOA PEARL OBSERVATORY IN EUREKA,
CANADA AND THE ACE SATELLITE
Moss, Andrea1 ([email protected]), R. J. Sica1 ([email protected]),
K. B. Strawbridge2, K. A. Walker3,4, G. L. Manney5,6, J. R.
Drummond7
1
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of
Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7
2
Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada,
Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Egbert,
Ontario, L0L 1N0
3
Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto,
Ontario, M5S 1A7
4
Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo,
Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1
5
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of
Technology, Pasadena, California, 91109
6
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Soccoro,
New Mexico, 87801
7
Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science,
Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1Z9
Water vapor is an important part of the atmosphere
due to its roles in the hydrological cycle, greenhouse heating
and ozone chemistry. The stratospheric ozone lidar located
at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory
(PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (80.2 °N, 86.4 °W) is
jointly operated by the Canadian Network for Detection
of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC) and Environment
Canada. It has recently been upgraded to measure water
vapor at 150 m vertical resolution in the polar troposphere
up to about six kilometers, with measurements extending
above this at lower vertical resolution. Successful validation
of these measurements will allow scientific studies to begin
with the coincident measurements from the lidar and suite
of CANDAC instruments at PEARL. In concert with the
lidar’s well-established ozone and temperature profiles these
new water vapor measurements will allow incidents of
stratosphere-troposphere exchange to be monitored as well
as, when combined with other measurements from PEARL
instrumentation, detailed studies of ozone chemistry
to be performed. With the motion of the polar vortex
bringing it overhead and away from PEARL during the
course of a campaign, it is possible to look at interactions
between upper tropospheric jets and the vortex. Water
vapor measurements have been taken and analyzed for
eleven nights during the Canadian Arctic ACE Validation
Campaign in February and March 2008. Calibration of the
lidar has been obtained by comparing lidar measurements
from seven clear nights to water vapor measurements from
the regular radiosonde launches at the Eureka Weather
Station. A consistent altitude dependent bias between
the two instruments is found, giving us confidence in the
calibration. Calibrated lidar measurements are currently
being compared to water vapour measurements from
overpasses by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment
(ACE) satellite, as well as compared to the ozone
measurements obtained during the campaign.
RIVERINE EXPORT AND THE EFFECTS OF
CIRCULATION ON DISSOLVED ORGANIC
CARBON IN THE HUDSON BAY SYSTEM,
CANADA
Mundy, C.J.1 ([email protected]), Michel
Gosselin1, Michel Starr2, Christine Michel3
Institut des sciences de la mer (ISMER), Université du
Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec, Canada, G5L 3A1
2
Institut Maurice-Lamontagne, Pêches et Océans Canada,
Mont-Joli, Québec, Canada, G5H 3Z4
3
Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada,
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, R3T 2N6
1
The distribution of dissolved organic carbon
(DOC) in Hudson Bay (HB), Foxe Basin (FB) and Hudson
Strait (HS) was examined during 1-14 August 2003.
The Hudson Bay system displayed relatively high DOC
concentrations with medians of 109, 90 and 100 µmol L-1
for measurements made in HB, FB and HS, respectively.
Waters were significantly modified as they circulated through
the Hudson Bay system. A dominant influence of marine
derived DOC was inferred for waters entering the system
from northern HS and FB into northwestern HB, whereas
a considerable input of terrigenous DOC was observed
as waters circulated cyclonically in HB. In particular,
DOC-laden rivers in southern Hudson Bay increased the
surface water DOC concentration, which then displayed
a conservative behavior as water exited the Bay along the
southern coast of HS. Additionally, the late stages of ice
melt observed during this study had a significant dilution
effect on surface DOC concentrations within eastern HB.
We estimated a near equal input and export of riverine
DOC in the HB system of ~5.5 Tg C yr-1. This estimate
equates to approximately 23% of the annual DOC input
from rivers to the Arctic Ocean and therefore represents an
important contribution of terrigenous carbon to northern
seas.
126
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
VERTICAL TRANSPORT AND MIXING OF
AEROSOLS AND MOISTURE IN POLAR
REGIONS BY COLD LOWS SYSTEMS
Munoz-Alpizar, Rodrigo1 ([email protected]), J.-P.
Blanchet1, P. Grenier1 and E. Girard1
Département des sciences de la Terre et de l’atmosphère,
Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H3C
3P8
1
Measurements from CloudSat and CALIPSO
reveal two types of very extensive thin ice clouds in Arctic
regions: thin precipitating ice cloud layers (TIC-2) detected
by both instruments and lofted thin ice cloud layers of
smaller crystals (TIC-1) seen by the lidar only The vertical
distribution of the TIC-1 and TIC-2 clouds is the result of
a combination of transport and microphysical processes
experienced by the air mass along its trajectory. An
important mechanism in the vertical transport and mixing
of aerosols and moisture is the presence of dominant quasistationary cyclones over the Arctic Ocean. These systems
are characterized by a deep vertical cold core in a dissipation
phase. The resulting stratified aerosol layers from these
systems have been observed between 3 and 7 km forming
with the cold air mass an aerosol dome across the Arctic
basin. The frequency and concentration of anthropogenic
aerosols often exceed that of most polluted regions of
the world at the same altitude. NARCM simulations agree
that the maximum aerosols concentration in the upper
troposphere may occur during winter above the remote
central Arctic. The role of cold lows and the significance
of the Arctic TIC layers in relation to aerosols will be
discussed. Implication of the dehydration-greenhouse
feedback (DGF) process and the slow aerosol-cloud
interaction observed over several days will be also discussed.
THE INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF ARCTIC
CHANGE: TOWARDS IMPROVING PAN-ARCTIC
OBSERVATIONS AND UNDERSTANDING OF
CHANGE
Murray, Marybeth
Executive Director of the International Study of Arctic
Change, Arctic Science Counsil, Stockholm, Sweden
The changes to climate and environment in the
Arctic are more rapid and profound than in most other
regions on the Earth. These changes already have large
impacts on the ecosystem and on the societies of those that
live in the Arctic. Many of the changes appear on a panArctic scale and are interrelated with the effects of human
response to changes in the living conditions. This complex
system of changes is poorly understood and to be able to
properly respond and to develop sustainable mitigation and
adaptation strategies, there is an urgent need to develop a
deeper knowledge of the causes to these changes and the
feedbacks in the entire system.
ISAC is a long-term, multidisciplinary program
developed to study the effects of environmental changes on
the circumpolar Arctic system and connections to the global
system. ISAC includes the physical and chemical, biological
and ecological as well socio-economic and cultural systems
and concerns both effects due to the enhanced greenhouse
warming and other anthropogenic activities, and the effects
of the natural variability affecting the Arctic. ISAC will take
a system approach to facilitate expansion and deepening
of our knowledge of the arctic system and to document
changes in the Arctic with respect to spatial and temporal
patterns. ISAC will engage in observational, synthesis and
modelling activities in response to societal and scientific
needs and will provide the necessary scientific background
for future impacts assessments.
WEST GREENLAND CURRENT VARIABILITY
Myers, Paul G.1 ([email protected]), M. Ribergaard2 and
C. Donnelly3
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences,
University of Alberta
2
Danish Meteorological Institute
3
Department of Geophysics, University of Calgary
1
Six historical summer sections across the West
Greenland Current are examined. Three sections have been
regularly occupied since the late 1950s, while the three
southern ones have been taken since 1984. Significant
variability in hydrography is observed on all sections, both
for the freshwater core of the coastal current on the shelf,
and for the warm and saltier Irminger Water offshore. This
includes the presence of significant amounts of low salinity
water in 2008. The section data is used in combination
with a theoretical frontal model to produce estimates of
velocities and transports. Maximum mean transports of
are observed at the Cape Desolation section. Transports
decrease to the north, with the majority of the exchange
with the interior of the Labrador Sea occurring between
Cape Desolation and Fylla Bank. Freshwater transport
is largest at Cape Desolation, with a significant flux into
the Labrador Sea interior as one goes north in the West
127
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Greenland Current. Recent changes in freshwater transport,
and the transport of salty Irminger Water, over recent
years will be examined. Linkage with two modelling efforts,
focussing on the North Atlantic, and the Canadian Arctic
Archipelago, will also be discussed.
HOW DO NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL TALL
SHRUB CANOPIES ALTER TUNDRA SOIL
TEMPERATURES?
Myers-Smith, Isla H.1 ([email protected]), Hik,
David S.1
Biological Sciences Department, University of Alberta,
Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E9
1
With a warming climate, northern ecosystems
will experience shifting ecosystem boundaries such as the
spread of tall shrubs into tundra communities. Rapid shrub
expansion has been documented in arctic Alaska and the
Northern Yukon and NWT using repeat aerial photography,
and satellite imagery shows a greening of the arctic tundra.
The correlation between warming and greening has been
used to link climate change with shrub expansion; however,
the exact mechanisms driving shrub increase are probably
a more complex interaction between nutrients, snow,
soil temperatures and disturbance. We are investigating
the spread of willows up slope into the alpine tundra of
the mountains around Kluane National Park to identify
mechanisms promoting shrub expansion and the impacts
on the tundra ecosystem. To measure the influence of
snow-capture by shrubs on soil warming, we manipulated
willow (Salix spp.) cover to compare soil temperatures
beneath plots with intact shrubs, shrubs removed, artificial
vegetation canopies, and adjacent, shrub-free tundra. In
summer, a shrub canopy can shade the ground surface, and
in winter, snow trapping can insulate the soil. Enhanced
nutrient cycling from warmer winter soil conditions may
provide a positive feedback mechanism promoting the
expansion of shrubs in the arctic. Results from the first year
of our experiment indicated that a shrub canopy cooled
soils by a maximum of 3.5ºC at 2 cm depth and 2.8ºC at
5cm depth across the 2008 growing season, and warmed
soils by as much as 10.8ºC at 2cm depth and 8.8ºC at 5cm
depth over 2007-2008 the winter. Shrub plots had 21cm
greater snow depth in January 2008 than adjacent shrubfree plots. Artificial shrub canopies and shrub removals
functioned similarly to unmanipulated shrub and tundra
plots indicating that the shrub canopy, rather than the soil
composition or moss cover, is the major factor influencing
the soil thermal regime in this alpine tundra ecosystem.
SEASONAL AND INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY
OF LIPID RESERVES IN OITHONA SIMILIS
(CYCLOPOIDA) IN AN ARCTIC FJORD
Narcy, Fanny1,2,3 ([email protected]), S. Gasparini1, P.
Mayzaud1 and S. Falk-Petersen2,3
1
UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7093, Laboratoire
d’Océanographie de Villefranche, F-06230 Villefranche-surmer, France
2
Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsø, Norway
3
Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of
Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway
Despite their high abundance, small copepods
(<1mm) are usually not considered when it comes to
energy transfer in polar pelagic ecosystems. Among them,
Oithona similis (Cyclopoida) is a cosmopolitan and ubiquitous
copepod which might thus not be affected by the reduction
or different timing of ice-cover in the Arctic. The lipid
storage of the O. similis was investigated from early spring
to late summer 2006 and 2007 in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard,
Norway), using both optical and biochemical approaches.
The volume of lipid droplets in each individual reflected
the amount of stored wax esters, thus seasonal changes
of lipid storage coupled with informative inter-individual
variability were obtained. The seasonal pattern showed an
increase in lipid store during the spring bloom, starting
before the chlorophyll a maximum for both copepodids
stage V and females. Females used those reserves during the
main reproductive event in June. Individual variability was
very high, with a significant proportion of copepods having
no lipid droplet while others were lipid rich. Particularly
in autumn, females could have different age and feeding
history due to the overlap of generation. Consideration of
intra-population variability in lipid storage improved our
understanding of O. similis’s ecology and life cycle.
Integrating Science and Traditional
Knowledge in the Inuvialuit
Settlement Region: Perspectives from
a Beluga Community Based Monitoring
Program
Nasogaluak, Shelia1 ([email protected]), Lisa L.
Loseto1,2, Nellie Pokiak1,3
Fisheries Joint Management Committee, Inuvik NT
University of Victoria/Fisheries and Oceans Canada,
Sidney BC
3
Tuktoyaktuk NT
1
2
128
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Since the 1980’s beluga whales have been sampled
from subsistence hunts by communities in the Inuvialuit
Settlement Region (ISR) for contaminant and health
research. The partnership between science and communities
has resulted in one of the largest available long term
data sets for an arctic marine mammal in Canada. The
collaboration was largely fostered by the Fisheries Joint
Management Committee (FJMC), a co-management body
representing the Inuvialuit and Government of Canada.
FJMC was created out of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement
as the first of its kind in the Northwest Territories to
meet some of the goals of the land claim. The FJMC
was developed based on previous successes using comanagement; the model is now being used in other land
claimant groups as a blueprint. FJMC is responsible for the
collection of harvest information of subsistence fisheries
and makes recommendations on fish and marine mammal
quotas. To fulfill the co-management mandate information
provided from science and traditional knowledge are
needed. Here we present a program that bridges science and
community based monitoring to examine the successes and
next steps needed to enhance TK and science integration
into co-management.
In the year 2000 a community based monitoring
program was based out of Hendrickson Island, near
Tuktoyaktuk NT in partnership with the community, FJMC
and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Monitors at
Hendrickson Island work closely with all hunters to collect
samples as well as record observational information. The
data and samples have been used by various researchers
to address questions ranging from contaminant levels, to
diet and health. The success of the Hendrickson Island
beluga community based monitoring program has attracted
new researchers and new questions. This will increase the
capacity of the program to address issues ranging from
local to global concerns as well as increase the capacity
for community based monitoring. Given these successes,
the community based monitoring program is beginning
to address on how to better incorporate community
perspectives. This phase brings new and unique challenges
that science has not fully addressed in past programs.
Here we present and discuss the future directions of TK
and science integration in community based monitoring
programs.
ARE INUIT PROTECTED AGAINST
DELETERIOUS EFFECT OF TRADITIONAL
CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS FOR
ATHEROSCLEROSIS?
Noël, Martin1 ([email protected]), ML ChateauDegat1, E. Counil1, E. Laouan-Sidi1, S. Déry1, E. Dewailly1
Unité de recherche en santé publique, Centre Hospitalier
Universitaire du Québec (CHUQ), Université Laval,
Québec, G1V 2M2
1
Introduction: Prospective studies reported an
association between subclinical atherosclerosis evaluated
by ultrasonographic carotid intimal to medial thickness
(CIMT) with traditional risk factors for cardiovascular
disease (CVD). However, less is known for subjects whom
diet is particularly rich with omega-3 (n-3) which has been
suggested to convey cardioprotective effect. We thought to
determine if Inuit’s traditional diet high in marine n-3 have
an impact on CIMT.
Methods: The near and far wall of both common CIMT,
free of plaque, were measured in randomly selected Inuit
(n=272) from Nunavik older than 40 years (range 4074) who participated in the 2004 Nunavik Health Survey.
Prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension
(HBP) were confirmed from medical files. Membrane
red blood cell phospholipids fatty acid composition was
determine from fasting blood samples and body mass
index (BMI) from anthropometric measurements. Groups
comparisons of CIMT were calculated using analysis of
variance (ANOVA) adjusted not only for age and gender
but also in order to take into account the complex sampling
strategy.
Results: Mean CIMT was lower compared with what is
currently being reported for southerners (0.57 ± 0.18 mm)
and n-3 expressed as a percentage of total fatty acid in the
red blood cell membrane phospholipids was higher (12.4 ±
3.4%). There was no difference of CIMT between DM and
none DM group (0.53 ± 0.14 vs 0.57 ± 0.13 mm; p=0.17)
as well as between hypertensive groups (0.59 ± 0.14 mm
vs 0.61 ± 0.24 mm; p=0.06). When categorized in groups
of normal (BMI<25), overweight (BMI 25-30) and obese
(BMI≥30), CIMT did not differ (0.53 ± 0.15, 0.58 ± 0.17,
0.59 ± 0.15 mm respectively; p=0.54). Age and gender
positively correlate with CIMT.
Conclusion: Despite the fact that CIMT has been
suggested to further refine CVD assessment, it may not
be the case in Inuit as it is not well correlated with some
traditional risk factors. Our results also suggest that high
concentration of n-3 in the red blood cell membrane
may have atherosclerotic protective effect in the presence
129
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
of risk factors for CVD. Further analysis of other pro
atherosclerotic risk factors are needed to better understand
our findings.
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SULPHUR
DIOXIDE, SULPHATE AEROSOLS AND
DIMETHYLSULPHIDE IN THE ARCTIC
ATMOSPHERE
Norman, Ann-Lise1 ([email protected]), O.
Rempillo1, A.M. Seguin1, S. Sharma2
1
Department of Physics & Astronomy, The University of
Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4
2
Climate Division, Science and Technology Branch,
Environment Canada, 4900 Dufferin St. Toronto Ontario,
M3H 5T4
Where and when aerosol initiation occurs in the
arctic boundary layer are important factors to consider if we
are to improve estimates of the direction and magnitude of
radiative effects from biotic emissions. Measurements of the
concentration of a reduced sulphur compound associated
with biota in the surface ocean, dimethylsulohide, and its
oxidation products, sulphur dioxide and sulphate, were made
aboard the Canadian Coast Guard ship, the Amundsen,
through the Northwest Passage in the fall of 2007, and in
the eastern arctic in 2008. Results from a previous study
of sulphate from dimethylsulphide oxidation for aerosols
at Alert, Nunavut, showed an increase in this source of
atmospheric sulphur during the fall and early winter over the
period 1993-2003. Does this reflect a relationship between
sulphur emissions from algae and the reduction of multiyear ice? Atmospheric sulphur compounds were studied
with the use of isotope apportionment to discriminate
between anthropogenic and biogenic sulphur. Comparisons
of the data with observations of sea-ice conditions and
atmospheric conditions will be discussed.
LIPID CLASSES METABOLISM OF THE ARCTIC
AMPHIPOD THEMISTO LIBELLULA: GROWTH
AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
Noyon, Margaux1,2 ([email protected]), Stéphane
Gasparini1,2 and Patrick Mayzaud1,2
UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7093, Laboratoire
d’Océanographie de Villefranche, F-06230, Villefranche-surmer, France
2
CNRS, UMR 7093, Laboratoire d’Océanographie de
Villefranche, F-06230, Villefranche-sur-mer, France
1
Total lipid and lipid classes composition of
the pelagic amphipod Themisto libellula were determined
for different size classes (4mm to 40mm), from May to
September 2006 and 2007 in two fjords in Svalbard. High
amount of lipid (0.71 up to 21.06 % wet weight) were
found with dominance of either triglycerides (TAG), wax
esters (WE) or phospholipids (PL). In 2006, lipid dynamic
of newly recruited individuals revealed a continuous
deposition of neutral lipid along the somatic growth,
mainly WE and to a lesser extent TAG. In 2007, organisms
differed significantly from this pattern: low neutral lipids
were accumulated during spring and summer and thus PL
constituted the dominant class (45% of the total lipid in
mean). PL were also positively correlated with total lipid
content suggesting a potential role in lipid storage. In
addition, low levels of biochemical condition indexes were
observed in 2007 and could be due to changes in food
quality and/or availability for T.libellula. This hypothesis can
be regarded in relation with higher sea water temperature in
2007 than in 2006 which is linked to the amount of Atlantic
water in the West Spitsbergen Current. This study gives
insights on the potential implication of Arctic warming on
T.libellula lipid deposition and, to a larger extent on energy
transfer through the arctic marine food web due to its key
role as a link between herbivorous zooplankton and higher
trophic levels.
CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC –
PERSPECTIVES TO ADAPTATION
Numminen, Lotta ([email protected])
The Finnish Institute of International Affairs, Helsinki,
00160 Finland
Climate change in the Arctic – perspectives to
adaptation
Climate change causes melting of Arctic sea ice,
and the Arctic region is warming faster than the rest of
the world. Although the new economic opportunities
are very relevant in the future development in the Arctic,
their implications for the Arctic environment and present
climate change may have even greater impacts on the Arctic
communities. These communities need to adapt.
Sometimes adaptation has been viewed in a
simplistic manner. According to such view, adaptation
means just replacing of one renewable resource base with
another one. The main argument of my presentation
is that adaptation in the Arctic is complex and multidimensional. I want to provide perspectives to adaptation
130
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
in Arctic communities from a case study considering
Inuit in Greenland. I show that the Greenland Inuit have
throughout the history been challenged by environmental
(and other) change and I give perspectives and examples to
how adaptation has taken place.
The Inuit have been able to adapt, for example,
because of their flexible and highly developed hunting
techniques and equipments on land, sea, and ice. They have
been able to use large and varying renewable resource base
and they have diversified subsistence activities. The Inuit
have also been familiar with environmental variations. Very
important has been that the Inuit were mobile and they
established flexible settlements. The society based on welldefined rules and practices, which protected its members.
In the 1900s, the Greenlandic society had to adapt
the whole national economy in a new environmental (and
market) situation, which had great effects on people’s spatial
organization. The case of Greenland is a success story of
adaptation, in a sense the Inuit have been able to survive
in marginalized environmental conditions. I point out in
my presentation that adaptation has required very much
flexibility. Adaptation has also been a process that has
affected the society in multiple levels, which have caused
changes from household level to entire national economy.
It is important to learn lessons from the past, but
one has also to understand that the situation with melting
ice will cause totally new situations to adapt to. Great
flexibility will be required, and close monitoring of changes
in the environment.
CURRENT STATUS OF THE SOUTHERN
HUDSON BAY POLAR BEAR POPULATION
Obbard, Martyn ([email protected])
Wildlife Research and Development Section, Ontario
Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario, K9J
7B8
Polar bears in Hudson Bay are at risk due to
changes to the distribution and duration of sea ice that have
already occurred or are predicted to occur in the future. For
example, the Western Hudson Bay population has shown
declines in body condition and has declined in abundance
by >20% in the past 2 decades. The Southern Hudson
Bay population is less well studied and its status is less well
known. However, recent work indicates that body condition
for all age and sex classes declined significantly between
1986 and 2005. Results of a recently-completed capturerecapture study show that there has been no decline in
abundance in the past 2 decades; however, there is evidence
of declines in survival for several age and sex classes. This
information, coupled with the projected changes to sea
ice in the future, suggests that the Southern Hudson Bay
population may be at a tipping point. Declines in abundance
similar to those experienced by the Western Hudson Bay
population can be expected in the near future.
APPROACHES TO MONITORING NORTHERN
VEGETATION CHANGE WITH SATELLITE
REMOTE SENSING
Olthof, Ian1 ([email protected]), R. Latifovic1 and D.
Pouliot1
Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources
Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0Y7
1
Northern vegetation changes have local implications
for wildlife and the northern communities that rely on
their populations for food. They also have farther-reaching
implications on feedbacks to the global climate system,
such as albedo. Vegetation changes in Canada’s northern
regions due to climate warming have been documented
through experimental warming, anecdotal evidence and
plot-based analyses in few, select areas in the north. Remote
sensing provides the ability to assess and monitor these
changes across vast, distant northern regions. Researchers
have documented widespread changes in satellite-based
vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference
Vegetation Index (NDVI), across Northern Canada and
Alaska and have speculated that these changes are caused
by increasing shrub and graminoid biomass resulting from
temperature fertilization. This presentation highlights some
of the approaches used to monitor northern vegetation
change based on archived satellite remote sensing data.
Medium resolution (~30m) sensors such as Landsat provide
spatial detail on the land surface, but are acquired every
14 days over a given point on the earth’s surface. Usable
Landsat data are further reduced by cloud cover and a short
growing season in the north. Coarse resolution (1km) data
from sensors such as AVHRR provide daily observation
over all of Canada, increasing the probability of acquiring
frequent cloud-free surface measurements. At the Canada
Centre for Remote Sensing, we have combined the best
attributes of both data types by merging the high spatial
frequency information from Landsat with the high temporal
frequency of coarse resolution sensors to monitor northern
vegetation change. We used 30-m medium resolution
land cover maps generated from Landsat data to detect
homogeneous vegetation targets that are subsequently
monitored through time using frequent coarse resolution
131
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
satellite measurements from sensors such as AVHRR. In
contrast to other studies that have examined change across
all vegetation types simultaneously, this approach allows us
to monitor vegetation-specific change. Examples of this
approach include investigation of the effects of short-term
temperature anomalies that enhance vascular vegetation
productivity while suppressing non-vascular vegetation
types. From this investigation, we show that the outcome of
more frequent temperature anomalies leads to longer-term
vegetation composition change.
NUNAVIK WILDLIFE AND YOU, WILDLIFE
EDUCATION PROGRAM
Ostiguy, Diane ([email protected])
Ministère des ressources naturelles et de la faune, Direction
du développement socio-économique, des partenariats et
de l’éducation, 880 chemin Sainte-Foy 2e étage, Québec,
Québec, G1S 4X4
Nunavik is a vast territory that spans more than
500,000 km2 and that is home to an incredible abundance
of natural resources. The exploitation of these resources
may, in some cases, jeopardize animal populations and
habitats. The Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de
la Faune, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, and the Kativik
School Board have agreed to pool their awareness
promotion and education efforts when it comes to wildlife
resources in Northern Quebec, to insure the sustainable
wildlife exploitation.
The educational program entitled “Nunavik Wildlife
and you” complements the teaching program and develops
the notion of the sustainable use and management of
wildlife resources and species in a precarious situation.
This program allows students to reflect on the conditions
necessary for the renewal of wildlife. The goal of the
program: Bring participants to understand that wildlife, as
a renewable natural resource, must benefit from favourable
conditions to maintain its populations at acceptable levels.
The “Nunavik Wildlife and you” program adheres
to the main orientations and the aims of the Quebec
Education Program. The activities proposed by the program
are in line with the mission statement of the Kativik School
Board.
The educational program is given by two officers in
the presence of the teacher. They have received a formation
and the material needed to visit the schools. Before the
officer’s visit, the teacher must do preparatory activities such
as, illustrating a scene that represents a form of wildlife use
by humans. The drawings will then be on line in the drawing
gallery.
The visit is made up of two main parts. During
the first part (half a day), the officers begin by looking at
students’ drawings. They discuss with students about their
perceptions of wildlife. Afterwards, with the help of a
visual presentation, students discover Nunavik wildlife. To
conclude this first part, young people participate in a quiz to
learn about the role of wildlife protection officers.
During the second part (half a day), various
activities centering on the Beluga Whale allow students to
infer the two essential conditions for the renewal of wildlife.
That way, students are able to validate the hypotheses put
forward during the preparatory activities. They locate the
various Beluga Whale populations on a map; they discover
the biology and anatomy of this marine mammal; they have
the opportunity to handle anatomical parts of the Beluga
Whale; upon reading a comic strip, students they have
to take a position regarding the behaviour of a character
during a hunting activity.
Last year, for the first year the program was offered,
103 students in 9 communities were visited.
CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE BUILT
COMMUNITY: PRACTICAL LESSONS FOR
ADAPTATION GOVERNANCE
Parewick, Kathleen1 ([email protected]), N. Catto1,
D.L. Forbes1,2, S. Solomon2, E. Edinger3
Department of Geography, Memorial University of
Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, A1B 3X9
2
Natural Resources Canada, Bedford Institute of
Oceanography, 1 Challenger Drive, P.O. Box 1006,
Dartmouth, NS B2Y 4A2
3
Departments of Geography and Biology, Memorial
University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, A1B 3X9
1
Climate and coastal changes have been monitored
in four small communities across the Canadian Arctic.
The most pressing physical hazards were observed in
Tuktoyaktuk, NWT where erosive storm action and
floods act on low-lying thermokarst terrain and shoreline
infrastructure. Sachs Harbour, NWT is also experiencing
rapid coastal erosion and permafrost ablation, although
risks are moderated by the greater elevation of the townsite.
Relatively few physical hazards were identified in Gjoa
Haven, NU but a sudden reservoir failure above the
townsite in 2005 highlighted latent risks in infrastructure
engineered to suit former climatic norms. Preliminary
assessment of Hall Beach, NU places it in a moderate
physical hazard category, with several residences and other
132
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
buildings subject to shoreline erosion. In concert with
local physical hazard evaluations, community resilience
assessments have been undertaken in three of the coastal
communities. They reveal significant community adaptation
challenges stemming from human resource, organizational
and relational factors. This approach leads to a working
understanding of the many cross-scale interactions that
ongoing physical changes are precipitating in tandem
with globalizing economic and social influences on
northern populations. Rapid changes in ice-rich terrain
have raised concerns in relation to traditional Inuit
livelihoods, knowledge and practises, but significant
implications for northern community governance must
also be recognized. Resilience is not an absolute but rather
a dynamic, composite property of communities. From
an adaptive system perspective, an apparent decline in a
physical or ‘resource’ dimension of the community, can
be responded to and compensated for to some extent
by other socio-ecological system dimensions - people,
organizations and the relationships that bind them to the
land and one another. Taking climate change into account
regularly entails a variety of site-specific responses to
apparent physical changes. In all four communities, there
are buildings and other municipal infrastructure at risk from
flooding, erosion or other mass movements necessitating
removal or relocation. Identifying less affected sites for new
development is often challenging. Tuktoyaktuk and Sachs
Harbour have very little suitable land remaining within
their existing municipal areas. Across the region, public
works design and management tends to react to rather
than anticipate forthcoming changes, and inter-agency
conflicts regularly stall responsive efforts. The importance
of institutional memory is also underappreciated: human
resource turn-over interferes with the transmission of
‘standard’ and acquired operational procedures, leading to
an erosion of preventative maintenance and even the loss of
key infrastructure. Identified differences in resiliency among
communities have practical climate change adaptation policy
implications. They suggest mechanisms to strategically
enhance or restore critical capacities (e.g. countering losses
of institutional memory with appropriately delivered human
resource development) and so build greater adaptability into
every aspect of the community - “built” and otherwise.
ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE
ARCTIC: KNOWLEDGE TRANSMISSION AND
INFORMATION EXCHANGE AMONG INUIT IN
AN ARCTIC COMMUNITY
Pearce, Tristan1 ([email protected]), Smit, Barry1
Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph,
Ontario, N1G 2W1
1
This presentation outlines the rationale and
objectives of research that documents and describes
the degree to which the transmission and exchange of
knowledge about the local environment and related
skill sets among Inuit in an arctic community mediates
vulnerability and shapes adaptation to climate change. It is
well documented that climate change, together with other
social, economic, and political changes, is already being
experienced in the Arctic with implications for Inuit and the
natural resources on which they depend. Previous research
on vulnerability to climate change in the Arctic identified the
transmission of environmental knowledge and related skill
sets and the strength of social networks as key determinants
of Inuit adaptive capacity to climate change. This collective
social memory affords Inuit dynamic and flexible use of the
environment and its resources and represents an asset base
from which adaptations can be made to deal with routine
and novel events. However, Inuit have expressed concern
that as a result of rapid societal changes, the traditional
modes of intergenerational knowledge transmission by
which Inuit have developed the skills to hunt safely and
successfully no longer function effectively. Research has
reported that some knowledge and skills have been lost,
some are being transmitted later in life and incompletely,
and others are new skills that the older generation did not
possess. However, little data on the nature and processes
of knowledge transmission have been presented to explain
these observations. This research analyzes the vertical (older
to younger) and horizontal (hunter to hunter) transmission
and exchange of knowledge about the local environment
and related skill sets among Inuit in the community of
Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada. The results
are expected to provide a greater understanding of Inuit
social relationships and the means by which a traditional
culture adapts to a novel and challenging social and physical
environment.
133
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN A CHANGING
ARCTIC: RIVER PLUMES, LONGSHORE
TRANSPORT AND COASTAL EROSION
Peckham, Scott ([email protected])
INSTAAR, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado,
80020
Reduced sea-ice cover and warmer temperatures
are leading to rapid changes along Arctic coasts. Where
fast ice once protected coastlines from erosion during the
worst winter storms, there is now an increased liklihood
of a large fetch and increased nearshore transport due
to storm surge and wave-induced currents. The relative
contributions of some sediment transport processes like
longshore transport and bluff collapse are increasing while
the contribution of others, such as ice-push (ivus) appears
to be decreasing. Sediment within watersheds and along
coastlines is now more likely to be mobilized and is likely
to be carried further offshore by river plumes. While the
net effect of these changes is difficult to predict, there are a
number of hydrologic and sediment transport models that
have been designed for use in a high-latitude setting. This
talk will discuss some of these existing models and how they
tend to differ from the models that are used in temperate
regions. A particular challenge is that some of the physical
processes that are important in the Arctic are much less well
understood and new research and data is needed in order to
model them with greater confidence.
POPULATION GENETICS OF CANADIAN
RINGED SEALS: PROBING DEEPER INTO
NATURE’S APPROXIMATION OF PANMIXIA
Petersen, Stephen D.1,2 ([email protected]),
S.H. Ferguson1,2, M. Chambellant2 and P.J. Wilson3
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent,
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, R3T 2N6
2
Department of Biological Sciences, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2
3
Department of Biology and Forensic Science Program,
Natural Resources DNA Profiling and Forensic Centre,
Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, K9J 7B8
1
Furthermore, quantifying pattern of gene flow will be
increasingly important for ice-associated species that may
be facing range contraction or fragmentation due to climate
warming. Ringed seals (Pusa [=Phoca] hispida) are one such
species where gene flow among regions is high but that
are also predicted to lose breeding ice habitat in the next
50 years. To investigate the patterns of gene flow in the
Canadian Arctic, 890 ringed seals collected between 1992
and 2005 from 12 locations between Sanikiluaq in the
south to Eureka in the north. These seals were genetically
profiled at 14 microsatellite loci and similar to previous
research, we observed high levels of heterozygosity (Hobs
= 0.83) and mean number of alleles per locus (Na = 19.9).
Bayesian analysis to determine the number of genetic
clusters in the data indicated the presence of a single
unit. Traditional frequency based analyses reflected the
low genetic differentiation among locations (< 0.0165).
However, statistically significant deviations were identified
that differentiated Eureka from Arviat and Sanikiluaq.
A weak but significant pattern of isolation-by-distance
was identified (R2 = 0.145, P = 0.02) and the first two
axis of a correspondance analysis encapsulated a northsouth cline in allele frequencies. To further explore this
relationship, individual- and location-based analyses were
also conducted using a graph theoretic approach. Individualbased analyses revealed that the network of sampled ringed
seals is highly connected (average path length = 1.87), has
higher clustering coefficient than expected (transitivity =
0.33), and an approximately normal degree distribution; all
suggestive of a small-world network. These networks are
characterized by clusters of highly connected individuals
and are hypothesized to be robust to random removal of
individuals. This type of structure has implications for
genetic drift should clusters become isolated. Locationbased analysis revealed a north-south cline and that
locations that are farthest north (Grise Fiord and Eureka)
and farthest south (Arviat and Sanikiluaq) were the least
connected nodes in the network. Combined, these results
reflect a high level of gene flow that is currently occurring
or has occurred in the recent past among areas of the
Arctic. Local breeding and limited dispersal on some scale,
has created a pattern of isolation-by-distance. The presence
of a north-south cline and the higher connectedness of
mid-Arctic seals suggest that maintaining healthy local
populations in these areas will be critical for maintaining
overall population connectivity.
Circumpolar marine species with large population
sizes present a unique challenge for population genetics,
in that many approximate panmixia. However, the
identification of a single population does not adequately
describe the functional genetic structure of that population.
134
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
VARIABILITY OF OCEANOGRAPHIC AND ICE
PROPERTIES IN THE EASTERN CANADIAN
ARCTIC ARCHIPELAGO
Peterson, Ingrid1 ([email protected]), S.
Prinsenberg1, J. Hamilton1, R. Pettipas1
Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Fisheries and Oceans
Canada, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, B2Y 4A2
1
Year-long moorings have been in place since
August 1998 in eastern Barrow Strait to measure pack ice
properties and oceanographic transports of Arctic surface
waters passing through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. In
addition, ice charts provide a 28-year time series describing
the interannual variability of mobile and land-fast pack ice
conditions in eastern Parry Channel. The volume transport
estimated from the moorings shows large interannual
variability, but generally has a maximum in the summer
and a minimum in the autumn. Regression analysis with
the Arctic wind field shows that the highest correlation
between monthly transport anomalies in Barrow Strait is
with far-field wind anomalies at a grid location west of
Parry Channel in the Canadian Beaufort Sea some 1000km
from the mooring site. This is consistent with the flow being
driven by a sea level difference between opposite ends of
the Passage, and the difference being determined by setup
caused by alongshore winds in the Beaufort Sea. In contrast,
local atmospheric conditions determine the position of the
spring consolidated ice edge in eastern Parry Channel, and
therefore ice velocities measured at the mooring site.
FOSTERING STEWARDSHIP OF MARINE
MAMMALS IN COASTAL COMMUNITIES:
INSIGHTS FROM THE B.C. CETACEAN
SIGHTINGS NETWORK
Phillips, Alana V.1, Lance Barrett-Lennard1 ([email protected]) and D. Sandilands1
Cetacean Research Lab, Vancouver Aquarium, PO Box
3232, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6B 3X8
1
Community-based monitoring programs for
marine mammals will become increasingly important
as environmental conditions change in the Arctic. The
developing Arctic Observation Network will achieve two
important, mutually reinforcing goals: efficient and costeffective acquisition of reliable data on relative density
and seasonal distribution of cetaceans and pinnipeds in
the Arctic, and fostering a tradition-based stewardship
ethic in northern communities. We present insights from a
well-established program for monitoring marine mammal
populations using a network of volunteer observers in
British Columbia. By sharing the successes and pitfalls
of our program, we aim to provide Arctic researchers
with experiences that may be relevant to the new Arctic
Observation Network. Since 1999, the B.C. Cetacean
Sightings Network (BCCSN) has worked to foster
stewardship of at-risk marine species, by collecting sightings
of cetaceans and sea turtles and providing outreach to
coastal communities. Our sightings database currently
includes 40,000 records of 21 species of cetaceans and
2 species of sea turtles; sightings are reported via a tollfree hotline, email, webform, or logbook. Our network
of over 1,800 observers includes ecotourism companies,
government agencies, academic researchers, lighthouse
keepers and commercial fishers, as well as recreational
boaters and waterfront residents. Over half our sightings
are received via a logbook program, which enables mariners
who frequently encounter marine mammals to efficiently
compile their sightings. Our observers are our most valuable
asset, and observer retention is predicated on receiving
personal responses to each report submitted. We also
employ numerous other strategies to recognize and retain
observers, such as producing customized maps showing
individual sightings for top observers. We provide data
upon request for conservation and research purposes, to
agencies such as DFO, Parks agencies, and consulting firms
conducting environmental impact assessments. Because
our data are collected opportunistically, they are necessarily
limited by observer effort, particularly in areas and seasons
that aren’t favourable for ocean travel. We are implementing
GIS modelling to predict levels of observer effort based
on factors such as proximity to urban areas, fishing activity
and vessel traffic. We also use two confidence metrics to
assess the reliability of species identification in sightings:
observers rate their confidence in each sighting report
using a 1-5 scale, and we rate observers’ expertise similarly.
These assessments enable us to filter our data at various
tolerance levels for different analyses. Our outreach efforts
are effective in engaging coastal residents and recruiting
new observers. We conduct community presentations that
inform people about threats to marine mammals, and
inspire them to minimize their impact on these species. We
also use a blog on our website to provide news about marine
conservation. Some other sightings networks provide realtime information on locations of their target species. In
B.C., however, the rapid growth of the whale watching
industry may result in increased disturbance of killer whales
and other species. To protect whales from these threats,
the BCCSN has chosen not to release sighting data to the
public. This may also be a consideration in the Arctic, where
135
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
real-time sighting information could give advantages to local
hunters.
THE “CRYSTAL EYE OF NUNAVIK”
(PINGUALUIT): NEW INSIGHTS FROM ONE OF
THE DEEPEST CRATER LAKES AND ONE OF
THE OLDEST SEDIMENT RECORDS OF THE
NORTHERN HEMISPHERE
Pienitz, Reinhard1 ([email protected]), S.
Hausmann2, R. Niederreiter3, V.-P. Salonen4, G. St-Onge5,
J. Black12, M. Bouchard6, L. Cunningham7, P. Francus8,
K. Gantner9, A.-M. Girard-Cloutier1, H. Guyard5, M.
Krebschek10, M. Lamothe11, I. Larocque12, M. Lavoie1, T.
Luoto4, W. Michaud13, D. Muir14, M. Power13, J. Reist15, P.
Rosen7, J. Veillette1, W. Vincent1, B. Zolitschka16
Centre d’Études Nordiques, Université Laval, Québec,
Canada;
2
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, USA;
3
UWITEC Mondsee, Austria;
4
University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland;
5
Université du Québec à Rimouski, Québec, Canada;
6
Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada;
7
Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden;
8
INRS-ETE, Québec, Canada;
9
University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada;
10
Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany;
11
Université du Québec à Montréal, Québec, Canada;
12
University of Berne, Bern, Switzerland;
13
University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada;
14
Environment Canada, Burlington, Canada;
15
Freshwater Institute (DFO), Winnipeg, Canada;
16
University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
1
Most lakes in the northern circumpolar region
are of glacial origin and allow hindcasts that date back
only until the last deglaciation several thousand years ago,
because of glacial erosion of their sediment infill. With
the exception of the El’gygytgyn Crater Lake in Siberia,
all other climate archives of the Arctic covering several
interglacials originate from marine sediments or ice cores.
The sediments of the 1.4. Ma old Pingualuit Crater Lake
(Nunavik, Canada; 61°17’N, 73°41’W) - known as the
“Crystal Eye of Nunavik”- offer the unique opportunity
to study terrestrial climate dynamics not only during the
postglacial period, but potentially over several hundreds of
thousands of years as its deep sediment infill promises to
yield an uninterrupted arctic paleoclimate record covering
several interglacial-glacial cycles. Previous attempts to core
the lake have resulted in the collection of only 14 cm of
sediments that spanned the last ~5000 years. Almost 20
years later (May 2007), we managed to extract about 10 m
of sediments from the crater lake at a water depth of 270
m using a UWITEC piston percussion corer system under
harsh climatic conditions and severe water environmental
protection measures. Here we will present initial results of
limnological measurements (PAR, UV light transparency)
performed on the water column of one of the deepest and
most transparent lakes on this planet, as well as preliminary
sedimentological, micropaleontological and stratigraphic
interpretations. The initial results revealed the presence of at
least two decimetre-thick intervals composed of laminated,
dark grey clayey silts characterized by a relatively low density
and magnetic susceptibility that contrast sharply with the
thicker over- and underlying sections with light grey, denser,
sandy sediments (see also Guyard et al., this session). The
sediment characteristics in the darker laminated intervals are
also similar to the ones observed in the small surface gravity
core sampled at the site. Moreover, these two intervals
revealed the presence of fossil diatoms and chrysophytes,
suggesting that these two intervals represent ice-free
conditions and thus possible interglacials, whereas the more
extensive light grey and sandy sediments likely reflect glacial
intervals. This interpretation will be tested by ongoing
paleomagnetic (i.e., magnetostratigraphy) and multi-proxy
biostratigraphic analyses (diatoms, chironomids, cladocerans,
pollens), as well as radiocarbon and thermoluminescence
(TL) dating. In fact, a first TL estimation in the uppermost
laminated (interglacial) interval suggests an age older than
100 ka BP.
THE EFFECT OF TIDES ON DENSE WATER
FORMATION IN ARCTIC SHELF SEAS
Postlethwaite, C.F.1, M.A. Morales Maqueda1, G.R.
Tattersall1, J. Holt1 and Andrew J. Willmott1 ([email protected]
ac.uk)
Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, 6 Brownlow Street,
Liverpool, L3 5DA
1
Dense water formation occurs in ice covered seas
when brine is rejected from newly forming ice. Dense
water formation can be modulated by tides in several ways.
Tidal mixing can hinder ice growth or even cause melting,
as oceanic heat is transported upwards. A layer of fresh
melt water can inhibit convection. Additionally the ebb
and flow of the tide can cause sea-ice to pile up (in areas
of convergence) or separate (in areas of divergence).
Thicker, piled up ice thermally insulates the ocean from
the atmosphere and thus further dense water formation
136
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
becomes less likely. Conversely, areas of open water exposed
as the tides pull the ice cover apart, start to produce dense
water as brine is rejected from newly formed sea-ice.
We present results from a dynamic/thermodynamic
sea-ice model (CICE) coupled to a baroclinic coastal
ocean model (POLCOMS) of the Barents and Kara Seas.
Although introducing tides into the model does not alter
the annual salt flux to the ocean significantly, some regions
show significant changes to ice volume and ocean salinity.
In particular, the seasonally ice covered seas in the south
of the domain have up to 25% less ice volume during
freeze up and melting when tides are included in the
model. Conversely, the shallow area around Svalbard has
increased ice volume throughout the year. The distribution
of increased brine rejection due to tides is similarly
inhomogeneous and, although some coastal regions show
significantly increased salinity throughout the water column,
this appears to be dominated by advection by residual tidal
currents. Further work will determine the significance of
these results and indicate whether future Global Climate
Models should include tide/sea ice interactions to make
more accurate predictions.
REPRESENTING INUIT SEA ICE KNOWLEDGE
AND USE FOR EDUCATION AND OUTREACH:
CREATING AN IPY LEGACY USING EMERGING
DATA MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
Pulsifer, Peter L.1 ([email protected]), G.
Laidler1, D.R.F. Taylor1 and A. Hayes1
Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre, Carleton
University, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6
1
As part of the International Polar Year (IPY) Inuit
Sea Ice Use and Occupancy Project (ISIUOP)(http://
gcrc.carleton.ca/isiuop), we are expanding on previous
community-based sea ice research in Nunavut to develop
innovative ways of representing Inuit knowledge of sea ice
(e.g. floe edge position, tidal cracks, polynyas, travel routes,
dangerous areas, changing ice conditions, safety indicators,
and Inuktitut terminology), to create new educational
materials, and to facilitate community-centred narratives.
Results of the project are being represented using an
innovative cybercartographic atlas development framework
(Nunaliit) to make qualitative and quantitative information
accessible in an online, interactive, multimedia form. This
presentation will highlight current progress being made
towards the creation of the Cybercartographic Atlas of Sea
Ice .
The Cybercartographic Atlas of Sea Ice aims to
provide an important contribution to the IPY knowledge
base. However, to ensure that the data, information,
and knowledge constructed in this project remain as a
legacy for future generations, there are a number of data
management challenges that must first be addressed: i)
ensuring interoperability of disparate data resources; ii)
integrating different knowledge domains; iii) producing
appropriate digital representations of Inuit expertise;
and, iv) preserving information systems in the context of
rapidly evolving technologies. This presentation will thus
provide an overview of the strategies being used by project
participants to address these challenges. We will also discuss
the potential benefits of such online, interactive, multimedia representations for northern education, research
collaboration, community-initiated projects, and community
empowerment.
DIFFICULTIES OF CLIMATE SIMULATION
OVER THE ARCTIC USING A REGIONAL
CLIMATE MODEL
Qian, Minwei1 ([email protected]), Colin Jones1 and
Katja Winger1
1
CRCMD Network, Université du Québec à Montréal,
Québec, H3C 4R1
The Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5)
is used to simulate Arctic climate using different sized
domains. Analysis of results suggests different sources
of error in summer and winter, which are associated with
the circumpolar vertex and Icelandic Low respectively.
The Icelandic Low, the strength and position of which
are linked to planetary scale flow, makes RCM simulations
too sensitive to the domain size. Likewise in summer due
to the circumpolar vertex, it becomes difficult for the
RCM to control error growth in the center of domain.
Study suggests that careful setting of the CRCM domain
could improve the Arctic climate simulation under certain
circumstances but not always. The implementation of
spectral nudging in CRCM5 is recommended.
SNOWFALL MEASUREMENTS AT EXPOSED,
HIGH WIND SITES
Rasmussen, Roy1 ([email protected]), S. Landolt1 ([email protected]
ucar.edu)
National Center for Atmospheric Research
1
Precipitation in the Artic environment often
occurs under high wind conditions (> 5 m/s). Current
137
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
liquid water equivalent gauges typically under-catch in these
conditions by factor of 2-4, making it necessary to apply
a wind correction to these gauges. NCAR has conducted
tests of various gauges at exposed sites in Colorado for the
last 10 years, with the goal of obtaining real-time estimates
of snowfall rate every minute. An especially challenging
aspect is the measurement of light snowfall rates at high
winds. The truth gauge for these tests has been the Double
Fence Inter-comparison Reference (DFIR) gauge, as well
as manual pan measurements. This paper will report on
the results of these tests, providing transfer functions for
a variety of commonly available snow gauges (GEONOR,
OTT, Vaisala VRG, and Yankee Hotplate) for high wind
conditions.
VERTICAL EXPORT OR RETENTION? THE
FATE OF ORGANIC CARBON IN OPEN AND ICECOVERED REGIONS OF THE BARENTS SEA
processes are keys to understand vertical flux regulation,
and a compilation of all available vertical flux and primary
production measurements from the AW and ArW region
of the Barents Sea points to a decreasing retention towards
more Arctic waters. A change towards a warmer climate can
thus have implications for the total distribution of energy
within the ecosystem, with a strengthening of the pelagic
system.
AN OVERVIEW AND INTEGRATION OF IPY
RESEARCH ON CHARS
Reist, Jim1 ([email protected]), M. Power2, B.
Dempson3, D. Muir4, K. Kidd5, N. Halden6, W. Doidge7, R.
Bell8 and F. Wrona9
Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of
Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø
2
Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of
Science, 36 Nakhimovskii Prospekt, 117997 Moscow, Russia
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1
3
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. John’s, NL, A1C 5X1
4
Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6
5
University of New Brunswick, St. John, NB, E3B 6E1
6
University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2
7
Nunavik Research Centre, Kuujjuaq, QC, J0M 1C0
8
Fisheries Joint Management Committee, Inuvik, NT, X0E
0E0
9
Environment Canada, Victoria, BC, V8W 3R4
The fate of primary production is closely linked
to the ecosystem-structure in aquatic environments. High
pelagic consumption and recycling reduce quantity and
quality of vertically exported organic material, while low to
moderate pelagic consumption allow more carbon of higher
quality to reach benthic communities. Recent investigations
in the Barents Sea also points to the impact of the physical
structure of the water masses on vertical carbon export and
the fate of primary production. Due to the strong gradient
between open Atlantic Waters (AW) and seasonally icecovered Arctic water (ArW) present in the Barents Sea, the
effects of changing ice conditions and physical water-mass
structure on vertical carbon export can easily be studied.
Results from three years field investigation in the
Barents Sea with focus on the fate of primary production
through vertical export and grazing will be presented.
Short-time sediment-traps with high vertical resolution in
the upper twilight zone identified high flux-attenuation
layers, and the microscopic investigations of the sedimenttrap material revealed that the contribution from ungrazed
phytoplankton groups and faecal pellets in different phases
of the bloom and under different mixing conditions.
Based on field experiments, grazing estimates of the larger
zooplankton fraction was also estimated. The retention
Chars are iconic northern fishes found throughout
fresh, estuarine and nearshore marine waters of the
Holarctic. Wherever they occur, chars exhibit great diversity
at both the species’ level (i.e., 5-22+ species defined),
and also at lower taxonomic, life history (e.g., migratory
and non-migratory life history types), and ecological
(e.g., ecophenotypes) levels. This is particularly true for
more northerly waters where fish diversity is generally
low and in areas where Arctic char is the only fish species
present in fresh waters. As a result of their diversity and
wide distribution chars occupy many aquatic habitats
both seasonally and ecologically, thus they are pivotal
components of most northern aquatic ecosystems. Chars
are also mainstays of the social and economic fabric of life
for northerners, thus are fished wherever they occur.
Arctic change driven by climate shifts, industrial
development, human population increase and other
anthropogenic stressors will substantively affect chars
and their ecosystems. Other than qualitative scenarios,
little knowledge exists regarding how such changes will
be manifested particularly at the char population level nor
how such changes will be propagated throughout northern
aquatic ecosystems. Also, the effects from multiple stressors
will change char populations to unknown degrees and
Reigstad, Marit1 ([email protected]), C. Wexels
Riser1, P. Wassmann1 and T. Ratkova2
1
1
2
138
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
directions. This, in turn, will affect humans who rely upon
chars and their ecosystems, however, these knowledge gaps
limit our capacity to both project the nature and degree of
char responses and to develop strategies for addressing the
changes.
Whether chars themselves have sufficient capacity
to adapt to these changes and thus whether populations
will remain productive and sustainable are open questions.
Accordingly, to address these issues, to provide an
understanding of probable changes in char populations and
their ecosystem, and to lay the foundation for mitigative
and adaptive management measures, an interdisciplinary
project was undertaken in the Canadian IPY Programme.
The overall project consists of three integrated components:
Scientific Research, Monitoring and Network Development.
Research activities encompass biodiversity at inter- and
intra-specific levels, relationship of char biology to
climate parameters, ecosystem structure and function, and
dynamics of key contaminants. Monitoring activities include
community-driven projects using standard fishery and
gis-based approaches, and are designed to develop a basic
approach suitable for community-based implementation
throughout the North. Networking activities include
the development of an international network aimed to
provide expertise and input to international assessments of
biodiversity and change in chars globally.
Individual research components conducted
by graduate students, northerners and the principal
investigators address a wide range of specific topics and
many areas of northern Canada. Moreover, these IPYproject activities link directly with those of other IPY
projects and with ongoing university-based, communitybased and government research. In combination these
efforts are designed to address fundamental issues of char
diversity and the potential responses of chars and their
diversity to Arctic change. Project activities are also linked
with similar work being conducted in other Arctic countries
through an international IPY node to promote wider
understanding of the effects of Arctic change on chars.
AQUATIC PROCESSES CONTROLLING
GREENHOUSE GAS EXCHANGES IN
THAW PONDS: THE ROLE OF MICROBIAL
PRODUCTION AT BYLOT ISLAND, NUNAVUT
Retamal, Leira1,2 ([email protected]), Laurion
Isabelle1,2
Institut National de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et
environnement, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9
2
Centre d’études nordiques, Université Laval, Québec,
Québec, G1V 0A6
1
The objectives of our study are to understand
the main processes affecting greenhouse gas exchanges
in thaw ponds and to determine the controlling factors
of these processes, especially those that are influenced
by climate change. The increasing number and high
activity of thaw ponds during the ice-free period is now
of major concern because of their potential role on the
global carbon budget. Different aspects of the microbial
dynamics were investigated in an active area of polygons
and channels at Bylot Island (73°N) in 2008. In several
studies, dissolved organic matter (DOM) was suggested
to largely control CO2 emissions in lakes. The organic
matter released from eroding soils is a dynamic component
in thaw ponds (spatially and temporally variable) that will
be closely examined and linked to microbial productivity.
Newly formed ponds will be compared to ponds formed on
low-center polygons and colonized by cyanobacterial mats.
The pelagic bacterial production rate (BP) ranged between
0.1 and 1.1 mg C m-3 per day (mean value of 0.4 mg C m-3
d-1) and was not correlated to dissolve organic carbon but
positively correlated to the organic particulate fraction.
The benthic BP was also measured, in addition to the
pelagic and benthic primary production. This study should
provide a better understanding of this overlooked system of
increasing importance at high latitudes and help to estimate
their role on global carbon budget.
PHYTOPLANKTON BIOMASS, SEA SURFACE
TEMPERATURE AND CANNIBALISM/
PREDATION AND THEIR ANTAGONIST
EFFECTS ON THE NORTH WATER POLYNYA
COPEPODS POPULATION DYNAMICS.
Ringuette, Marc1 ([email protected]), S.
Plourde2, and L. Fortier1
Département de biologie, Québec-Océan, Université Laval,
Québec (Qc), Canada, G1K 7P4
2
Institute Maurice-Lamontagne, Department of Fisheries
and Oceans Canada, 850 route de la Mer, C.P. 1000 MontJoli (Qc), Canada, G5H 3Z4
1
In Arctic ecosystems, trophic linkages through
primary production are believed to be the controlling
variable in recruitment. The various life cycle strategies of
polar copepods revolved around the onset of the primary
139
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
production but also leave a larger place to other important
variables. Sea Surface Temperature (SST), solely, can
also interfere either directly on the various physiological
mechanisms or indirectly by altering the interactions
between predator and prey. Density-dependent cannibalism/
predation of adult female on their eggs and naupliar stages
during the pre-bloom period could play an important role
in the control of cohort development. Here, we present insitu egg production rates (EPr) followed by species-specific
mortality rates in eggs and early naupliar stages of Calanus
glacialis, C. hyperboreus and Metridia longa in the North
Water Polynya. Given the nature of the sampling, mortality
was estimated using the Vertical Life Table (VLT) approach
based on the population EPr from species-specific in situ
EPr and abundance of C6f, stage-specific abundance of
naupliar stages and temperature-dependent development
time. In first instance, the strong relationship between
the onset of the PP and the EPr of C. glacialis (R2 =
0.591, P < 0.0001) tend to enhance the idea of this strong
trophic relationship in the success of cohort. A multiple
regression model using temperature, C6f abundance and
phytoplankton biomass as independent variables explain
only to 21% of the variability in daily mortality rates from
Egg to N3 stage (p = 0.012). The first two variables being
positively correlated and the phytoplankton biomass being
inversely correlated, it suggests a relaxation of the predation
by cannibalism during the phytoplankton bloom. Different
oceanographic conditions prevailing in the polynya to
define 2 distinct regions: a Greenland region characterised
by a warm surface water an a early onset phytoplankton
bloom, and an Ellesmere cold, nutrient rich region where
the phytoplankton onset occurs over a month later. Within
these regions, the general regression model explains 42
% of the mortality rates in the Ellesmere region and 24
in the Greenland region. In either region the mortality
rates are positively related to temperature, while it shows
no relationship with the chlorophyll-a biomass, and the
female abundance is positively related only in the Ellesmere
region, putting more emphasis in temperature and densitydependent cannibalism/predation in the fate of a new
cohort. With extremely low temperature, even the surface
layer in summer almost never reach over 4°C and athoer
trying environmental conditions, it may not be surprising
that slight difference prevailing within the two distinct
region of the polynya could yields different responses in
survival rates. The classical match-mismatch hypothesis thus
became an oversimplification of the complex Arctic food
web, where opportunistic behaviour often prevails over
specialist.
MICROBIAL DYNAMICS AND RESPONSE TO A
CHANGING POLAR OCEAN CLIMATE
Rivkin, Richard ([email protected])
Ocean Sciences Centre, Memorial University of
Newfoundland, St. John’s, NF A1C 5S7, Canada
Marine heterotrophic microbes (i.e. prokaryotic
bacteria and eukaryotic protozoa) dominate the fluxes of
organic carbon in the upper ocean, where they typically
remineralize >75% of primary production back to CO2.
Although these small organisms and their interactions
are well studied in low latitudes, there is far less known
about their distributions, community structure, activity
and food web interactions, and their impact on upper
open biogeochemistry in high latitudes. Despite the low
temperatures, microbial processes are highly active and the
rates of growth and elemental transformations are similar
to those in lower latitudes. Profound climate changes are
predicted for high latitude regions. These include altered
temperatures, ice cover, mixing and nutrient supply.
These changes will influence the distribution of ice,
physiochemical, biological and food web properties. The
present study reports on a meta-analysis of a large database
on heterotrophic microbes and associated variables from the
Arctic Ocea and marginal seas. Using the results of database
analyses, and conceptual and analytical models, we examine
the influence of predicted changes in the climate in polar
regions on microbial activity, their mediation of upper ocean
biogeochemistry, and potential feedbacks on the cycling and
flux of climate active properties.
THE BEING CARIBOU PROJECT: LOCAL
STORIES, INTERNATIONAL POLICY, AND
GRASSROOTS CIVIL SOCIETY-- A CASE STUDY
Roburn, Shirley ([email protected])
Department of Communication Studies, Concordia
University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8
On April 8th, 2003, Leanne Allison and Karsten
Heuer set off alone, on foot, to follow the 123 000 strong
Porcupine Caribou herd as it migrated through its spring,
summer, and fall ranges in northern Yukon and Alaska.
Their goal in undertaking this journey was twofold: to ‘be
caribou’--to go through and truly experience the living
conditions of the migrating herd; and to bring forward this
«story of the caribou» as effectively as possible, in order to
increase public support for the conservation of the herd’s
140
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
endangered calving grounds.
One of their most successful initiatives was a
film, Being Caribou, which garnered awards at several major
film festivals, was broadcast on Canada’s main public
television network and on several North American specialty
channels, and became a mainstay of public and educational
institution library collections throughout Canada and the
United States. Most remarkably, however, the majority of
the film’s circulation and viewership did not come through
any of these means, but through local community and
‘house-party’ screenings that were closely intertwined with
actioning specific campaigning objectives in the fight to
prevent drilling in the ANWR/1002 lands that encompass
the Porcupine herd’s calving grounds. In the period from
March to December of 2005, when American legislative
attempts to allow drilling in ANWR were decided by as
little as a single vote, Being Caribou was systematically used
by grassroots organizers as a significant tool in mobilizing
hundreds of thousands of voters to write letters, call their
elected officials, and demonstrate publicly against opening
the refuge to development.
The case of Being Caribou opens up an important
window on the role of local and global civil society, and
of grassroots political organizing, in impacting debates on
northern resource development and on climate change. My
research quantifies and concretely demonstrates how a large
network of civil society actors--from local Yukon ENGOs
to the pan-American Alaska Coalition which includes over
one thousand member groups--coalesced around specific,
concerted political actions that prevented drilling in ANWR.
Examining the institutional linkages, viewing environments
and discursive strategies that situated Being Caribou-such that the film was used to encourage dialog between
geographically disparate communities, build civil society,
and promote ‘actionable’ activity from film audiences-highlights the possibilities and tensions of grassroots
political work. Do such initiatives circulate local northern
stories in new ways, amplifying the impact of northern
experiences on southern policy makers, and increasing
ordinary southern people’s connection to and understanding
of how their lifestyles impact Arctic regions? Or is civil
society merely participating in the latest iteration of
colonialism, reinforcing southern entitlement to the Alaskan
‘frontier’ by engaging in a debate over whether this symbolic
frontier is best secured by protecting its last remaining
pristine wilderness areas, or by conquering these areas and
harnessing the potential of their natural resources?
MARINE PALEOENVIRONMENTS IN THE
CANADIAN ARCTIC: WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED
IN RECENT YEARS?
Rochon, André1 ([email protected]), G. St-Onge1
and D.B. Scott2
Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski (ISMER) and
GEOTOP, Université du Québec à Rimouski (Quebec),
Canada G5L 3A1
2
Department of Geology, Dalhousie University, Halifax
(Nova Scotia), Canada B3H 3J5
1
Prior to the onset of the CASES program in 2002,
which was followed by ArcticNet in 2004, our knowledge
of the Holocene (last 10,000 years) paleoceanographical
changes that took place in the Canadian Arctic was limited.
Although sediment distribution from the different areas
was relatively well known, no high-resolution sedimentary
sequences were available for paleoceanographic studies. The
extensive multibeam and sub-bottom profiling programs
of these areas, which began in 2002, helped identifying
areas of high sediment accumulation, with sedimentation
rates at least one order of magnitude higher (i.e., >100
cm/ka) than previous paleoceanographic records. Since
then, we have collected several sediment cores throughout
the Canadian Arctic that provided, for the first time, timeseries of Holocene oceanographical changes at resolutions
varying from millennial to multi-annual. The major feature
of these studies illustrate the opposite climate trends
between the Eastern and Western Canadian Arctic. In the
Eastern Arctic, the Holocene climatic optimum occurred
around ~6500 to 4000 BP (depending on the location),
after which sea surface temperatures began to cool until
modern times through a series of warm/cold oscillations. In
the western Arctic (Beaufort Sea), we observe the opposite
trend, with sea surface conditions increasing over at least
the last 9000 years, also through a series of warm/cold
oscillations. In the Mackenzie Through we were able to
document paleoceanographic changes at a resolution <10
years, and therefore document changes associated with
the onset of the industrial era. The analysis of sediment
cores from the central part of the Northwest Passage
indicates that sea surface conditions remained stable
over the last 8000 years (see Ledu et al., this meeting). In
addition, we have now documented the spatial distribution
of foraminifers and dinoflagellate cysts, two of the main
proxies for the reconstruction of sea surface (temperature,
salinity, sea ice cover) and bottom water conditions. One
of the main problems that we encountered when studying
Arctic sediment cores is the lack of datable material, which
limits the accuracy of the chronological framework of
141
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
each core. Usually, the tests of foraminifers (composed
of CaCO3) are used for radiocarbon dating, but because
calcium carbonates are dissolved in cold environments,
there is often not enough material to obtain a reliable age.
Another problem is that the sediment supply is low in the
Arctic, and basins where suitable sediments accumulate are
usually in water depths >500 meters. Few mollusks live in
these environments, which further reduces the possibility
of obtaining age control. Furthermore, the low abundance
of organic matter in the sediments prevents the use of
bulk sediment dating techniques. Therefore, other means
for dating sediments must be used. As such, we now rely
on the relative dating technique provided by the study of
the variations of the Earth’s magnetic field (inclination,
declination, relative paleointensity). Indeed, paleomagnetic
studies of sediment cores now provide means of correlating
different cores located in various areas of the Arctic,
therefore providing a chronological framework for cores
where no datable material is available (see Lisé-Pronovost et
al.; Barletta et al., this meeting, for example).
Chironomidae) have proven to be especially useful in the
development of statistical inference models for hindcasts of
past air and water temperatures. As part of a concerted study of the Foxe Basin and
its surrounding regions, our research presents the Holocene
evolution of a lake located on the Foxe Peninsula, Nunavut,
Canada. Combined with sedimentological analyses (X-ray
profiles, grain size, organic matter content), changes in the
composition of fossil chironomid assemblages provide
the first Holocene paleotemperature record for the Foxe
Peninsula region which is compared to results obtained
through previous studies of sediment records from
neighboring Southampton Island, Nunavut, Canada. A SNAPSHOT OF PERMAFROST
TEMPERATURES DURING THE
INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR
Romanovsky, Vladimir1 ([email protected]), J. Brown2
Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska
Fairbanks,Fairbanks, Alaska 99775
2
Woods Hole, MA 02543
1
CHIRONOMIDS AS INDICATORS OF
POSTGLACIAL PALEOCLIMATES OF THE FOXE
PENINSULA, NUNAVUT, CANADA
Rolland, Nicolas ([email protected]), R. Pienitz
1
1
Centre d’Études Nordiques, Université Laval, Québec,
Québec, G1V 0A6
Climate change reports show that many High
Arctic regions are affected by unprecedented environmental
changes because global warming effects are amplified at
high latitudes. However, paleoclimate studies completed in
areas surrounding the southern Foxe Basin, Labrador and
northern Quebec, so far suggest that these regions only
experienced relatively subtle climatic and environmental
changes over the recent past. These contrasting scenarios
underscore the necessity to increase our knowledge of past
and present environmental conditions across the Arctic in
order to refine our capacity to model its past, present and
future environmental changes. Unfortunately, the generally
short time series data available for developing regional
and global climate models does not adequately capture the
natural environmental variability that has affected these
regions in the past. One way to extend such environmental
time-series data sets is to explore the sediment archives
preserved in lake basins. The use of biological and
sedimentological proxy indicators provides a novel method
for quantitatively reconstructing physical and chemical
conditions throughout the history of arctic lakes. Among
these indicators, chironomid head capsules (Insecta: Diptera:
1
To characterize the thermal state of permafrost,
the International Polar Year Project # 50, Thermal State of
Permafrost (TSP) was developed under the coordination
of the International Permafrost Association. Ground
temperatures are being measured in existing and new
boreholes. The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring
(CALM) project is focused on observing seasonal thaw of
permafrost terrain. Both sets of observations will provide
a snapshot of permafrost conditions in both time and
space. The data sets will serve as a baseline against which to
measure changes of near-surface permafrost temperatures
and permafrost boundaries, to validate climate model
scenarios, and for temperature reanalysis.
Results of borehole temperatures based on past
and current data from Alaska and Northern Eurasia are
presented. Approximately 100 boreholes in Russia have
been instrumented with data loggers to compliment
the Alaskan network of existing boreholes. Most of the
permafrost temperatures showed a substantial warming
during the last 20 years, with a recent leveling off in this
trend. The magnitude of warming varied with location,
but was typically from 0.5 to 2°C at the depth of zero
seasonal temperature variations in the permafrost. Thawing
of the Little Ice Age permafrost is on-going at many
locations. There are some indications that the late-Holocene
permafrost started to thaw at some specific undisturbed
locations in the European Northeast, in the Northwest
142
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Siberia, and in Alaska. Our collective IPY permafrost
legacy is to establish a permanent, bipolar network of
observatories and to encourage the development of the next
generation of permafrost researchers.
NEW CONSTRAINTS ON THE DEGLACIATION
OF FOXE CHANNEL AND SOUTHAMPTON
ISLAND, NUNAVUT
Ross, Martin1 ([email protected])
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences,
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1
1
New AMS 14C dates from Southampton Island
(Nunavut) indicate that by about 7.0 14C ka BP the
Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) had retreated off the southern
portion of Foxe Channel. Prior to this study, age constraints
on the deglaciation of the northern coast of Southampton
Island were lacking. A total of sixteen samples were
analyzed, six of which are from the northern coast. A
correction of 630 years (dR = 230 yrs) was applied to
the normalized marine ages. This value was calculated
by comparing the 14C ages of marine and terrestrial pairs
from two sites on Southampton Island. The results provide
the basis for refining existing regional deglacial models.
Other data (glacial striae, till compositional data) suggest
that the role of the depression (Foxe Channel) between
Southampton Island and Foxe Basin in controlling regional
ice flow systems was more important than previously
thought. Ice over the northern part of Southampton
Island clearly flowed toward the east and northeast and not
southward from the Foxe Dome. In the revised model, ice
streaming lead to ice surface drawdown over Foxe Channel.
This, together with rapid calving, accelerated ice retreat and
collapse of the Foxe Dome.
A CHANGING CLIMATE MAY INCREASE THE
RISK OF CONTAMINANT-RELATED HEALTH
RISKS IN BEAUFORT SEA BELUGA WHALES
Ross, Peter S.1 ([email protected]), L.Loseto1,2, B.
Hickie3, and R.W. Macdonald1
Changes in the extent and distribution of Arctic
sea ice may have profound consequences for the health
of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), as these cetaceans
rely heavily on ice edge-associated prey such as Arctic
cod (Boreogadus saida). The concentrations of persistent
environmental contaminants in Arctic food webs will
likely change as the physical and biological environments
change. Changes in beluga feeding ecology may take place
in part due to changes in the quality, abundance and/or
distribution of prey. This may result in reduced beluga
fitness as they consume prey of sub-optimal quality (e.g.
less lipid) or as they undertake increased foraging efforts to
locate sufficient food. During 2007 and 2008, we worked
with Inuvialuit hunters to obtain samples from 42 beluga
whales near Hendrickson Island in the Beaufort Sea, NT,
Canada. Blubber was analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs) using high resolution gas chromatography/mass
spectrometry. Variation in condition and feeding ecology
influenced contaminant concentrations, with one group
of whales being longer, having a thicker blubber layer,
exhibiting higher δ15N ratios, and having higher PCB
concentrations (4.6 mg/kg vs 2.1 mg/kg). In addition,
negative correlations between blubber thickness and PCB
concentrations within each of the two feeding groups
indicated a contaminant ‘concentration effect’ in animals
with reduced blubber reserves. In order to explore the
health risks associated with a changing climate in the Arctic,
we used these observed blubber thickness parameters to
derive individual-based beluga life history models for PCBs
under two contrasting scenarios: 1) a ‘best case’ scenario
where decreased exposure results in a 33% decline of PCB
in beluga blubber, and 2) a ‘worst case’ scenario, where
increased foraging effort and reduced prey quality results
in a doubling of PCB concentrations in beluga blubber.
At present, 0% of beluga exceed the published threshold
(10 mg/kg lipid weight) for disease-associated mortality in
bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Under our ‘best case’
future scenario, this remained at 0%, but under the ‘worst
case’ scenario, 30% of the beluga exceeded this threshold
for increased risk of mortality. These results underscore the
vulnerability of these long-lived, high trophic level marine
mammals to changes in climate and ice edge-related food
webs, and the utility of these life history models to evaluate
future scenarios under varying climate, sea-ice, food web,
and chemical regulatory regimes.
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean
Sciencesd, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney BC V8L 4B2
2
School for Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of
Victoria, Victoria BC, V8W 3P6
3
Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University,
Peterborough ON K9J 7B8
1
143
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
ONE ISLAND, DIFFERENT VIEWS: THE
NENETS REINDEER HERDERS OF THE
KOLGUEV ISLAND (NENETS AUTONOMOUS
OKRUG, RUSSIA), AND OIL WORKERS AND
SCIENTISTS
Rouillard, Remy ([email protected])
Department of Anthropology, McGill University, Montreal,
Quebec, H3A 2T7
This presentation is based on a doctoral
research which examines the ways in which oil workers,
scientists, as well as Nenets reindeer herders relate to the
environment, and to each other based upon their respective
interactions and agendas with the environment in the
Nenets Autonomous Okrug (District), Northwestern
Russia. The results presented here emerge from an earlier
phase of doctoral anthropological fieldwork which took
place on the Island of Kolguev, in the Barents Sea, and in
the district’s capital, Naryan-Mar, in the summer and fall
of 2008. In the last few years, the Nenets Autonomous
Okrug has become an increasingly significant oil-producing
region, although the exploration and extraction of oil
have already been happening for decades. The island of
Kolguev constitutes a particularly relevant case, revealing
how people with different agendas perceive and interact
with the same environment and with each other: the island’s
Nenets people have been practicing reindeer herding for
centuries; oil workers have been conducting oil exploration
and extraction since the early 1980s; and, various scientists
have been involved in ECORA, a project sponsored by
the United Nations Environment Program to «conserve
biodiversity and minimize habitat fragmentation» on the
island, in the context of both oil extraction and climate
change. Considering that the world’s arctic regions are
attracting more extractive industries, and various scientists
are involved either in the extraction or preservation of the
natural resources, this presentation especially aims to make
scientists and those involved in extractive industries aware
of the ways in which indigenous peoples living in such
regions perceive them and their ways of interacting with an
environment upon which indigenous peoples depend, not
only for subsistence, but also for the preservation of their
way of life and culture.
Climate and decreasing levels of
sulphate aerosols in the high Arctic:
an update of continues studies
Roy, M. Koerner1, David Burgess2, Jiancheng Zheng1
([email protected]) & The Glaciology Group1
GSC-North, ESS Natural Resources Canada
CCRS, ESS, Natural Resources Canada, This presentation
is in memorial of Dr. Roy M. Koerner, who did most of the
work of this study.
1
2
Acid aerosols (microscopic drops of acids in the
air) have a cooling effect on climate; they may be considered
to partially counteract the warming effects of Greenhouse
gases like carbon dioxide and methane. Pollution sampling
of snow and near surface firn layers since the 1980’s, in
conjunction with ice core measurements extend this record
back to pre-industrial times. These results show that the
acids began to increase in the snow layers on the ice caps
beginning as long as 150 years ago. The increase was due to
acids coming from the industrial regions of the world which
continued to increase until the mid-1980’s. Acid aerosols
in the snow pack over ice caps in the high Arctic have
decreased over the past ~20 years so that concentrations are
now as low they were 100 years ago. This trend coincides
with an increasingly negative mass balance of Arctic glaciers
suggesting that the cooling effect of acid aerosols is now
less of a factor in suppressing the Greenhouse gas warming
effect in the Arctic. This presentation will show our updated
results of sulphate retrieved from Agassiz, Penny and
Devon ice caps, comparing to sulphate emission patterns
in different regions in the world. We are aiming to get a
realistic estimate of North American and Eurasian pollution
entering the Arctic in the future and provide a better
estimate of industrial emissions than the national records
themselves as suggested by recent research in Europe. This
presentation will also link sulphate results to the increased
summer melting since the mid-1980s. Because acid aerosols
have been shown to have a cooling effect on climate, their
reduced concentrations in the atmosphere may explain the
increasing glacier melt.
144
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
A WEB MAPPING SERVICE FOR MULTIRESOLUTION BATHYMETRY OF THE ARCTIC
OCEAN
WEICHSELIAN GLACIAL SEDIMENTOLOGY
AND STRATIGRAPHY IN MURCHISONFJORDEN
AREA, NORDAUSTLANDET, SVALBARD
Ryan, William1 ([email protected]), J. Coplan2, S.
Carbotte1, A. Melkonian1, R. Arko1, F. Nitsche1
Salonen, Veli-Pekka1 ([email protected]), Anu
Kaakinen1, Frauke Kubischta1, Kari O. Eskola2, Markku J.
Oinonen2
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia
University, Palisades, NY 10964 USA
2
Rochester Institute of Technology, Department of
Computer Science, 102 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester,
NY 14623-5608 USA
1
The new version 2.23 digital grid of the
International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean
(IBCAO) at 2 km resolution has been combined with
the latest version 10.1 of the Smith and Sandwell (2008)
predicted global topography at 1’ resolution into a northern
hemisphere polar stereographic projection. The combined
grid has been sub-sampled into successive layers of tiles
with nine doublings in resolution from the global scale
to size of a city block. For resolutions beyond the first
five doublings suitable for the IBCAO grid, we have
incorporated available multibeam swath bathymetry with
grid node spacing appropriate to the particular sonar
instrument used. There are three full multi-resolution tile
sets. One is binary and contains elevations and depths. The
second consists of sun-illuminated images. These images
provide the content of a Web Mapping Service. The third
tile set is also imagery, however regions are masked where
high-resolution multibeam swath mapping coverage is not
yet available. The Arctic bathymetry is viewable in WMScompliant applications such as OpenLayers® (openlayers.
org ) and GeoMapApp (www.geomapapp.org) capable
of display in polar stereographic projection or in virtual
globes such as Google Earth®, NASA World Wind® and
our own Virtual Ocean (www.virtualocean.org). Users of
GeoMapApp can import their own gridded data in various
common formats (e.g., GMT, ArcGIS, Surfer, GEODAS) as
well as visualize contributed grids and other data sets served
over the Web from our Marine Geoscience Data System
(www.marine-geo.org). We are preparing the Web services
and visualization tools to bring the results of the research
activities of the International Polar Year (2007-2008)
directly to the scientist’s desktop as well as to the classroom
and the interested public.
Department of Geology, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014
University of Helsinki, Finland
2
Dating laboratory, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 University of
Helsinki, Finland
1
Compared to the other islands in the Svalbard
archipelago, Nordaustlandet offers only limited
stratigraphical or sedimentological information. We present
here new results from glacial geological, sedimentological
and chronological studies in the southern Murchisonfjorden
area, 19°E - 80°N. The data were collected during a threeweek-long field campaign in July–August 2007, and it
consists of reconnaissance mapping and detailed logging of
vertical sections along cliff-face outcrops few metres high
adjacent to the present-day shoreline. The main goal of the
studies is to provide a framework to understand dynamics
of the Kara-Barents Sheet in its northwestern corner during
the last full glacial cycle.
A diverse record of glacial and non-glacial strata
was discovered. Sedimentological analyses indicate that
the tills display a variety of depositional environments
(lodgement, melt-out and deformation). The tills are often
underlain or incorporated to littoral sands and gravels, rich
in mollusc remains, ostracods and foraminifers. Holocene
strata include mostly raised beaches and terraces moulded
by shore or frost action.
Combined with OSL and AMS age determinations,
these data provide evidence of three successive Weichselian
sequences, each represented by the deposition of till
followed by the accumulation of shallow marine deposits.
This study demonstrates that, contrary to some earlier
conclusions, the area was occupied by a Late Weichselian
glacier (LWG), although the LWG till is thin and
discontinuous. Interstadial sub-littoral sand related to
the Mid-Weichselian interstadial was dated to 38–40 ka,
and an Early Weichselian interstadial to 76–80 ka. The
preservation of older sediments indicates weak glacial
erosion within the study area. During the Late Weichselian,
the glacier was relatively inactive, because the glacier
drainage was conducted through the fast flowing ice stream
in Hinlopenstretet. The studied sections can be considered
a new key site that offers further potential to complete
our understanding of the Weichselian stage within the
northwestern sector of the Barents-Kara Ice Sheet. 145
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
The study is a contribution to the IPY-Kinnvika expedition
(IPY 2007-08 ID 564).
EXPERIENCES FROM RCM SIMULATIONS OVER
HIGH LATITUDE REGIONS COUPLED TO LAKE,
SNOW AND FOREST PROCESSES
SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION OF PASSIVELY
SINKING COPEPODS TO DOWNWARD EXPORT
FLUX IN CANADIAN ARCTIC WATERS
Samuelsson, Patrick ([email protected])
Sampei, Makoto1 ([email protected]), H.
Sasaki2, H. Hattori3, A. Forest1, L. Fortier1
Québec-Océan, Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6,
Canada
2
Senshu University of Ishinomaki, Ishinomaki, Miyagi 9868580, Japan
3
Tokai University, Minamisawa, Minamiku, Sapporo,
Hokkaido 005-8601, Japan
1
“Swimmers”, metazoans caught in sediment traps,
are traditionally removed from sediment trap samples
before analysis to prevent overestimation of downward
particle flux. However, passively sinking copepods (PSC)
which have died in the water column and are caught in
sediment traps should be included in the downward flux.
The present study aims to estimate the temporal variability
of PSC fluxes and its relative contribution to the nonliving particle flux (i.e. other than swimmers). In laboratory
experiments, Calanus hyperboreus, C. glacialis and Pareuchaeta
glacialis that died without formalin (representative of PSC)
were morphologically different from copepods that died
with formalin (representative of actively intruded copepods
into sediment traps) in their antennules and swimming legs.
These differences were used to estimate PSC fluxes with
a sediment trap in Canadian Arctic waters. The estimated
PSC flux in terms of particulate organic carbon (POC) was
highest in spring (19.3 mg C m-2 d-1), being ca. 30% of the
non-living particle flux, and was ca. 5 times higher (6.4 mg
C m-2 d-1) than the non-living particle flux in winter. The
DW/POC ratio in winter for PSC was 2.0 which was one
fifth of non-living particles of 11.0. Therefore, PSC could
be an important food resource for pelagic and benthic
heterotrophs such as Metridia longa in winter. The annual
PSC flux (2.5 g C m-2 yr-1) was equivalent to ca. 60% of
the non-living particle flux (4.2 g C m-2 yr-1), suggesting a
substantial quantitative contribution of PSC to the vertical
export of biogenic particles.
Rossby Centre, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological
Institute, 60176 Norrköping, Sweden
Rossby Centre at the Swedish Meteorological
and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) has been working on
Regional Climate Modelling (RCM) since 1997 to provide
society and researchers with climate scenario information.
Today we have an RCM, the Rossby Centre regional climate
model RCA, which includes interactive coupling between
dynamical processes in atmosphere, soil, vegetation and
lakes. RCAO is a system which also includes our regional
ocean model. RCA is applied over several regions around
the world including Europe, Arctic and North America.
Here we will show examples on our experience in simulating
processes especially coupled to cold climates.
In regions where lakes represent a non-negligible
fraction of the surface their large thermal inertia, when
compared to the land surface, may cause them to have a
substantial impact on the regional climate. Simulations over
Europe and North America where RCA has been coupled
to the lake model FLake illustrates this effect. In a first set
of simulations lakes were present (applying FLAke) while in
a second set of simulations all lakes were replaced by land.
A comparison of the two sets shows that the presence of
lakes has a warming effect on the climate for all seasons
except spring. In cold winter climates the warming effect
during winter is explained by the fact that the ice covered
period usually extends from mid winter until mid spring.
Thus, during the first half of the winter the lakes are
warmer than a corresponding open land area would be.
During summer the warming effect of lakes is due to a
relatively warm lake surface temperature during night time.
The results also show that many small lakes (as in Southern
Finland) act differently on the summer climate than a few
big lakes. Many small, and relatively warm, lakes enhance
the summer precipitation due to more evaporation while
big, and relatively cool, lakes suppress evaporation and
consequently also the precipitation.
In a warming climate we will see how trees start to
occupy now tree-less areas. One of the largest differences
between tree and tree-less areas in snow-dominated climates
is the one on albedo. When trees are established the albedo
decreases substantially. This will have a local warming
effect which through positive feedback mechanisms may
even further favour the establishment of new trees. The
full potential through such feedback mechanisms can only
146
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
be investigated in a system where the RCM is interactively
coupled to a dynamic vegetation model. We will show
results from simulations where RCA has been coupled to
the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS. The results
are based on a scenario where RCA-GUESS has been
forced by output from the GCM ECHAM5 using emission
scenario A1B. We see how the tree line climbs upwards in
the Scandinavian mountain range and how that affects local
conditions in albedo, temperature and evaporation.
COMPARISON OF SNOWPACK EVOLUTION ON
THE NECOPASTIC RIVER BASIN (NORTHERN
QUEBEC) USING HYDROTEL AND CROCUS
Savary, Stephane1 ([email protected]), Alain N.
Rousseau1
INRS-ETE, Québec, Québec, G1K 9A9
1
Between 1950 and 1980, subarctic and arctic
regions of boreal Quebec went through a cooling period,
but since then they have experienced a 3°C warming. If this
trend persists, the hydrologic regime of boreal watersheds
will change. Within this context, there is a need to predict
reservoir inflow conditions for optimal planning of
hydroelectric generation. To meet this goal, Hydro-Quebec
(HQ)/Ouranos are pursuing the development of the
distributed hydrological model HYDROTEL, undertaking
its adaptation to the boreal environment in order to further
our understanding of past and future watershed dynamics.
This project involves four work packages, namely: (i)
application of the current version of HYDROTEL to
a pilot watershed, the 250-km2 Necopastic River basin
(latitude/longitude : 53º43′36″N /78º13′59″O), to identify
the problems associated with the use of the model in the
James Bay region; (ii) adaptation/improvement of modeled
processes associated with the thermal energy balance and
the water balance of wetlands and lakes; (iii) development
of a calibration strategy adapted to available data; (iv)
determination of the potential use of UQÀM’s RCM
for simulating past behavior and future responses under
changing climatic conditions. This presentation introduces
preliminary results related to work package (ii); that is the
evaluation of HYDROTEL’s snow model: a single-layer,
mixed degree-day-energy-budget, model. The approach
used to achieve this goal involves an inter-comparison study
with the multi-layer, energy budget French model CROCUS
developed at Centre d’Études de la Neige (CEN/MétéoFrance). Snow height (and eventually snow water equivalent)
registered at the Neco-1 meteorological station is being used
to evaluate the performance of both models. Since we had
already applied CROCUS on La Grande River basin (namely
at LG4) in a previous study, only HYDROTEL’s snow
model needed to be calibrated. Preliminary results indicate
CROCUS simulates well snowpack evolution and that these
results could serve as guidelines to improve HYDROTEL’s
snow model when detailed meteorological data are
unavailable. Also, future work will involve integrating
CROCUS into HYDROTEL to investigate the ensuing
benefit of a detailed snow model when predicting reservoir
inflows.
DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE NATURAL
GREENHOUSE GAS N2O IN CANADIAN ARCTIC
WATERS
Scarratt, Michael1,2 (Michael[email protected]), K.
Randall2, C. Gagné2, S. Michaud1 and M. Levasseur2
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne
Institute, 850 Route de la mer, Mont-Joli, QC, G5H 3Z4
2
Département de biologie (Québec-Océan), Université
Laval, Québec, QC, G1K 7P4
1
The Arctic environment is currently undergoing
significant long-term changes including an increase in
average temperatures and a progressive loss of sea-ice
cover, especially in the summer. In 2007-2008, the Arctic
SOLAS (Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study)
project, a component of the International Polar Year,
investigated biogenic trace gas dynamics and sea-air
fluxes in Arctic waters in order to elucidate the effects of
changing oceanographic conditions on regional and global
climate. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a biogenic greenhouse
gas produced by microbial action in the water column. Its
production is intimately linked to nitrogen cycling, where
it is an intermediate in both nitrification and denitrification
processes. Few data presently exist for N2O in polar waters.
We measured the vertical distribution of N2O in water
column profiles at 44 stations extending from northern
Baffin Bay to the Beaufort Sea. The relationship of N2O
to nutrient and oxygen distributions, bacterioplankton
abundance, primary production and other oceanographic
variables will be explored, and the relevance of Arctic waters
as a source of N2O to the atmosphere will be evaluated.
147
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
BOUNDARIES, BIODIVERSITY, RESOURCES
AND INCREASING MARITIME ACTIVITIES:
EMERGING OCEANS GOVERNANCE
CHALLENGES FOR CANADA IN THE ARCTIC
OCEAN
ISOTOPIC AND SEDIMENTOLOGICAL
EVIDENCE FOR SEA ICE CONDITIONS
AND PALEOCEANOGRAPHY OF THE 15,000
YEARS ON THE BEAUFORT SEA SLOPE AND
AMUNDSEN GULF, CANADA
Schofield, Clive1 ([email protected]), Potts, Tavis2 (tavis.
[email protected])
Scott, David B.1 ([email protected]), Trecia Schell2, Guillaume
St-Onge3, André Rochon3, Dennis Darby4, Steve Blasco5
and Jennifer McKay6
QEII Research Fellow, Australian National Centre for
Ocean Resources and Security (ANCORS), University of
Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
2
Coordinator, Centre for Coastal and Ocean Governance
(CCOG), Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS),
Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Scotland
1
The Arctic region is undergoing rapid
environmental and socio-economic change. As one of the
most rapidly warming places on the planet, the Arctic is
experiencing climate change related impacts such as a severe
downward trend in sea ice cover. The scientific community
has projected that this trend could result in a sea ice-free
summer by 2030 and perhaps even earlier. As conditions
warm, the retreat of sea ice is driving an expansion of
political and economic activity.
Recent world media attention has been focused
on the Arctic to an unprecedented extent. Much of the
discourse has been devoted to a perceived Arctic “scramble”
or “gold rush” for jurisdictional rights and marine resources,
especially potential seabed energy resources, in the context
of major changes in the Arctic environment. In particular
this was highlighted by the planting a flag on the seabed
of the North Pole by the Russian Federation in August
2007, sending a further wave of excitement and speculation
throughout the world press concerning the geopolitical
future of the Arctic.
This paper explores recent developments in the
Arctic region, notably in terms of environmental changes
and maritime claims with a particular emphasis on the
Canadian Arctic. The paper then examines some of the
potential impacts of expanding maritime industries such as
fishing, seabed resource exploration and navigation on the
conservation of biodiversity in, particularly, the Canadian
Arctic and the consequences in terms of oceans governance.
Centre for Environmental and Marine Geology, Dalhousie
University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5, CANADA
2
School for Information Studies, McGill University,
Montreal, QC H3A 1Y1
3
ISMER, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski,
Québec G5L 3A1
4
Department of Ocean, Earth, & Atmospheric Sciences,
4600 Elkhorn Ave., Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA
23529-0276
5
Natural Resources, Canada, 1 Challenger Drive,
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 4A2, CANADA
6
College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences Oregon
State University, 104 COAS Admin. BuildingCorvallis, OR
97331
1
Data from cores on the Beaufort Slope (site 750)
and in the Amundsen Gulf (site 124) have been compared
in a previous paper in regards to foraminiferal assemblages
with relation paleo-sea ice conditions. Here other proxies
are examined: carbon and oxygen stable isotopes from both
planktic and benthic foraminifera and sedimentological
markers from clays and coarse fractions of the IRD that
were identified but not studied previously. Site 750 is
particularly sensitive to paleo-ice cover because at present it
rests beneath the present margin of the permanent Arctic
ice pack. In the Holocene section of the core (except the
very surface) there is little carbonate and therefore no
isotopic data could be obtained but commencing at 120cm
and to 380cm, there is strong evidence of IRD. Occurring
with the IRD are many calcareous foraminifera, both
planktic and benthic, that provide isotopic signals for both
a surface and bottom water signal. Oxygen isotopes in the
IRD units (dated from ~11,500calBP to over 13,000calBP)
were uniformly high for the benthic species (>+4‰)
and lower for the planktics (as would be expected more
variation-+.5 to almost +3‰); the fact that the oxygen
isotopes of the benthic species do not change between
glacial and interglacial suggests that there is no global ice
volume signal in the Arctic as suggested earlier for Alpha
Ridge cores. However the changes in the planktic species
indicate salinity and/or temperature changes with ice melt
influences. Below 400cm the IRD disappears as do the
148
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
calcareous foraminifera. Site 124 is very close to the former
glacial margin in the Gulf. Isotopes indicate both surface
and bottom water conditions similar to site 750 which is
interesting because this core is in only 350m of water and
in an enclosed gulf. The paleomagnetic data suggest that
both cores have the same source of IRD for the upper IRD
units but the lower one in core 750 is older and different
composition. The commencement of ice rafting can only
occur if the ice pack starts to move to allow glacial calving
and iceberg movement so the date of over 12,000calBP
marks the beginning of deglaciation in the Amundsen Gulf
and into the Beaufort Sea. However the older IRD unit in
750 suggests glacial movement prior to 13,000calBP. These
new data combined with the previous foraminiferal data
make it possible to reconstruct bottom and surface water
conditions both before and during ice break up as well
as suggest what sea ice conditions were throughout the
Holocene and before.
Arctic, to the North Atlantic is estimated.
Altered mixing ratios of Pacific and freshwater in
the Arctic Ocean have been recorded in recent decades.
These changes lead to a redistribution of Arctic waters
entering the North Atlantic potentially masking changes due
to anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) loading. Export of
water with high DIC from the Pacific to the North Atlantic
via the Canadian Archipelago has implications for CO2
uptake, and hence ocean acidification, in the subpolar and
temperate North Atlantic.
WAVE PERTURBATIONS IN OPTICAL AIRGLOW
OBSERVATIONS AT HIGH NORTHERN
LATITUDES
Shepherd, Marianna G.1 ([email protected]), Y.-M. Cho1
and G.G. Shepherd1
Centre for Research in Earth and Space Science, York
University, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3
1
DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON IN THE
CANADIAN ARCHIPELAGO OF THE ARCTIC
OCEAN: THE EXPORT OF PACIFIC CARBON TO
THE NORTH ATLANTIC VIA BAFFIN BAY
Shadwick, Elizabeth H.1 ([email protected]), T.
Papakyriakou2, A. Mucci3, A. E. F. Prowe1, D. Leong1, S.
Moore1 and H. Thomas1
Dept. of Oceanography Dalhousie University, Halifax,
Nova Scotia, B3H 4J1
2
Center for Earth Observation Science, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB
3
Dept. Earth and Planetary Science, McGill University,
Montreal, QC
1
The Arctic Ocean is expected to be
disproportionately sensitive to climatic changes, and thought
to be an area where such changes might be detected. The
Arctic hydrological cycle is influenced by: runoff and
precipitation, sea ice formation/melting, and the inflow
of saline waters from Bering and Fram Strait, and from
the Barents Sea Shelf. Pacific water is recognizable as
low salinity water, with high concentrations of dissolved
inorganic carbon (DIC), flowing from the Arctic Ocean to
the North Atlantic via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. We
present DIC data from an east-west section through the
Archipelago, collected as part of the Canadian International
Polar Year initiatives. The fractions of Pacific and Arctic
Ocean waters leaving the Archipelago and entering Baffin
Bay, and subsequently the North Atlantic, are computed.
The eastward transport of carbon from the Pacific, via the
Two ground-based instruments called SATI
(Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager) monitoring
the airglow temperature and emission rate in the polar
Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region have
been in operation at Resolute Bay (74.68 N, 94.90 W)
and at Eureka (80.00 N, 86.25 W) since November, 2001,
and November, 2007, respectively. The Eureka SATI was
developed for the Canadian Network for the Detection
of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC) project and is a part
of a suite of optical instruments installed at the Polar
Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL)
providing a unique insight in the dynamics of the Northern
Pole MLT region. The SATI instrument is a two-channel,
Fabry-Perot interferometer, and measures the OH and O2
airglow emissions at 87 km and 94 km, where the airglow
emission peaks are located. The SATI annular field of
view is divided into 12 sectors in horizontal direction and
temperature and emission rates are separately calculated
for each of the sectors. These horizontal and vertical
measurements are used to investigate the atmospheric wave
dynamics in the MLT region at the two locations. Strong
gravity wave and planetary wave perturbations are identified
and the results on the wave propagation characteristics are
compared and discussed.
149
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
CIRCUMPOLAR ACTIVE LAYER MONITORING
(CALM) PROGRAM: ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND
FUTURE DIRECTIONS
Shiklomanov, Nikolay I.1 ([email protected]) and Frederick
E. Nelson1
Department of Geography, University of Delaware,
Newark, Delaware 19716, USA
1
The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM)
program, established in the early 1990s, is designed to
observe temporal and spatial variability of the active layer,
near-surface permafrost parameters, and their response to
changes and variations in climatic conditions. The CALM
network involves 15 participating countries and is comprised
of 168 sites distributed throughout the Arctic, parts of
Antarctica, and several mountain ranges of the midlatitudes. Owing to historical circumstances and logistical
constraints, the distribution of sites is not uniform within
the permafrost regions. The majority of the sites are in
Arctic and Subarctic lowlands. At 77 sites, direct activelayer measurements are conducted on standard rectangular
grids ranging from 10 x 10 m to 1 x 1 km. The locations
of grids were selected to represent generalized surface
and subsurface conditions characteristic of broad regions.
The size of each grid reflects the level of local geographic
variability. At 91 sites, active-layer values are inferred
using soil temperature measurements from boreholes
of variable depth. Approximately 60 CALM sites have
continuous active-layer records longer than five years and
30 have ten-year records or longer. Auxiliary information
includes air temperature, soil moisture, soil temperature
at different depth, snow cover, soil composition, and
landscape characterization. Several sites have records of
frost heave and thaw subsidence that are contributing to a
reconceptualization of the role of the active layer in globalchange studies. Metadata include detailed site descriptions
and photographs for each site. CALM is the world’s primary
source of information about the active layer. Data obtained
from the network have been used in validation procedures
for permafrost, hydrological, ecological, and climatic
models, at a variety of geographic scales. CALM is making
significant contributions to International Polar Year 2007-08
as a major component of the Thermal State of Permafrost IPY
project. This presentation summarizes decadal results and
accomplishments of the CALM program and project future
directions. UNDERSTANDING THE SPATIAL AND
TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF PRIMARY
PRODUCTION OVER THE HUDSON BAY, FOXE
BASIN AND HUDSON STRAIT MARINE SYSTEM
VIA COUPLED BIO-PHYSICAL MODELS
Sibert, Virginie1 ([email protected]), B. Zakardjian2,
M. Gosselin1, M. Starr3 and S. Senneville1
Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER),
Université du Québec à Rimouski, Québec, G5L-3A1
2
Laboratoire de sondages Electromagnétiques de
l’environnement Terrestre (LSEET), Université de Toulon et
du Var, 83957 LA GARDE CEDEX (France)
3
Institut Maurice Lamontagne (IML), Pêches et Océans
Canada, Mont-Joli, Québec, G5H 3Z4
1
The temperature increase over the Arctic Ocean
and its adjacent seas, as predicted by General Circulation
Models, implies multiple environmental changes such
as: intensification of the hydrological cycle, changes
in stratification and water mass circulation and most
importantly, large decrease in sea ice thickness and duration.
The associated marine biogeochemical responses (marine
production and associated fluxes) to such changes are still
largely unknown. The focus is the Hudson Bay system
(Hudson Bay, Foxe Basin and Hudson Strait), the largest
inland sea in Canada with typical Arctic characteristics
including cold, fresh waters and a complete seasonal seaice cover. This project attempts to better understand the
Hudson Bay marine ecosystem in response to climate
and ocean variability using coupled biological/physical
models. Two biological models are in development for the
understanding of sea-ice and pelagic biota respectively.
These models are driven by the sea ice-ocean model of
Saucier et al. (2004) with realistic tidal, atmospheric and
hydrologic forcing. We present here some of the most
important results concerning spatial and temporal variability
for both ice-algae and phytoplankton production.
ENGAGING NORTHERN COMMUNITIES
IN THE MONITORING OF COUNTRY FOOD
SAFETY
Simard, Manon1 ([email protected]), Blais, Blais2,
Elkin, Brett3, Forbes, Lorry4, Gajadhar, Alvin4, Jones,
Andria5, Leighton, Ted6, Nielson, Ole7, Rokicki, Antoni
Jerzy8
Nunavik Research Centre, Makivik Corporation, Kuujjuaq,
Quebec,J0M 1C0.
1
150
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa Laboratory
(Carling), Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6
3
Environmental and Natural Resources, Government of the
Northwest Territories, Yellowknife, NT, X1A 2L9
4
Centre for Food-borne and Animal Parasitology, Canadian
Food Inspection Agency, Saskatoon Laboratory, Saskatoon,
SK, S7N 2R3
5
Department of Population Medicine, University of
Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1
6
CCWHC, Western College of Veterinary Medicine,
Veterinary Pathology, University of Saskatchewan,
Saskatoon, Sk, S7N 5B4
7
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6
8
Department of Invertebrate Zoology Gdansk University,
81-378 Gdynia, Al.Pilsudskiego 48, Poland
2
Zoonoses in country food is a concern for
Canadian northerners because hunting wildlife is an integral
part of their daily life, and southern food can be expensive
to buy in the North. Scientific knowledge on zoonoses in
Northern Canada (?) is scarce and dispersed throughout
different governmental organizations. Furthermore, due
to the different methods of food preparations, food safety
concerns differ throughout the Canadian Arctic. The
involvement of northern communities in our research is
essential to get on-the-ground information to understand
wildlife and disease ecology. Our goals are five-fold: (1)
Establish the distribution of Trichinella sp, Toxoplasma gondii,
Anisakidae worms, E.coli 0157 and Salmonella sp of food
safety concern, (2) set-up laboratory facilities in Nunavik,
NWT and Labrador, (3) train local people for wildlife
sampling and diagnosis of the five diseases of interest (4)
develop rapid screening tests for the pathogens and adapt
them to the North, and (5) develop a Canadian web-based
database of Arctic wildlife diseases that can be accessed
by all northerners. Our communication strategy is to share
the results with the regional public health personnel and to
help develop recommendations for the safe consumption
of country foods. Once the recommendations are created,
they will be disseminated to the public in various, culturally
appropriate forms, including radio interviews, posters
and pamphlets. We want to empower northerners to take
informed decisions about food safety and to be better
equipped to prevent foodborne disease. This presentation
will be an update of the third year of a five-year project.
THE OPENING OF ARCTIC SHIPPING
ROUTES: UNDERWATER NOISE POLLUTION
CONSEQUENCES ON MARINE MAMMAL
HABITATS AS MEASURED ON A NEARBY
SOUTHERN SEAWAY, THE ST. LAWRENCE
Simard, Yvan1,2 ([email protected]), Nathalie Roy2
and Cédric Gervaise3
Institut des Sciences de la Mer (ISMER), Université du
Québec à Rimouski, 310 Allée des Ursulines, C.P. 3300,
Rimouski, Québec G5L-3A1, Canada, [email protected]
qc.ca
2
Institut Maurice-Lamontagne, Pêches et Océans Canada,
850 route de la Mer, C.P. 1000, Mont-Joli, Québec G5H3Z4, Canada
3
E3I2, EA3876, ENSIETA, GIS Europole Mer, 2 Rue
François Verny, 29200 Brest, France
1
Among the large changes expected to occur in the
Arctic Ocean as a result of ice melting in response to global
warming, we find the opening of new sea routes to interocean navigation. The development of the Northwest or
Northeast passages through the Arctic are obvious from the
clear economical advantage of transiting cargo from Asia to
Europe via much shorter routes than the present alternative
of circling around North America. Although environmental
risks of such development through chemical pollution
from spills or collisions are acknowledged, the more subtle
–but likely as relevant for marine mammals and fish– is the
inevitable introduction of severe anthropogenic noise into
this pristine, relatively silent, remote marine environment.
Marine mammals, and to some extent several fish species,
extensively use underwater sound to communicate,
navigate, feed and breed. The high level of noise pollution
associated to seaways risks to affect these vital functions
and change the quality of the habitat along the shipping
routes. Recent multi-year investigations of noise budget
on a major continental shipping route of North America,
the St. Lawrence Seaway, have documented the high noise
level associated to the transiting international shipping
fleet. This information is used here to gauge the expected
change in noise conditions along the anticipated seaways to
cross the Arctic Ocean. A large area of the basins along the
shipping lanes will likely experience substantial changes in
underwater noise conditions, in response to merchant ship
noise radiated over tenths of km. The periods of low noise
conditions, favourable to sound detection over large ranges,
will decrease as function of the traffic density. Marine
organisms intensively using sound in their vital activities,
especially in critical time periods or areas, will likely
experience large changes in underwater sound conditions
151
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
of their habitat by increasing shipping through the pristine
Arctic marine environments.
METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED
WITH SIGNIFICANT STORM SURGE ACTIVITY
ALONG THE BEAUFORT SEA COAST
Small, David1 ([email protected]), E. Atallah1 and
J. R. Gyakum1
Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill
University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6
1
Coastal regions in the Beaufort Sea have
experienced significant shoreline erosion over the last
several decades. The most dramatic impacts are observed
during storm surge events that tend to occur in the early
fall months (August through early October; ASO) before
the sea ice coverage in the Beaufort Sea becomes complete.
In this study, nine events that produced significant damage
at Tuktoyaktuk are examined to isolate the dominant
mechanisms responsible for producing storm surge events.
The monthly climatology of ASO hourly winds
at Tuktoyaktuk indicates that a majority of large wind
events, including the nine storm surge events, are westerly.
The largest winds observed at coastal stations in western
Alaska are also predominately oriented from west to
east, suggesting a role for the nearby Brooks Range in
producing severe winds along the coast. The evolution
of wind, temperature and sea level pressure fields suggest
that cold air damming to the north of the Brooks Range
is responsible for producing the large westerly winds
observed during storm surge events. In the hours leading
up to the storm surge events, the passage of a cyclone
through the Beaufort Sea causes a dome of cold air to build
along the north slope of the Brooks Range to the west of
Tuktoyaktuk. As the cold air causes the geopotential heights
to rise, a strong pressure gradient is induced parallel to
mountains along the Beaufort coast. The resulting down
gradient acceleration produces winds throughout the lower
troposphere that are approximately geostrophic. Model
soundings at Tuktoyaktuk and diagnostic analysis confirm
that the surface winds at Tuktoyaktuk during the storm
surge events are enhanced by momentum mixing in the
unstable boundary layer. The roles of antecedent sea level
height and sea ice are discussed.
SEABIRDS INDICATE CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC
MARINE ENVIRONMENT
Smith, Paul A.1 ([email protected]), A.J. Gaston1,
H.G. Gilchrist1 and M. Mallory2
Environment Canada - National Wildlife Research Centre,
Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3
2
Canadian Wildlife Service, Iqaluit, Nunavut, X0A 0H0
1
Climate change is accelerated at high latitudes, and
arctic marine environments are among the most profoundly
affected on the globe. Some impacts are already evident,
but monitoring changes in marine ecosystems in the arctic
is difficult because of the geographic extent and relative
inaccessibility of the seasonally ice-covered waters. Seabirds
are long-lived top predators that return to fixed colony
locations to breed. They have a variable diet and forage
over large distances at a variety of ocean depths. They have
long been proposed as cost-effective sentinels of change in
marine ecosystems, and their use as indicators has already
provided insights into the climate-driven changes taking
place in the Canadian arctic. Our IPY project examines how
seabird diets and breeding biology respond to changes in
oceanographic conditions, and what these signals may tell
us about changes at lower trophic levels. These observations
should enable us to predict future change in marine food
webs. To illustrate the potential of these techniques we
present data from more than 25 years of observation on
Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia) at colonies across the
species’ range in the eastern Canadian arctic. The timing
of birds’ arrival at the colony has tracked the advances
in timing of ice-out, but the period between arrival and
laying is longer than it previously was, suggesting energetic
limitation. Diet changes demonstrate a shift towards fish
species from subarctic waters such as the capelin (Mallotus
villosus) and away from Arctic fishes such as the Arctic cod
(Boreogadus saida). Overall, reductions in ice cover have had
negative consequences for individuals at the southern edge
of the species’ range, and positive effects for those at the
northern edge of the range, creating the conditions for a
future range shift.
THERMAL STATE OF PERMAFROST IN CANADA
– A SNAPSHOT OF CURRENT CONDITIONS
AND RECENT TRENDS
Smith, Sharon1 ([email protected]), A.G. Lewkowicz2 and
C.R. Burn3
152
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources Canada,
Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E8
2
Department of Geography, University of Ottawa, Ottawa,
Ontario K1N 6N5
3
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies,
Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6
1
Over the past two to three decades, Canadian
researchers have established and maintained a permafrost
monitoring network consisting of boreholes in which
ground temperatures are measured. This network is a
key contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network for
Permafrost. Data collected from the monitoring sites have
facilitated documentation of recent trends in permafrost
thermal state. These results have contributed significantly
to the characterization of changes in permafrost conditions
across the circumpolar north, as reported in a number
of recent international assessments including the Fourth
Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change.
The International Polar Year (IPY) provides the
opportunity for the Canadian permafrost community and
the International Permafrost Association to conduct a well
designed global and coordinated multinational programme
of permafrost observations in order to explore present
conditions and their spatial and temporal variability. A
collaborative IPY project led by the Geological Survey
of Canada, University of Ottawa and Carleton University
represents the main Canadian contribution to this larger
international project. Key objectives of the project include:
(1) continued collection and synthesis of data from all
monitoring sites to extend the time-series and improve
characterization of the response of permafrost to climate
change and variability; (2) establishment of new monitoring
sites prior to and during IPY to increase coverage in
underrepresented regions; (3) obtain a set of standardized
temperature measurements for all Canadian monitoring sites
(snapshot).
Funding acquired through the Canadian
Government’s IPY program along with additional support
acquired by the project investigators and collaborators has
facilitated the establishment of over 50 new monitoring
sites over the last three years. New sites include: seven sites
in the Baffin region of Nunavut established in collaboration
with communities; collaboration with Parks Canada to
instrument sites in northern Manitoba; increased coverage
in the western Arctic including the Yukon Territory. Initial
thermal data have been acquired from a number of these
new sites providing information on permafrost conditions
in areas for which little recent information was available.
Data from these sites and the existing long-term sites
have been utilized to produce a preliminary snapshot of
permafrost conditions during the first portion of the Polar
Year providing an improved baseline against which change
can be measured.
The extension of existing time series and associated
analyses indicates that there is generally an ongoing increase
in shallow permafrost temperatures across the Canadian
north. The magnitude of rate of increase however varies
regionally. Smaller increases for example are observed in
ice-rich terrain in the southern portion of the permafrost
region where ground temperatures are approaching 0°C.
In addition, the role of local factors such as variations in
snow cover is being investigated to improve understanding
of permafrost-climate relationships and the response of
permafrost to climate change and variability.
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN WATER, ICE AND
SEDIMENT DURING SPRING BREAKUP AT
THE MOUTH OF THE MACKENZIE RIVER,
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES
Solomon, Steven M.1 ([email protected], D. L. Forbes1,
M. Belanger2, D. Whalen1, P. Marsh3
Geological Survey of Canada (Atlantic), Natural Resources
Canada, Dartmouth, NS, B2Y 4A2
2
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering,
University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2W2
3
National Hydrology Research Centre, 11 Innovation
Boulevard, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 3H5
1
Breakup of northerly draining large Arctic rivers is
controlled by early thaw in their upper (southerly) drainage
basins, while cold temperatures initially persist in their lower
reaches. This leads to dramatic increases in river discharge
while the river mouths are still encumbered by thick ice.
The Mackenzie River is the largest northerly draining
river in North America, both in terms of water discharge
and sediment delivery. Recent hydrocarbon exploration
activities and proposed development have instigated a series
of studies to investigate the interaction between rising
discharge and sea ice and the impacts on sediment transport
at the river outlet in the Beaufort Sea.
Satellite-based observations were combined
with data from in situ sensors and helicopter-borne
reconnaissance to document the progression of breakup
during the May-June period in 2006 to 2008. Synthetic
Aperture Radar (SAR) was used to map the development
and distribution of bottomfast sea ice (BFI) at the mouths
of distributary channels. Data from optical sensors (MODIS
and MERIS) were used to map the progression of overflow
and subsequent drainage. BFI was found to play a critical
153
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
role in controlling the timing and location of overflow
early in the breakup season. Overflow occurs when rising
river discharge encounters decreased channel capacity
where distributary channels enter the ocean. Energetic and
extensive upwelling was observed at the landward edge
of the BFI during the rising limb of the spring freshet
several weeks prior to the peak. Overflow velocities over
the surface of the ice were on the order of 0.15 metres
per second. Pressure gauges placed on the ice surface
at two locations showed that overflow depth increased
from zero to 30 cm in 15-30 minutes. BFI also controls
the locus of overflow waters because it is topographically
lower than the surrounding ice which is free to float as
water levels rise. However, maximum overflow extent
overshoots the boundaries of BFI to where it encounters
cracks and flaws in the ice canopy at which point drainage
through the ice occurs. Drainage vortices have been termed
“strudels”. Extensive fields of strudel drainage features were
encountered in both 2007 and 2008 and are concentrated
at the seaward edge of the BFI. This area appears to be
associated with ice that is only tenuously bonded to the
seabed so that the warming associated with the overflow
causes it to float upward driving drainage of the overlying
flood water. Strudel drainage is known to cause scours
on the seabed several metres deep and 10s of metres in
diameter along the North Slope in Alaska. Probing and
acoustic surveys have documented “strudel scours” off the
Mackenzie Delta up to 1.2 m deep and 15 m in diameter.
In 2007, the scours persisted at least until August when the
surveys were undertaken, whereas, in 2008, scours mapped
in June had disappeared by August. These observations
indicate that mediation of discharge by sea ice in shallow
nearshore waters can have significant impacts on sediment
mobility with implications for human activities such as
pipeline operations and dredging.
in Svalbard. The aim of the CLEOPATRA project is to
investigate the role of light for timing, quantity and quality
of primary and secondary production in a seasonally icecovered ecosystem. Due to the predicted loss of sea ice we
were particularly interested in the importance of ice algae
for reproduction and growth of the herbivorous copepod
Calanus glacialis, representing the key link between primary
producers and higher trophic levels in Arctic shelf seas. In
2007, Rijpfjorden was ice-covered from early February until
mid-July with maximum ice thickness in June. Ice algae were
present from March to June, with peak biomass in April
and June. In April, 2 months prior to the phytoplankton
bloom, C. glacialis were observed with green guts, and in
June high amounts of typical ice algal fatty acids were found
in C. glacialis. Eggs were produced in March, but highest egg
production was measured in June. From July to October
females were rarely found. Highest occurrence of nauplii
and young copepodites coincided with high phytoplankton
biomass in July. Future scenarios with open waters all year
round may have severe impact on the population success
of C. glacialis. Experimental studies confirmed that food
is of crucial importance for gonad development and high
egg production rates. In Rijpfjorden, the occurrence of
ice algae ensured early reproduction, which again gave the
opportunity for the offspring to feed on the later occurring
phytoplankton bloom. In Rijpfjorden, most of the C.
glacialis population had descended to overwintering depths
in October, and at that time the majority had reached
copepodite stage V, suggesting a predominately 1 year life
cycle. By utilizing both ice algae and phytoplankton C.
glacialis extend its growth season substantially, which can
explain its rapid development and population success in
relatively extreme Arctic environments.
IMPORTANCE OF ICE ALGAE FOR CALANUS
GLACIALIS IN THE HIGH-ARCTIC
SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL CHANGES IN
NET ECOSYSTEM EXCHANGE AND SOIL
RESPIRATION RATE IN IN FOUR NORTHERN
ECOREGIONS
Søreide, Janne Elin1 ([email protected]), E. Leu2, M. Graeve3,
J. Berge1, G. Kattner3 and S. Falk-Petersen2
Startsev, Natalia1 ([email protected]), Jagtar S. Bhatti1
and Partick Hurdle1
1
The University Centre in Svalbard, N-9171 Longyearbyen,
Norway
2
Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsø, Norway
3
Alfred-Wegener-Institute für Polar- und Meeresforschung,
27515 Bremerhaven, Germany
1
During the Norwegian IPY-project CLEOPATRA
we carried out an extensive seasonal study of the lower
trophic levels in Rijpfjorden, a high-Arctic fjord (80ºN)
The northern regions of Canada have undergone
greatest increase in annual temperature over the last 30 years
as compared with rest of Canada. Increase in temperature
affects carbon assimilation and release, which in term
affects carbon source-sink relationship of the entire area.
Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service,
Northern Forestry Centre, 5320 122 Street, Edmonton,
Alberta T6H 3S5
154
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Permafrost thawing exposes deeper thickness of active layer
to decomposition, which affects the fate of large organic
C stored in these northern ecosystems and could result
in increased release of GHG in the atmosphere. On the
other hand, increased photosynthesis in warmer conditions
and extended frost-free period could accelerate organic C
accumulation in the wettest parts of the landscape, thereby
increase C storage.
The study was initiated to evaluate source-sink
relationship of CO2 across climatic gradient and forestpeatland landscape position, and to identify climatic and
biological factors affecting CO2 assimilation/released in
northern ecosystems.
To achieve this, sites were selected across four
ecoregions and permafrost zones i.e. low boreal, high
boreal, low subarctic and high subarctic throughout the
Mackenzie Valley. These four sites are located in the
regions of Inuvik, Norman Wells, Fort Simpson, and
Fort McMurray. Temporally and spatially explicit carbon
dioxide assimilation/emissions monitoring was initialized
in late summer of 2007 and continued throughout
growing season of 2008. Along with CO2 monitoring,
sites were also instrumented to continuously monitor
water table depth, soil moisture, soil temperature, water
chemistry, redox and oxygen concentration. Early results
shows that soil respiration rate decreased with increase
in latitude and thereby could be related to the decrease
in mean annual temperatures. The greatest respiration
rates were observed in the upland forested sites, while the
most significant assimilation of C took place in the water
saturated peatland areas across ecoclimatic zones. Diurnal
and seasonal observations of net ecosystem exchange
(NEE) and climatic variables provide explicit database for C
source-sink relationship for the area and correlation-based
modelling for GHG emissions from the surface, utilizable
for large area extrapolation. Results from our study provide
some indication that with permafrost thawing, northern
ecosystems are likely to increase growing-season CO2
uptake.
MODELLING BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING
AND INTERFACIAL EXCHANGE OF
CLIMATICALLY IMPORTANT GASES
Steiner, Nadja1 ([email protected]), K. Denman2,1 and
S. Vagle2
Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis,
Environment Canada, University of Victoria, Victoria,
British Columbia, V8W 3V6
2
Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada,
1
Sidney, British Columbia, V8L 4B2
We have developed a 1-D coupled atmosphereocean-biogeochemical model to study gas exchange at the
atmosphere-ocean interface. The coupled model consists of
an atmospheric Single Column Model (SCM), based on the
CCCma AGCM (Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling
and Analysis-Atmospheric General Circulation Model),
the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and a 7component ecosystem model embedded in GOTM. The
ecosystem model also includes oxygen, nitrogen, carbon
and silica cycling as well as a marine DMS (dimethylsulfide)
module. The AGCM includes a comprehensive sulphur
cycle which is now coupled to the ocean DMS model.
The study focuses on the representation of gas
exchange processes in models, including formulations
for gas exchange via bubbles (e.g. O2 and N2, CO2) and
dispersion in the atmosphere (DMS).
The model has been extensively tested for Ocean
Station Papa (OSP, 145 W, 50 N) in the Northeast Pacific,
where observations are available from a long-term air-sea
exchange mooring which has been maintained at a location
near OSP from September 2002 to June 2007 as part of
the Canadian Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study
(C-SOLAS). The mooring provides a new long-term data
set for gas measurements. In addition to Conductivity,
Temperature and Depth (CTD) recorders at two depths,
the mooring is equipped with ProOceanus Gas Tension
Devices (GTDs) measuring the total gas pressure at four
different depths, a pCO2 sensor, two oxygen sensors, two
fluorometers for chlorophyll estimates, and an upwardlooking 200~kHz echo-sounder for bubble measurements.
Additional observations are derived from regular cruises
along Line P and an intense measurement period during
the Subarctic Ecosystem Response to Iron Enrichment
Study (SERIES) in July 2002. We are now in the process of
extending the model with a snow - sea ice - ice algae module
to study gas exchange processes in high latitudes.
EVIDENCE OF LAKE AGASSIZ FINAL
OUTBURST FLOOD FROM HUDSON BAY TO
OFFSHORE LABRADOR
St-Onge, Guillaume1,2 ([email protected]), P.
Lajeunesse3, A. Jennings4 and J.T. Andrews4
Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski (ISMER),
Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec, G5L
3A1
2
GEOTOP, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3P8
3
Centre d’études nordiques & Département de géographie,
Université Laval, Québec, Québec, G1K 7P4
1
155
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
INSTAAR and Dept. of Geological Sciences, University of
Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0450
Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait were the sites of
a dynamic and rapid deglaciation that culminated in the
catastrophic drainage of proglacial Lake Agassiz into the
North Atlantic around 8500 cal BP. It has been suggested
that this catastrophic event may have triggered the 8200
cal BP cold event recorded in Greenland ice cores and in
northern Europe. Evidence for that outburst flood was
the identification of a centimeter to decimeter-thick red
layer that was observed in Hudson Strait sediments around
8000 yr BP. In this paper, we have identified a sequence
of two flood-induced turbidites (i.e., hyperpycnites) in a
reddish layer from two cores collected in northern Hudson
Bay (core AMD0509-27bLEH) and western Hudson Strait
(core AMD0509-28PC) onboard the ice-breaker CCGS
Amundsen as part of the ArcticNet program, demonstrating
the flood-induced and two-pulse nature of the red bed. The
cores also reveal that the red bed is coarser and thicker in
Hudson Bay, indicating its proximity to the sediment source.
In addition, the apparent absence of hemipelagic sediments
and ice-rafted debris (IRD) between the two turbidites along
with the presence of IRD in sediments above and below
the red bed indicate its rapid deposition and that there
was little time between the two flooding events. Similarly,
based on the sediment color and magnetic susceptibility of
several cores, we identified and traced a red bed throughout
Hudson Strait and offshore Labrador near Cartwright
Saddle. Radiocarbon ages and X-ray analysis indicate
that these red beds have a similar timing and mineralogy,
suggesting a western Hudson Bay and Strait sediment
provenance following Lake Agassiz final outburst flood.
4
FUNCTIONAL LAYERING OF MARINE MAMMAL
BLUBBER INFLUENCES THE STRATIFICATION
OF LIPOPHILIC COMPOUNDS IN THE
BLUBBER
Strandberg, Ursula1 ([email protected]), A.
Käkelä1, C. Lydersen2, K.M. Kovacs2, O. Grahl-Nielsen3, T.
Sipilä4, J. Koskela4, H. Hyvärinen1 and R. Käkelä1,5
Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, P. O. Box
111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland
2
Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsø, Norway
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, N-5007
Bergen, Norway
4
Metsähallitus, Natural Heritage Services, Savonlinna, FI57130, Finland
5
current address: Institute of Biomedicine, Department of
Biochemistry and Developmental Biology, Biomedicum
1
Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 8, P.O. Box 63, Fl-00014
University of Helsinki, Finland
Marine mammal blubber is frequently used for
biomonitoring of marine ecosystems; different lipophilic
substances are analyzed from the subcutaneous lipid
layer. However, detailed vertical profiling (throughout the
blubber column from skin to muscle) of different lipid
components: fatty acids, triacylglycerols and phospholipids
(phosphatidylcholine; PC, sphingomyelin; SM, and
phosphatidylethanolamine) revealed that ringed seal (Pusa
hispida) blubber is highly specialized and biochemically
layered into three different segments: superficial, middle
and deep blubber. The superficial blubber had a high degree
of fatty acid Δ9-desaturation, indicating adaptation to low
temperature, and also a high SM/PC ratio which has been
associated with insulin insensitivity and hence impaired lipid
metabolism. These findings indicate that the superficial
blubber might serve a primary a thermoregulatory role and
have low metabolic activity. The high variance in the lipid
composition in the deep blubber suggests that this layer is
metabolically very active and is probably strongly affected
by recent lipid mobilization/deposition. The thicknesses
of both the superficial and deep blubber were quite stable
under different nutritional conditions, whereas the middle
blubber seems to expand and contract with food availability,
and thus it can be defined as the storage site for energy.
This kind of functional layering of the blubber is certain to
strongly affect the deposition, distribution and mobilization
of lipophilic substances such as lipid soluble vitamins
and organic pollutants in the blubber. Indeed, detailed
vertical profiles of vitamin A demonstrated that vitamin
A is unevenly distributed in the blubber column, which is
probably due to the functional layering of the lipids in the
blubber. The biochemical and metabolic layering of the
blubber should be taken into consideration when sampling
marine mammal blubber for various types of biomonitoring.
MEASURING ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION
AT PEARL: AN OVERVIEW OF THE FIRST TWO
YEARS
Strong, Kimberly1 ([email protected]),
C. Adams1, R. Batchelor1, J.R. Drummond2, W. Daffer3,
P.F. Fogal1, A. Fraser1, F. Kolonjari1, R. Lindenmaier1, G.
Manney3, K.A. Walker1 and M.A. Wolff1
Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto,
Ontario, M5S 1A7
2
Department of Physics & Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie
University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1Z9
3
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of
1
156
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Technology, Pasadena, California, USA
The recently established Polar Environment
Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) is located in
the Canadian high Arctic at Eureka, Nunavut (80N, 86W).
It has been equipped with a suite of instrumentation
to investigate chemical and physical processes in the
atmosphere from the ground to 100 km. The complexity of
the atmosphere and the different spectroscopic signatures
of its many chemical constituents make it impossible to
measure all relevant species using any one remote sounding
technique. Rather, these measurements are being made
using the complementary capabilities of several of the
PEARL instruments, including Fourier transform infrared
(FTIR) spectrometers, UV-visible grating spectrometers,
and an Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. This
presentation will provide an overview of spectroscopic
trace gas measurements made during the first two years of
operation, which largely coincide with International Polar
Year. These will include both tropospheric and stratospheric
constituents, with a focus on those relevant to the Arctic
Middle Atmosphere Chemistry theme, whose overall goal is
to improve our understanding of the processes controlling
the Arctic stratospheric ozone budget and its future
evolution.
THE CIRCUMPOLAR BIODIVERSITY
MONITORING PROGRAM: COORDINATING
FOR ARCTIC CONSERVATION
Svoboda, Michael ([email protected])
CBMP Office, Environment Canada, 91780 Alaska
Highway, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 5B7
In response to the global importance of the Arctic’s
biodiversity, the increasing pressures on Arctic biodiversity
and human communities, and our limited capacity to
monitor and understand these changes, the Arctic Climate
Impact Assessment (ACIA) recommended that long-term
Arctic biodiversity monitoring be expanded and enhanced.
In response to these recommendations, the Arctic Council’s
Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna Working Group
(CAFF) began development of the Circumpolar Biodiversity
Monitoring Program (CBMP).
The CBMP is a mechanism for harmonizing and
enhancing long-term biodiversity monitoring efforts across
the Arctic in order to improve our ability to detect and
report on significant trends and pressures. The resulting
information will be used to assist policy and decision
making at the global, national, regional and local levels.
Considering the size and complexity of the
circumpolar Arctic, it is essential that the CBMP promote
and develop an integrated ecosystem-based approach to
monitoring. Such an approach involves monitoring that
bridges ecosystems, habitat and species and demands
information not only on the status and trends in Arctic
biodiversity, but also on their underlying causes. It is critical
that this information be collected and made available to
generate effective strategies for adapting to the changes
now taking place in the Arctic —a process that ultimately
depends on rigorous, integrated, and efficient monitoring
programs that have the power to detect change within
a reasonable time frame. Towards this end, the CBMP
will facilitate the integration and coordination of a
multidisciplinary, integrated ecosystem-based approach to
research and monitoring through the development of five
integrated Expert Monitoring Groups (Marine, Coastal,
Freshwater, Terrestrial Vegetation and Terrestrial Fauna).
Each group will be comprised of existing place-based and
network-based research and monitoring programs utilizing
both community-based and other scientific monitoring
approaches, representing a diversity of expertise and
monitoring capabilities. Special attention will be paid
to community-based observations and citizen science,
understanding the value and significance of local people
living in the Arctic environment and their contribution to
the monitoring of Arctic biodiversity. Over the next five
years, the CBMP will focus its efforts on the following key
areas: • Developing a strategy for building and maintaining a
comprehensive and cost-effective circumpolar monitoring
program that addresses current deficiencies;
• Coordinating and integrating biodiversity monitoring
programs and promoting standardized measures and
harmonized data protocols;
• Assessing current monitoring capacity and design
to identify elemental, geographic, and statistical design
deficiencies and inefficiencies;
• Interpreting, integrating, and communicating existing
biodiversity information (establishing statistical baselines
and retrospective assessments);
• Developing data-management structures and a
Web-based data portal for the synthesis, analysis, and
dissemination of biodiversity information;
• Identifying and initiating pilot monitoring projects,
where clear gaps exist;
• Reporting on the status of Arctic biodiversity and the
issues facing it, using diverse formats for communication,
education and outreach at the global, national, regional and
local levels.
157
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
TRANSIENTS IN THE NORTH: INTERACTIONS
OF MIGRATORY FISH, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND
CONTAMINANT ACCUMULATION IN COASTAL
ARCTIC LAKES
Swanson, Heidi1 ([email protected]), K. Kidd1
Canadian Rivers Institute, University of New Brunswick,
Saint John, NB E2L 4L5
1
Freshwater lakes on the coast of Nunavut,
Canada, are subject to a variety of stressors, including
climate change, industrial development, and deposition of
contaminants from both local and remote sources. Our
current knowledge of food web structure, community
composition, and contaminant bioaccumulation in
coastal Arctic lakes does not allow us to accurately model
contaminant concentrations in fishes or predict the
effect of climate change on these concentrations. This is
especially important in lakes that are used for subsistence
fishing. To address this knowledge gap, we studied food
web structure and concentrations of bioaccumulating
metals (e.g., mercury, selenium, rubidium) in 6 lakes on
the mainland coast of the Canadian Arctic. Three lakes
contained populations of sea-run fishes (fish that migrate
between marine and freshwater environments) whereas the
remainder contained only landlocked fish species. Sea-run
fishes are especially susceptible to climate warming because
increased water temperature and decreased stream flow may
result in extirpation of sea-run fishes from lakes with small
migration streams. We found that the presence of a sea-run
fish species, Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), significantly
altered food web structure and contaminant accumulation
in lakes where they were present. In 2 of 3 lakes with searun Arctic charr, lake trout (the top predator fish; Salvelinus
namaycush) had a relatively lower trophic position and
significantly lower contaminant concentrations than in
lakes without sea-run Arctic charr. We also found that lake
trout in lakes with sea-run Arctic charr were in significantly
better condition. This was likely due to juvenile Arctic
charr serving as an alternate, high-quality prey source. We
conclude that climate-induced extirpations of sea-run Arctic
charr from coastal Arctic lakes will alter food web structure
and may result in increased contaminant concentrations.
VERTICAL EXPORT OF ORGANIC MATTER
FROM SEA ICE IN THE BARENTS SEA AND
NANSEN BASIN (ARCTIC OCEAN)
Tamelander, Tobias ([email protected]), M.
Reigstad1, H. Hop2 and T. Ratkova3
1,2
Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of
Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway
2
Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsø, Norway
3
Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of
Sciences, Nakhimovsky Ave. 36, 117997 Moscow, Russia
1
Ice-associated algae contribute to the total primary
production, fluxes of organic matter between the ice and
water column, and to deep export of organic carbon in
ice-covered seas. Export of organic matter from sea ice
was studied in the offshore marginal ice zone (MIZ) of the
northern Barents Sea and Nansen Basin north of Svalbard.
Water masses, ice conditions, and total primary production
differ markedly from regions dominated by land-fast ice,
where investigations of sub-ice fluxes traditionally have
been carried out. Hence, characteristic patterns in the
magnitude, composition and temporal variation in export
can be expected in this region. The results are contrasted to
sub-ice export and fluxes from the pelagic system elsewhere
in the Arctic.
Organic matter fluxes measured by short-term
sediment trap deployments at 1 m depth directly below
the ice and at 30 m were generally higher in spring (May)
than in summer (July). Maximum fluxes of particulate
organic carbon and chlorophyll a from the ice (1537 mg C
m-2d-1 and 20 mg Chl a m-2d-1) exceeded the flux at 30 m
by a factor of 2 during the early melting phase, a pattern
that typically was reversed later in the season. These values
are also higher than fluxes observed under land-fast ice
in the western Arctic. The composition of algae revealed
a pattern of increasing importance of flagellates in the
vertical flux during the progression of ice melting, with
diatoms only being dominant in the early melting phase.
Overall, flagellates contributed significantly to the iceassociated algal biomass and to exported algal carbon. The
simultaneously high export of ice-derived organic matter
and phytoplankton in the offshore MIZ differs from export
in land-fast ice systems, where export from sea ice typically
precedes export from the pelagic system.
REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS AND LONGDISTANCE MOVEMENTS OF SNOWY OWLS: IS
THIS TOP ARCTIC PREDATOR VULNERABLE
TO CLIMATE CHANGE?
Therrien, Jean-François1 ([email protected]
ca), G. Gauthier1 and J. Bêty2
Département de biologie et Centre d’études nordiques,
Université Laval, Québec, Québec, G1V 0A6
2
Département de biologie et Centre d’études nordiques,
1
158
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec, G5L
3A1
As a top predator of the terrestrial ecosystem, the
Snowy Owl is believed to play a key role in the regulation
of cyclic lemming populations in the Arctic. Their ability
to move over long distance between years mean that owl
populations could contribute to the stability of the food
web over a large spatial scale. However, because of these
erratic movements, we know very little on the biology of
this species. The paucity of information on Snowy Owls in
Nunavut is most unfortunate because it limits our ability to
evaluate its vulnerability to current change occurring in the
Arctic. The primary goals of this project were to study the
reproduction and the long-distance movements of Snowy
Owls breeding in Nunavut in relation to the variations in
lemming abundance. Since 1993, we monitored the annual
reproductive success of Snowy Owls and the abundance of
lemmings on Bylot Island, Nunavut. In addition, in summer
2007, we marked 12 adult female snowy owls with satellite
transmitters and tracked their movements over a full year. In
summer 2008, we revisited the sites where most birds had
settled. Owls showed enormous variability in their migration
patterns and showed no breeding site fidelity. Although
2 birds spent the winter in southern Canada, most birds
wintered in the Arctic. Birds wintering in the north spent
a significant amount of time on the sea ice (from 1 to 2.5
months) mostly along South Baffin Island, suggesting that
it is an important wintering habitat in Nunavut. In summer
2008, 7 out of 8 marked females that we were able to visit
throughout Baffin Island were nesting, confirming for the
first time that Snowy Owls can breed in two consecutive
years in sites very far apart (700 km on average). Preliminary
analysis of regurgitation pellets revealed that 95% of the
food items taken by owls in summer are lemmings, thus
supporting the strong correlation between reproductive
success and lemming abundance we observed on a longterm basis. Therefore, we believe that this top predator
could be severely impaired by the collapsing of small
mammals’ population cycles, as observed in Scandinavia
and Russia. New information on winter habitat use revealed
by satellite tracking also suggests that this species may be
vulnerable to the rapid melting of the sea ice due to climate
change.
NUTRIENT DYNAMICS IN THE SOUTHEAST
BEAUFORT SEA DURING THE CFL, CASES AND
ARCTICNET CAMPAIGNS: IMPLICATIONS FOR
PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY
Tremblay, Jean-Éric1 ([email protected]), J.
Martin1, J. Gagnon1 and S. Pineault1
Département de Biologie et Québec Océan, Université
Laval, Québec, Québec, G1V OA6
1
Nutrients play a major role in Arctic marine
ecosystems by setting an upper bound to the yield of
primary producers and renewable living resources. The
evidence is mounting that net productivity and the
associated fluxes of biogenic carbon respond to the
modulation of nitrogen supply by climate, through its
effects on the freshwater balance, sea ice and atmosphereocean coupling. With the successful completion of the CFL
sampling program in 2008, we now have comprehensive
information on nutrient renewal from autumn to winter in
the gulf of Amundsen. This data set builds on the previous
CASES overwintering, which provided similar information
for the adjacent Franklin Bay (2004), and three ArcticNet
expeditions (2005, 2006, 2007) that complete our time series
of autumn data. While some of these years are generally
similar despite contrasted ice regimes, striking anomalies
occurred in relation to local physical forcing and the
passage of physical singularities generated remotely. In this
presentation, we put these events into perspective through a
comparison with the “average” setting, assess possible links
with weather patterns and discuss their implications for
primary production on a local and remote basis.
CHARACTERIZING THE DIVERSITY OF LAKE
WATER BALANCES IN THE OLD CROW FLATS,
YT, USING WATER ISOTOPE TRACERS
Turner, Kevin W.1 ([email protected]), B.B. Wolfe1,
T.W.D. Edwards2
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies,
Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3C5
2
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences,
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1
1
The Old Crow Flats (OCF), located in northern
Yukon Territory, is a 5600 km2 wetland of international
significance recognized by the Ramsar Convention. Over
2000 shallow thermokarst lakes provide key habitat for
wildlife including waterfowl, fish, muskrat, moose and the
159
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Porcupine Caribou Herd, which the Vuntut Gwitchin First
Nation (VGFN) depend on for subsistence. The VGFN
have observed reduced lake levels over the past few decades
and consequently the OCF has become less accessible by
boat during times of low river flow. Furthermore, there
are concerns about how the changing landscape may affect
wildlife.
As part of the multidisciplinary Government of
Canada International Polar Year project, “Environmental
change and traditional use of the Old Crow Flats in
northern Canada”, studies are being conducted to identify
the relative importance of hydrological processes that
control the water balance of lakes in the OCF. Using
water isotope tracers, 56 lakes spanning the OCF are being
monitored throughout the ice-free seasons of 2007-09.
Results from the 2007 field season indicate marked diversity
in lake water balance characteristics. Snowmelt-dominated
lakes are located in the south, west and northern subregions, where more dense vegetation cover entraps snow
transported by prevailing northeasterly winds. Rainfalldominated lakes tend to have larger surface areas and
occupy the central corridor from the east to the northwest
where there is less vegetation cover. Groundwaterinfluenced oxbow lakes are located along the floodplain
of the Old Crow River and receive input throughout the
ice-free season from snowmelt-recharged channel fens and
sub-surface flow. The degree and effects of evaporation
among these lake types are variable. Although the influence
of evaporation on snowmelt and rainfall-dominated lakes
is generally similar, the greater input of snow to the former
maintains a positive water balance for many of these
basins. In contrast, several rainfall-dominated lakes show
evidence of water level drawdown by the end of the icefree season. Groundwater-influenced lakes are less affected
by evaporative drawdown because of the input of subsurface flow throughout the ice-free season. Drained lakes
are also commonly observed throughout the landscape and
in most cases are likely the result of slumping banks from
thermo-erosion. High amounts of input can also cause lake
drainage, as was the case for Zelma Lake in early June 2007.
Record rainfall triggered the rapid overland drainage of the
lake into a nearby creek.
Ongoing analysis will assess variability of the
hydrological processes that control the water balances of
lakes in the OCF on contemporary time-scales and in the
recent past from multi-proxy analyses of lake sediment
cores. Ultimately, results will help to determine whether
present-day water balance characteristics are reflective
of natural hydrological variability or are unique as a
consequence of recent anthropogenically-enhanced climate
change.
EXTREME WARMING, HABITAT LOSS AND
ABRUPT ECOSYSTEM CHANGE AT CANADA’S
NORTHERN EDGE
Vincent, Warwick1 ([email protected]), Derek
Mueller2, Dermot Antoniades1, Julie Veillette1, Anne
Jungblut1, Denis Sarrazin1, Mickaël Lemay1 and Christine
Barnard1
CEN – Centre d’études nordiques, Université Laval,
Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
2
Geography Department, Trent University, Peterborough,
ON K9J 7B8, Canada
1
According to the “biodiversity paradox”, northern
latitudes will gain many new species in the future due
to increased invasions. Higher biodiversity is generally
correlated with desirable ecosystem features, including
increased biological productivity and increased ecological
stability in the face of ongoing change. A latitudinal gradient
in eastern Canada, from boreal forest to extreme polar
desert, illustrates the south-north pattern of ecosystem
properties that are now subject to the increasing effects
of climate warming. During the summer of 2008 we
recorded many pronounced changes at the northern limit
of this gradient (Ellesmere Island, Nunavut), including
loss of perennial sea ice, loss of ice-dammed freshwater
lakes and record open water conditions in lakes and the
coastal ocean. The northern Ellesmere Island ice shelves
experienced dramatic and irreversible disintegration, with a
60% loss (122 km2; approximately 5 billion tons of ancient
ice) of the Serson Ice Shelf ecosystem and probable loss
of its ice-dammed epishelf lake, and complete loss of
the Markham Ice Shelf (50 km2), the richest microbial
ecosystem along the northern coast in terms of standing
stocks and biodiversity. Overall, 23% of the total area of
the ice shelves (which comprise the thickest and oldest
marine ice in the Arctic basin) collapsed over a three week
period (details at: www.trentu.ca/iceshelf/). Mean daily
air temperatures were mostly above 0ºC throughout JuneAugust and often above 5ºC, with an unprecedented daily
maximum of 19.7ºC at Ward Hunt Island Observatory and
20.5ºC on northern Ellesmere Island. These record high
temperatures were accompanied by substantial meltwater
production and record losses of lake ice cover. Several
habitats and ecosystem types were lost, however the unusual
open water conditions allowed the establishment of aquatic
birds on lakes that were usually inaccessible due to perennial
ice cover. These observations illustrate how climate change
can induce local species enrichment, but at the expense of
ecosystem perturbation and collapse.
160
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
CANADIAN ARCTIC VALIDATION CAMPAIGNS
FOR THE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY
EXPERIMENT (ACE) SATELLITE MISSION: 20042008 AND BEYOND
Walker, Kaley A.1,2 ([email protected]
ca), Kimberly Strong1, R. Batchelor1, R. Berman3, P.F.
Bernath2,4, S. Bingham1, C. Boone2, J. R. Drummond1,5,
H. Fast6, P.F. Fogal1 A. Fraser1, D. Fu2, F. Goutail7, A.
Harrett1, M. Harwood8, T. E. Kerzenmacher1, F. Kolonjari1,
R. Lindenmaier1, P. Loewen1, K. MacQuarrie1, C.T.
McElroy1,6, O. Mikhailov1, C. Midwinter1, R. Mittermeier6,
V. Savastiouk6, R. Skelton2, K. Strawbridge8, K. Sung1, J.
Walker1 and H. Wu1
Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto,
Canada,
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo,
Waterloo, Canada,
3
Spectral Applied Research, Concord, Ontario, Canada,
4
Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington,
UK,
5
Department of Physics & Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie
University, Halifax, Canada,
6
Environment Canada, Toronto, Canada,
7
Service d’Aeronomie, CNRS, Verrieres-le-Buisson, France,
8
Environment Canada, Centre For Atmospheric Research
Experiments, Egbert, Canada
1
Five springtime validation campaigns have been
conducted in the Canadian high Arctic to provide correlative
measurements for the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment
(ACE) satellite mission. There are two instruments on-board
the satellite: a high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier
Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and a dual UV-visibleNIR spectrophotometer called MAESTRO (Measurements
of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere
Retrieved by Occultation).
The validation campaigns took place at the Polar
Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL)
(formerly Environment Canada’s Arctic Stratospheric
Ozone (AStrO) Observatory) in Eureka, Nunavut (80 N,
86 W) during spring (February - April in 2004 - 2008).
This period coincides with the most chemically active time
of year in the Arctic and a significant number of satellite
overpasses. Seven ground-based instruments were operated
during the 2004 campaign: a ground-based version of
the ACE-FTS (PARIS - Portable Atmospheric Research
Interferometric Spectrometer for the Infrared), a terrestrial
version of the ACE-MAESTRO, a SunPhotoSpectrometer,
a zenith-viewing UV-visible grating spectrometer, a Bomem
DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer, a Differential
Absorption Lidar and a Brewer spectrophotometer. For
the 2005 campaign, a Systeme d’Analyse par Observations
Zenithales (SAOZ) instrument and a second Brewer were
added to the instrument complement. In 2007 and 2008,
a Bruker 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer and a
second UV-visible grating spectrometer also participated.
Also, balloon-borne ozonesonde and radiosonde sensors
were flown frequently during the five campaigns.
This presentation will provide an overview of
the campaign measurements throughout the five years.
Comparisons of ozone and other constituent measurements
made by the ground-based, balloon-borne and satelliteborne instruments will be presented. Examples will be
given to show how these measurements have been used for
validation and scientific studies. Plans for future ACE Arctic
Validation Campaigns will be presented.
INTEGRATED ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF
LONG-RANGE TRANSPORT OF MIDLATITUDE
POLLUTION ON OZONE ABUNDANCES IN THE
ARCTIC TROPOSPHERE
Walker, Thomas1 ([email protected]), M.
Parrington1, D. B. A. Jones1, D. K. Henze2, J. R. Worden3,
K. W. Bowman3, J. Bottenheim4, K. Anlauf4, J. Davies4, D.
Tarasick4 and A. M. Thompson5
Deparment of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto,
Ontario, M5S 1A7
2
Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York, New
York, 10027
3
NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California,
91109
4
Environment Canada, Downsview, Ontario, M3H 5T4
5
Department of Meteorology, Penn State University,
University Park, Pennsylvania, 16802
1
We use the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport
model and its adjoint, together with satellite and in situ
observation of tropospheric ozone, to assess the impact of
transport of pollution from midlatitudes on the abundance
of ozone in the Arctic. The model reproduces well the
seasonal cycle in the abundances of PAN and ozone as
measured at the surface at Alert. However, relative to
ozonesonde measurements, the model overestimates ozone
in the middle and upper troposphere in spring, while it
underestimates ozone in summer. We use the adjoint model
to conduct a detailed analysis of the sensitivity of the
modeled ozone abundances in the Arctic to midlatitude
precursor emissions. Using two different versions of the
model with different assimilated meteorological fields
161
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
we quantify the impact of discrepancies in transport in
the model on the ozone distribution in the Arctic, with
a particular focus on the transport of ozone from the
stratosphere. We also examine the utility of assimilating
tropospheric ozone profile retrievals from the Tropospheric
Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite instrument at
midlatitudes to provide an improved boundary condition
for ozone at midlatitudes to better quantify the transport of
ozone into the Arctic.
MERCURY CYCLING IN THE ARCTIC OCEAN:
THE ROLE OF THE SEA ICE ENVIRONMENT
Wang, Feiyue1,2 ([email protected]), Gary Stern1,3,
Robie Macdonald1,4
Department of Environment and Geography, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba,
Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
3
Freshwater Institute, Department of Fisheries and Oceans,
Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N6, Canada
4
Institute of Ocean Sciences, Department of Fisheries and
Oceans, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2, Canada
1
Mercury is a major contaminant of concern in the
Arctic marine ecosystems. While long-range atmospheric
transport from the South continues to be an important
source of mercury to the Arctic Ocean, evidence is
mounting that the rapid and highly variable bioaccumulation
of mercury in the Arctic marine mammals is increasingly
driven by changes in internal biogeochemical processes
due to climate change. One of the major changes is the
sea-ice environment. As part of the International Polar
Year (IPY) – Circumpolar Flaw Lead (CFL) System
Studies, a major research project was undertaken from
December 2007 to July 2008 in the Amundsen Gulf
and west Beaufort Sea onboard the Canadian Research
Icebreaker CCGS Amundsen. The main objective was to
assess the NET atmospheric mercury flux to the underlying
aquatic environment and its uptake by the marine food
web, and their response to the projected change in the sea
ice environment. Mercury concentrations and speciation
in the lower troposphere, snow, sea ice, brine, underlying
seawater, phytoplankton and zooplankton were analyzed
at high spatial and temporal resolutions at various drift ice,
landfast ice, and open lead stations with different sea ice
environments. A mechanistic model is developed to describe
the transport and transformation processes of mercury
across the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere interface and its
implication for mercury cycling in the Arctic Ocean under a
changing climate.
INSTRUMENTATION, OBSERVATIONS AND
SCIENCE ASSOCIATE WITH THE WAVES AND
COUPLING PROCESSES THEME AT THE POLAR
ENVIRONMENT ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH
LABORATORY (PEARL)
Ward, William1 ([email protected]), Alan Manson2, YoungMin Cho3, Tatyana Chshyolkova2, Chris Meek2, Dragan
Veselinovic1, Ding Yi Wang1, Stephen Brown3, Tom Duck4,
Gordon Shepherd3, Marianna Shepherd3, Robert J. Sica5,
Kevin Strawbridge6, Kimberly Strong7, Jim Whiteway8
Dept. of Physics, University of New Brunswick, P.O. Box
4400, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5A3, Canada
2
ISAS, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics,
University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon,
Saskatchewan, S7N 5E2, Canada
3
CRESS, York University, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON, M3J
1P3, Canada
4
Department of Physics & Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie
University, 6310 Coburg Road, Halifax, NS, B3H 1Z9,
Canada
5
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of
Western Ontario,1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario,
N6A 3K7, Canada
6
Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Downsview,
ON, M3H 5T4, Canada
7
Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St.
George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7, Canada
8
ESSE, York University, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON, M3J
1P3, Canada
1
During the winter of 2007/2008, observations
from the full suite of instruments relevant to the Waves
and Coupling Processes Theme at the Polar Environment
Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in the
Canadian Arctic (Eureka, Nunavut, 80N, 86W) were taken
for the first time. The instruments involved include the ERegion Wind Interferometer, the meteor radar, the Spectral
Airglow Temperature Imager SATI), the PEARL All-Sky
Imager, the ozone and Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidars, the
VHF and cloud radar, the Fourier Transform Spectrometer
and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer.
With these instruments we are able to determine the
background temperature and wind profiles and the wave
environment above Eureka. Using this information
along with the contextual information on the large scale
state of the atmosphere, the coupling of the dynamics
between atmospheric layers and geographical locations
can be studied. The contextual information is obtained by
collaborating with modelling groups, other ground based
observatories in the Arctic, and satellite teams. In this paper
162
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
we describe the capabilities of the instrumentation involved
in these studies, outline the scientific approach and present
some initial results.
EXPLORING THE IMPLICATIONS OF CLIMATE
VARIABILITY AND CHANGE FOR COASTAL
FISHERIES IN NORTHERN NORWAY: THE
CASE OF LEBESBY MUNICIPALITY
IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON INUIT
DIET IN THE WESTERN ARCTIC – LINKS
BETWEEN CLIMATE CHANGE, FOOD
SECURITY AND NUTRITIONAL HEALTH
West, Jennifer1, Grete K. Hovelsrud1 ([email protected]
uio.no) and M. Karcher2
Wesche, Sonia1 ([email protected]), L. Chan1
Community Health Science, University of Northern British
Columbia, Prince George, BC, V2N 4Z9
1
In the Arctic, Inuit are part of the nutrition
transition occurring globally. While market foods now make
up more than half of Inuit dietary intake, the consumption
of traditional foods remains key to dietary quality and
important to local identity and livelihoods. Traditional foods
provide important nutrients, vitamins and minerals, and help
restrict the intake of the saturated fats, sucrose and excess
carbohydrates often found in store-bought alternatives.
The access to, availability of, and condition of traditional
food species in the Western Arctic are affected by changing
climatic conditions, with implications for food security
and human health. This study examines critical impacts
of climate change on Inuit diet and nutritional health in
four communities in the Western Arctic to identify both
community-based and regional trends. The vulnerability of
each community to changing food security is differentially
influenced by a range of factors, including current
harvesting trends, levels of reliance on individual species,
opportunities for food substitution, and exposure to climate
change hazards. At a regional scale, declining harvests of
caribou are of common concern, as this species is a primary
meat source for all communities in both summer and
winter. Nutritional implications of lower traditional food
use include likely reductions in iron, zinc, protein, vitamin
D and omega-3 fatty acids, among others. Understanding
linkages between climate change and traditional food
security provides a basis for strengthening adaptive capacity
and determining effective adaptation strategies to respond
to future change.
CICERO, Center for International Climate and
Environmental Research-Oslo, Norway
2
OaSys, Hamburg, Germany
1
This paper explores the implications of past,
present and future climate variability and change in the
Barents Sea region for the coastal fisheries sector in Lebesby
municipality, Finnmark County, Northern Norway. The
research is being undertaken within the IPY-endorsed
EU 6th Framework Integrated project DAMOCLES
(Developing Arctic Monitoring and Observing Capabilities
for Long-term Environmental Studies). We find that the
vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the coastal fisheries
sector and of individual fishermen to climate variability
and change are connected to the vulnerability and adaptive
capacity of the coastal fisheries sector to change more
generally, and to the social and economic vulnerability of the
wider communities to which fishers belong. Based on the
identification by community stakeholders of salient climate
elements connected to natural resource-based activities
as a part of the research, we discuss how local climate
information needs could inform the development of more
responsive Arctic monitoring and observing systems. The
results of this ongoing research show that engaging natural
and social scientists and a wide range of local stakeholders
in a partnership throughout the research are essential for
producing results and information that are both scientifically
robust, and acceptable and useful to communities. The
findings should contribute to improving understanding
of and for climate change adaptation in natural resourcedependent coastal communities in Northern Norway, with
lessons for coupled Arctic systems more generally.
163
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
A SUCCESSFUL EXPERIMENT IN
COLLABORATION: U.S. SCIENCE AGENCIES
FORGE MAJOR JOINT INTERNATIONAL
POLAR YEAR (IPY) OUTREACH EFFORTS
A SUCCESSFUL EXPERIMENT IN
COLLABORATION: U.S. SCIENCE AGENCIES
FORGE MAJOR JOINT INTERNATIONAL POLAR
YEAR (IPY) OUTREACH EFFORTS
West, Peter1 ([email protected]) Goldman, Jana2 (jana.
[email protected])
1
U.S. National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd.,
Arlington, Va. 22230, United States
2
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1315
East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, United States
The International Polar Year (IPY) provided U.S.
federal agencies involved in polar research with a major
outreach challenge: how to portray a unified view of
the wealth of federal activity through a communications
network dominated by agency-focused channels.
To meet this challenge, 16 federal agencies with
a scientific presence in the Arctic and / or the Antarctic
joined in an ongoing interagency working group, lead by
the National Science Foundation that resulted in a series
of successful media and public-outreach endeavors to raise
the «average persons’ ‘’ awareness of the importance of the
Polar regions and the potential fate of both the Arctic and
its inhabitants in the face of changing climate.
These included:
• a unique interagency U.S. IPY web site (http://www.
ipy.gov) that allows participating agencies and their grantees
to independently upload relevant information every day
and act as a focal point for national IPY efforts. The
site has seperate pages where the public may download
IPY posters (http://www.ipy.gov/DesktopModules/
Articles/ArticleDetails.aspx?ItemID=257); where funding
opportunities may be found (http://www.ipy.gov/Default.
aspx?tabid=74); where news media contacts may be
searched (http://www.ipy.gov/AboutIPY/ContactUs/
tabid/79/Default.aspx); where news releases about Polar
science are frequently posted (http://www.ipy.gov/
IPYHome/NewsEvents/PressReleases/tabid/75/Default.
aspx) and a variety of «theme» pages on major IPY research
intiatives (http://www.ipy.gov/DesktopModules/Articles/
ArticleDetails.aspx?ItemID=336).
• a major IPY kickoff event at the U.S. National
Academies of Science
• Several coordinated interagency events throughout
the IPY period designed to provide the public with virtual
"first-hand" experience of complex, international scientific
investigations of Arctic climate change.
• The creation of series of posters representing various
aspects of IPY sciene, including one that specifically
highlighted the Arctic Observing Network, a project to
link various sensor systems into a circum-Arctic, climate
monitoring system (http://www.nsf.gov/od/opp/ipy/
posters/nsf_ipy_posters.jsp)
The key to these successes was the interagency working
group, which facilitated in-depth and sustained interaction
between the agencies--whose public affairs agendas
generally are competitive, rather than cooperative--in
coordinating development of outreach strategies both at the
agency and federal level.
A parallel working group of agency education specialists
worked in tandem with the public affairs group and both
groups met to cooperatively share their goals and strategies.
GLOBAL WARMING AFFECTS THE TIMING OF
THE BREEDING SEASON IN A TOP PREDATOR,
THE MERLIN FALCO COLUMBARIUS, ON THE
MOUNTAIN TUNDRA IN N SWEDEN.
Wiklund, Christer G. ([email protected])
Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural
Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
Several studies have demonstrated responses to
climatic warming among passerine species, although the
responses observed have been limited to certain populations
of individual species. It is less well known, however, if
such changes in phenology cascades through the food
chain and thus involve more than two trophic levels. Some
studies propose that global warming can cause a mismatch
between the breeding time of birds and the emergence of
the most important prey items, which may result in reduced
reproductive success and poor survival of the adult birds. In
this report, I show that the merlin has responded to global
warming and now starts clutch initiation about one week
earlier than 20 years ago. The merlin is an important top
predator hunting small passerines on the Swedish mountain
tundra. Yet, there is no evidence that the reproductive
success has changed but yearly fledgling production is
similar to that recorded in the preceding three decades.
There was a certain variation among breeding pairs because
pairs breeding in certain some territories appeared to start
egg laying earlier than other pairs. However, this variation in
egg laying time among territories was recorded also during
the previous three decades of study. Thus, an entire food
164
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
chain appears to have responded to climatic warming in my
study area.
LIMNOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO TRACK
CLIMATE- AND HUMAN-INDUCED
HYDROLOGICAL CHANGES IN NORTHERN
FLOODPLAIN LANDSCAPES: EXPERIMENTS
FROM THE PEACE-ATHABASCA DELTA
Wiklund, Johan1 ([email protected]), N. Bozinovski1, R.
Hall1 and B. Wolfe2
1
Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo,
Ontario, N2L 3G1
2
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies,
Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3C5
Flooding is an important process regulating
the structure and function of extensive landscapes in
Canada’s North, but its role is vulnerable to changes in
climate and river regulation. This is particularly true for
the Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD) where variability of the
frequency and magnitude of floods has been the source
of conflict. Here we conduct field-based experiments that
compare flooded and non-flooded ponds to explore the
role of flooding on physico-chemical and biological pond
conditions. We show that ponds receiving floodwaters
become elevated in concentrations of total P, total
suspended solids (TSS), dissolved reactive silica and sulfate.
Flooding also flushes DOC, N and dissolved ions, which
accumulate to elevated levels in closed-drainage ponds.
Standing crop of phytoplankton (Chl a) is highest in ponds
that have received spring flooding, while macrophyte
biomass is highest in ponds that have not received spring
flooding. In this study the composition of epiphytic diatom
communities that accrued on Potamogeton zosteriformis, P.
perfoliatus var. richardsonii and false substrates (polypropylene
sheets) in four ponds during the summer of 2005 were
analyzed to assess the influence of substrate, spring
flooding and individual basin. Two ponds flooded in spring
of 2005 (PAD 8 and 54), but two ponds had not flooded
for several years (PAD 1 and 5). The first PCA axis of
physico-chemical variables showed that flooding was a
dominant factor accounting for variation among ponds,
and that differences persisted throughout the growing
season. Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM) identified that
the greatest amount of variation in epiphytic diatom
community composition occurred between individual
ponds, followed by variation between flooded and nonflooded ponds, and lastly by variation between different
substrates. Pair-wise comparisons (ANOSIM) identified
significant differences in epiphytic diatom community
composition on the three substrates, and that differences
in community composition between false substrates and
macrophytes were similar to differences that between the
two macrophyte species. Similarity percentage (SIMPER)
analysis was used to identify epiphytic taxa of indicator
potential for assessing hydrological conditions. The relative
abundance of those taxa identified as ‘strongly flood
tolerant’ was used to a construct an event-scale flood history
record from analyses of sedimentary diatom assemblages
in a perched basin in the delta where a published multiproxy study did not detect occurrence of individual flood
events. The epiphytic diatom flood record was found to
be in close agreement with previously published flood
record derived from magnetic susceptibility measurements
from a nearby, flood-prone oxbow lake. Identification of
‘flood-tolerant’ epiphytic diatom taxa has allowed us to
refine paleolimnological interpretations of hydroecological
changes that have occurred during the past several centuries
in a closed-drainage pond of the PAD. This approach
appears promising for assessing variations in flooding and
flood frequency at other closed-drainage ponds that are
too remote from rivers to record geo-physical signals in the
sediments, but which leave a record of change in epiphytic
diatom community composition in response to fluctuations
in hydro-ecological dynamics.
POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE IN POLAR
BEARS (URSUS MARITIMUS) FROM HUDSON
BAY, CANADA: IMPLICATIONS OF FUTURE
CLIMATE CHANGE
Wilson, Paul1 ([email protected]), Ashleigh2, Obbard,
Martyn3, Petersen, Stephen2
Biology Department and Forensic Science Program,Trent
University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada K9J 7B8
2
Environmental and Life Sciences Graduate Program, Trent
University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada K9J 7B8
3
Wildlife Research and Development Section, Ontario
Ministry of Natural Resources, DNA Building, Trent
University,2140 East Bank Dr., Peterborough, Ontario,
Canada K9J 7B8
1
The primary habitat for polar bears is sea ice, yet
unlike most of the high Arctic, Hudson Bay undergoes
a summer ice-free period that forces all bears ashore
until ice forms again in fall. Polar bear populations in
the greater Hudson Bay region have been placed in four
management units based primarily on data from tag returns
from harvested animals, capture–recapture studies, and
conventional and satellite telemetry. Our results indicate that
165
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
there is a high level of gene flow among management units
observed using 26 microsatellite loci and analysis of genetic
profiles of 377 polar bears. However, individual-based
Bayesian analysis identified population genetic structuring
into three clusters and significant FST differentiation.
Specifically, our data suggest differentiation of polar bears
sampled from islands in James Bay. These results were in
spite of the extensive dispersal capabilities of polar bears
that could homogenize the population. Mapping of highancestry individuals suggests that two of the three clusters
have foci in southern Hudson Bay and may be a result of
predictable annual freeze-thaw patterns that are maintaining
breeding ‘groups’. Predicted changes in the distribution and
duration of sea ice in Hudson Bay suggest that gene flow
among these clusters may be reduced in the future.
HYDRO-ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ARCTIC
TUNDRA LAKES TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND
LANDSCAPE PERTURBATION: HIGHLIGHTS
AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS
Wrona, Fred1,2 ([email protected]), D.L. Peters1,2, T.D.
Prowse1,2, E. McCauley3, S.V. Kokelj4, M.S. Thompson2, P.S.
Mesquita2, Y.B. Dibike1,2 and P.D. di Cenzo1
Environment Canada, Water & Climate Impacts Research
Centre, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia,
V8W 3R4
2
Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria,
British Columbia, V8P 5C2
3
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary,
Alberta, T2N 1N4
4
Water Resources Division, Indian and Northern Affairs
Canada, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, X1A 2R3
1
The Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA)
concluded that the annual mean warming for the areas
north of 60ºN to be 3.7ºC for the period 2070-2089. Arctic
land areas are expected to display a warming that is more
rapid than the global average in the cold season, a decrease
in diurnal temperature range, a decrease in daily variability
of surface air temperature in winter and an increase in
daily variability in summer, and a decrease/degradation
of the cryosphere (snow, permafrost and ice cover). Such
significant changes/shifts in climatic regimes are expected
to have far-reaching first- and second-order impacts on
the hydrology and ecology of northern/Arctic freshwater
ecosystems. Freshwater systems are particularly sensitive
to climate variability and change (CVC) because numerous
hydro-ecological processes respond to even small changes in
the climate regime. Furthermore, hydrological and ecological
processes may change either gradually or in an abrupt
manner when environmental/ecosystem thresholds are
exceeded. A significant amount of uncertainty still remains
however, in predicting the direct and indirect physical,
geochemical and ecological responses of arctic freshwater
ecosystems to CVC. The lake-rich upland tundra landscape
east of the Mackenzie River Delta, NT, contains aquatic
ecosystems that are projected to be impacted by CVC and
other environmental stressors (e.g., resource development)
in the next few decades. Large-scale permafrost degradation
(increased depth of seasonal active layer and/or landscape
slumping) is predicted to increase with the effects of climate
warming, along with enhanced addition of geochemical
loadings (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) to the
freshwater environment. In addition, changes in the timing
and duration of lake-ice characteristics in conjunction with
altered geochemical loadings are projected to dramatically
affect under-ice and open- water oxygen regimes, 1º and 2º
production relationships, and carbon flux. To investigate
and reduce the uncertainties pertaining to the sensitivities
and responses of Arctic tundra lakes to CVC and other
environmental stressors, the ArcticNET project “Hydroecological Responses of Arctic Tundra Lakes to Climate
Change and Landscape Perturbation” was designed to: (i)
improve our regional understanding of the sensitivities/
responses of the Mackenzie upland tundra lakes to CVC
through integrated landscape-lake process and modelling
studies; and (ii) develop and validate an integrated
landscape-lake ice, hydro-ecological model applicable to
cold regions/Arctic systems. This presentation provides an
overview of the project design along with highlights and
preliminary results.
Impacts of Air-Sea Fluxes on the
Evolution of an Arctic “Bomb”
Zhang, Lujun1,2,3 ([email protected]), W. Perrie2,3 and
Z. Long2
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University,
Nanjing, China
2
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Bedford Institute of
Oceanography, Dartmouth NS Canada
3
Department of Engineering Math, Dalhousie University,
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada»
1
The Arctic is a significant region for because of its
unique thermodynamic characteristics and its potential role
in global climate change. Intense Arctic storms are examples
of «extreme» weather which can has impact on coastal
oceanographic processes in the southern Beaufort Sea and
166
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
waters of the west Canadian Arctic. This area is important
because the coastal marine environment used by Canadian
Northerners is an integral part of their life style. The area
is also undergoing hydrocarbon exploration with potential
development within the next decade. Factors such as open
water and ice, and the oceanic surface fluxes can modulate
storm development and winds. Climate change in the
Beaufort-Chukchi region may endanger coastal settlements
and marine environments. In tropical and extratropical
latitudes, it is well known that hurricane intensity is
influenced by factors such as the storm’s initial intensity,
the spatial extent of the storm, the thermodynamic state of
the atmosphere through which the storm moves, the storm
propagation speed, and sea surface fluxes along the storm
track. Although several of these factors are also known
to modulate the strength of midlatitude cyclone systems,
little is known about the impact of atmosphere–ocean–ice
interactions on storms in the Arctic Ocean. In this study
we investigate the ability of surface heat fluxes to influence
Arctic storm development, including processes that control
their atmosphere–ocean–ice dynamics. We use the Canadian
Mesoscale Compressible Community (MC2) atmospheric
model coupled to the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and
Hibler Ice Model. As a case study we simulate an Arctic
storm from late 1999. Comparing our results to NCEP,
NARR and CMC reanalysis data, we demonstrate very good
simulations of the storm pattern, track and intensity. This
cyclone is a mesoscale Arctic storm that developed over the
NE Pacific and western Bering Sea. It intensified explosively
in the Gulf of Alaska, developing into a meteorological
bomb on 21 September 1999. The storm made landfall
with surface winds > 30 m s-1 at Cape Newenham, Alaska,
on 22 September and rapidly moved north northeastward.
Thereafter, it crossed the Rocky Mountains to the Yukon
and Northwest Territories and re-intensified over the coastal
waters of the southern Beaufort Sea, over a zone of high
sea surface temperature gradients, causing extensive coastal
damage to communities in that region. During with its
mature stage, satellite images reveal mesoscale scale and
spiral cloud bands of unusual symmetry. The track of the
low pressure center passed over Anchorage, Alaska where
time series show a pronounced maximum in equivalent
potential temperature at the storm’s core. We show the role
of sea surface fluxes on the storm’s explosive development
as a bomb in the NE Pacific and in its re-intensification over
the Beaufort coastal waters. We compare these processes to
the other factors that modify the storm’s development as it
passes from the generation region in the Pacific, across the
Rockies, to its final decay region in the Arctic.
A NUMERICAL STUDY OF HURRICANE
NOEL (2007). MODEL VERIFICATION AND
EXTRATROPICAL TRANSITION
Zhang, Shunli1 ([email protected]),
G.W.K. Moore1
Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto,
Ontario, M5S 1A7
1
The fifth-generation Pennsylvania State UniversityNational Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR)
Mesoscale Model (MM5) is used to simulate Hurricane
Noel (2007) from its evolution as a category 1 hurricane
off Florida on 2 November 2007, through a period of
extratropical transition (ET), making landfall at eastern
Canada and finally moving into Labrador Sea toward
Greenland on 5 November 2007. The model reproduced
Noel’s evolution throughout its lifecycle. The ET began
around 1200 UTC November 2 2007 when Hurricane Noel
became significantly asymmetric. Right after Noel made
landfall over eastern Canada, the cold core of cyclone
developed at lower-troposphere, indicating the completion
of the ET. Noel started intensifying 15 hours after the
beginning of ET when it interacted with the southern
portion of an approaching upper-level middle latitude
trough. At 0600 UTC November 4, the landfalling cyclone
merged with the northern portion of the upper level trough
and maintained its intensity (minimum surface pressure)
until moving over the colder waters of the Labrador Sea.
During each interaction between the upper level trough and
Noel, potential vorticity (PV) was transferred downward
from the upper troposphere to the lower troposphere,
resulting in the intensification of cyclone. To illustrate
the upper-level trough’s forcing upon the cyclone, the
Eliassen-Palm flux was diagnosed in cylindrical isentropic
coordinates, which indicates that as the cyclone intensifies,
the upper-level eddy momentum forcing is more important
than the upper-level eddy heat forcing.
Variations in atmospheric Cd
deposition in the Arctic since AD
1840, and preliminary assessment of
predominant sources
Zheng, Jiancheng1 ([email protected]), D. Fisher1, W.
Shotyk2 and M. Krachler2
Geological Survey Canada, Natural Resources of Canada,
Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E8
2
Institute of Environmental Geochemistry, University of
Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, Ontario
1
167
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
Cadmium is one of the 3 toxic metals (Hg, Pb and
Cd) currently being focused on in the Arctic environment.
Due to insufficient data available from current Arctic
studies on Cd, AMAP summarized that “monitoring data
on cadmium in the abiotic and biotic environment to date
provide no conclusive evidence of trends or effects…”
Therefore, AMAP suggests “The monitoring of cadmium
in the Arctic be continued to support human exposure
estimates.” This study aims to reconstruct a high resolution
record of atmospheric Cd deposition with ice/snow
samples from the Canadian High Arctic for the time
period since the industrial revolution. Applying ultra clean
procedures for sampling, processing and analysing, over 567
samples covering 15800 years were retrieved and analyzed
for Cd in ice cores and snow samples from Devon Ice
Cap taken in 1999, 2000 and 2004. Results show that Cd
concentrations are significantly different in different time
periods while the highest and the most variable (3.01±8.41
pg g-1, N=511) was found in the last 162 years when
anthropogenic contribution became much more severe.
Compared to the results of Pb, which reached its peak
concentration at around 1970, Cd however, reached its
peak concentration about a decade earlier at around 1960.
This could be due to earlier US Clean Air Acts starting in
1955 and 1963 (with multi amendments). Although the
early Clean Air Acts did very little to prevent air pollution
legally, they did make the public and government aware of
the problem and promoted newer technology development
for the purpose of air pollution reduction. Since the
Cd concentrations varied while Sc concentrations were
constantly stable with no change in trend, the variation of
Cd is not likely caused by air borne soil particles. Instead,
it is likely caused by other natural and anthropogenic
sources, mainly volcanic and human activities considering
the change in amplitude of Cd concentrations. In this
presentation, the aim is to correlate the Cd variations to
sporadic volcanic eruptions and the path of economic/
industrial development, as well as historical events since
industrial revolution. Tentative data analyses suggest that
the general trend of Cd deposition on the ice cap be due
to anthropogenic contribution while the large sporadic
variations are mainly due to volcanic activities. It is also
worth noting that obvious lower Cd concentrations during
WWI and WWII were observed in the profile. Comparison
of results from this study to those of emission/production
of Cd (as well as Zn due to their coexistence) in Northern
America and Eurasia will also be presented in order to carry
out source-of-origin apportionment.
168
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
POSTER ABSTRACTS
MONITORING EFFECTS OF CLIMATE
CHANGE IN THE GREENLAND TERRESTRIAL
ENVIRONMENT
Aastrup, Peter1 ([email protected]), Schmidt, N.M.1 ([email protected]
dk), Tamstorf, M.P.1 ([email protected])
National Environmental Research Institute, Arctic
Environment/Climate Effects and System modelling,
University of Aarhus
1
The monitoring program ”Zackenberg Basic” in
high arctic North-east Greenland has been running since
1994 and has provided valuable data which have been
synthesized in “High Arctic Ecosystem Dynamics in a
Changing Climate (Meltofte et al., ed. - Academic Press
2008)”. In 2007 a low arctic counterpart, “NuukBasic”, was
initiated in Kobbefjord close to Nuuk in West Greenland.
Together the programmes embrace continuous seasonal
and inter-annual monitoring of most geophysical, biological
ecosystem parameters in the arctic. The monitoring of
biological parameters include plant phenology, breeding
phenology of birds, measurement of CO2-flux, effects
of UVB on plant stress, and numbers of arthropods
and micro-arthropods. Geophysical parameters include
snow and snow cover, hydrology and a series of climatic
parameters. The programmes offer unique possibilities
to analyse ecological responses to climate change on the
background of consistently sampled climatic and physical
parameters.
OZONE, NO2, AND BRO MEASURED WITH
GROUND-BASED UV-VISIBLE SPECTROMETERS
AT EUREKA, NUNAVUT DURING
INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR
Adams, Cristen1 ([email protected]), Annemarie
Fraser1, Kimbery Strong1, Gloria Manney2, William Daffer2
Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto,
Canada
2
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of
Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
1
Ozone is well known as a highly effective absorber
of solar UV-B radiation, which is the dominant source
of heating in the stratosphere. Stratospheric ozone has
declined significantly since about 1980 in response to
anthropogenic emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs),
particularly in the polar regions. Arctic ozone columns show
large inter-annual variability, with chemical loss critically
dependent on low temperatures. With the signing of the
Montreal Protocol and its amendments to regulate CFCs
and halons, a gradual recovery of global stratospheric ozone
is anticipated. However, model predictions of the future
evolution of Arctic ozone vary. Bromine concentrations
in the atmosphere are a large source of uncertainty in
model predictions. Although concentrations of brominecontaining species are significantly lower than chlorinecontaining species, bromine destroys nearly as much ozone
as chlorine because bromine is much more reactive with
ozone. Bromine chemistry is not as well understood as other
halogens. There are few bromine measurements, specifically
at the high latitudes, so most of the current understanding
of bromine chemistry comes from model calculations.
The Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric
Change (CANDAC) has established the Polar Environment
Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) to address
these and other questions through measurements at Eureka,
Nunavut, Canada (80N, 86W).
We will discuss measurements of ozone, NO2,
and BrO from two UV-visible spectrometers at PEARL
during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008. One
of these instruments, the UT-GBS (University of Toronto
Ground-Based Spectrometer) has been deployed at Eureka
nine times during polar sunrise between 1999 and 2008. The other instrument, the PEARL-GBS was installed
permanently in PEARL in August 2006 for year-round
operation. Both of these instruments measure vertical
column densities of ozone and NO2, as well as slant column
densities of BrO and OClO when possible. We will discuss
the diurnal and seasonal variations of stratospheric ozone,
NO2, and BrO above Eureka during IPY, and relate these
measurements to dynamical conditions above Eureka.
169
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
ASSESSING CELL VIABILITY IN ARCTIC ICE
ALGAE COMMUNITIES
Alou, Eva1 ([email protected]), S. Roy1, M.
Gosselin1 and S. Agusti2
ISMER, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Québec,
Rimouski, G5L 3A1
2
IMEDEA, Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados,
Esporles-Mallorca, Spain, 07190
1
Cell viability in ice algae was quantified during
spring 2008 in the Canadian Beaufort Sea during the CFL
project.Percentages of live and dead cells were estimated
using two different methods: a staining method (BacLightTM
Kit) and an enzymatic cell digestion assay (non-staining).
Temporal changes in the cell viability of ice algae were
studied over 6 days. The influence of light was examined by
comparing light and dark-exposed samples. The influence
of temperature was tested by exposing ice algae samples
to two different temperatures. Decreased viability was
observed in the samples exposed to a higher temperature
and darkness. This preliminary study will enable us to better
understand the influence of light and temperature on the
viability of ice algae in a changing Arctic.
COMPARISON OF ADAPTATION AND
VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN
ULUKHAKTOK AND TUKTOYAKTUK
and availability of some important wildlife species and
have exacerbated risks associated with hunting and travel.
Adaptive responses of individuals in both communities
are conditioned by multiple factors, including access to
capital resources, sharing networks, species availability
and diversity, and knowledge of the local environment.
Tuktoyaktuk has greater access to capital resources due
to oil and gas development, as well as closer proximity
to larger centers. These capital resources provide some
Tuktoyaktuk residents with flexibility for dealing with
harvesting shortages. Comparatively, Ulukhaktok has
a strong reliance on traditional means of subsistence.
These differences are assessed in the context of regional
institutional structures that influence wildlife management
regimes. This comparison provides insights into the ability
of these communities to adapt to projected future climatic
conditions.
STUDENTS AT HOME ON LAND AND
SEA: INUIT INTERNSHIPS IN TORNGAT
MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK
Angnatok, Dorothy1, A. Fells1, S. Merkuratsuk1, E. Obed1,
M. Okkuatsiak1, W. Barbour2, A. Simpson3, J. Rowell3, T.
Knight4 and Tom Sheldon5 ([email protected])
Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph,
Ontario, N1G 2W1
c/o Nunatsiavut Government, Box 70, Nain NL A0P 1L0
Nunatsiavut Government, Box 70, Nain, NL
3
Torngat Mountains National Park, Box 471, Nain NL A0P
1L0
4
Parks Canada, Western Newfoundland and Labrador Field
Unit, Box 130, Rocky Harbour, NL A0K 4N0
5
Environmental Sciences Group, 8 Verite, R-62, Kingston,
ON K7K 7B4
This poster compares adaptation and vulnerability
to climate change in two Inuit communities in the western
Canadian Arctic (Ulukhaktok and Tuktoyaktuk). The
research was guided by the analytical framework used in
the pan-Arctic IPY project “Community Adaptation and
Vulnerability in Arctic Regions” (CAVIAR). The comparison
highlights similarities and differences in vulnerabilities and
adaptations in the domain of subsistence economies.
Both communities have mixed economies, with
residents relying on subsistence harvesting and wage
employment. Subsistence activities in each community give
rise to different sets of sensitivities related to the availability,
timing and location of wildlife and associated use of sea
ice, open water, and other environmental conditions. In
both communities, changes in seasonal patterns, sea ice
dynamics, and weather variability have affected the health
Five Inuit students from Nunatsiavut (Northern
Labrador) spent the summer assisting the different
scientists working out of the Parks Canada / Nunatsiavut
Government base camp, on shore-based long liners and
zodiacs, and in remote research camps. They were exposed
to scientific fieldwork in a variety of forms including
marine benthos and food web studies, ringed seal telemetry,
stream sampling, arctic char studies, and tundra vegetation
research. In all cases the field research was conducted in
an environment familiar to Inuit with logistical support
provided by Inuit from their communities. The students
experienced scientific research in their own cultural context.
It was an opportunity for Inuit and scientists to study an
issue through the dual lens of science and Inuit culture,
experience and knowledge. Through the course of the
summer, the students’ confidence and understanding grew. Andrachuk, Mark1 ([email protected]) and T. Pearce1
1
1
2
170
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
The students were excited and engaged and in some cases
this experience has fostered relationships that continue past
the summer field season. Researchers expressed strong support for the
“unique and wonderful gift” to live in an Inuit camp and to
work with Inuit – students and elders - from Nunavik and
Nunatsiavut. Scientists and Inuit have been able to come
together with the best that each have to offer to develop a
“new way of knowing” as they explore their questions and
concerns about the natural environment. Parks Canada and
the Nunatsiavut Government hope to continue to engage
and excite Inuit youth and to support the collaboration
of Inuit and scientists well into the future. We believe it
offers a way to push the frontiers of science in northern
ecosystems, to blur borders and cultural boundaries and to
share with a larger world the results of this work.
NORTHERN ICE SHELVES WERE STABLE
FOR MILLENNIA BEFORE RECENT ABRUPT
BREAKUP
Antoniades, Dermot ([email protected]),
Francus, Pierre2, Pienitz, Reinhard1, St-Onge, Guillaume3,
Vincent, Warwick F.1
1
Centre d’études nordiques, Université Laval, Québec,
Québec, G1V 0A6
2
Centre Eau, Terre & Environnement, Institut national de la
recherche scientifique, Québec, Québec, G1K 9A9
3
Institut des sciences de la mer, Université du Québec à
Rimouski, 310 allée des Ursulines, Rimouski, QC, G5L 3A1
1
Northern Ellesmere Island (Nunavut, Canada)
is home to several rare ecosystem types that are currently
threatened by recent climate warming, including ice shelves
and epishelf lakes. Ice shelves fringed much of northern
Ellesmere Island in the early 20th century, but have since
shrunk by over 90% due to climate warming. During
the last decade, several ice shelves have either fractured
or detached from the Ellesmere coast and floated away
entirely. Although estimates of their age range from 5,500
and 3,000 calendar years before present, there is no direct
evidence for the establishment of these ice shelves and
their dynamics since formation remain unknown. In order
to place the significance of recent breakup in a long-term
context, a better understanding is required of the history
and evolution of these northern ice shelves. Epishelf lakes (ice-dammed fiords with stratified
water columns) depend on ice shelves for their existence,
and sedimentary records from these fiords can yield
insights into past ice shelf dynamics. Here we report on
two radiocarbon-dated sediment cores collected with a
percussion corer that document several thousand years
of the history of Disraeli Fiord (just south of the Ward
Hunt Ice Shelf), using sedimentary pigment (HPLC)
and geochemical (XRF) analyses. Changes in elemental
concentrations, including Ca, Fe and Mn, are interpreted
to reflect variation in runoff and catchment influence
related to the formation of the Disraeli epishelf lake,
while pigment ratios and concentrations record climatemediated changes in freshwater/marine conditions and past
productivity, respectively. These data indicate that, prior to
its disintegration, the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf was stable for
millennia, and therefore that recent changes are significant
in a long-term climate context.
SPATIO-TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF
PHYTOPLANKTON PRODUCTION AND
BIOMASS IN THE HIGH CANADIAN ARCTIC IN
SUMMERS 2005 TO 2008
Ardyna, Mathieu1 ([email protected]), M.
Gosselin1 and C. Michel2
Institut des sciences de la mer, Université du Québec à
Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec, G5L 3A1
2
Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501
University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N6
1
The spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton
production and biomass was studied along a transect
from the Beaufort Sea to Baffin Bay via the Northwest
Passage, during summers 2005 to 2008. Phytoplankton
production and chlorophyll a biomass of small (0.7-5 µm)
and large (>5 µm) cells were determined at 7 depths in the
euphotic zone. Environmental variables such as irradiance,
temperature, salinity and nutrients were also measured in the
upper 100 m of the water column from a minimum of 18
stations in 2005 to a maximum of 40 in 2008. Our results
show a strong contrast between northern Baffin Bay and
the Beaufort Sea. Phytoplankton production and biomass
were generally higher in the weakly stratified Baffin Bay than
in the strongly stratified Beaufort Sea. In addition, primary
production and biomass were generally dominated by large
phytoplankton in Baffin Bay and by small phytoplankton
in the Beaufort Sea. In contrast to the other 2 regions, the
Northwest Passage showed a large interannual variability
in phytoplankton production and biomass. These results
demonstrate strong spatial gradients in primary production
and biomass in the High Canadian Arctic, underpinning a
diversity of ecozones that may be significantly altered by ongoing Arctic changes.
171
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
ON-SITE, ULTRA-TRACE ANALYSIS OF
MONOMETHYLMERCURY IN THE ARCTIC
OCEAN
EARLY MIGRATION OF BELUGA
(DELPHINAPTERUS LEUCAS) INTO THE
AMUNDSEN GULF IN THE SPRING OF 2008
Armstrong, Debbie1,3 ([email protected]), G.
Stern1,2 and F. Wang1,3
Asselin, Natalie C.1 ([email protected]), P. R.
Richard2, D.G. Barber1, S.H. Ferguson2
1
Department of Environment and Geography, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2
2
Freshwater Institute, Department of Fisheries and Oceans,
501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba,
Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2
1
Elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations have been
found in marine mammals in the Arctic Ocean, particularly
in the Beaufort Sea region, which has raised serious
concerns over the health of the marine ecosystems and the
Northern people who consume mammal tissues as part of
their traditional diet. While efforts have been undertaken to
study the fluxes and cycling of total mercury in the Arctic
Ocean, reliable data on monomethylmercury (MMHg), the
neurotoxic form of mercury that biomagnifies along the
food chain, in the Arctic environment have been scarce, due
to its very low concentration in the abiotic environment and
instability during storage and sample transport. To address
this data gap, we report here the first on-site, ultra-trace
measurements of MeHg in the Arctic Ocean carried out as
part of the International Polar Year (IPY) – Circumpolar
Flaw Lead (CFL) System Study. Measurements were made
using the automated MERX Methylmercury Analyzer
(Brooks Rand) in the Portable In-Situ Laboratory for
Mercury Speciation (PILMS), a class 100 cleanroom
laboratory installed on the Canadian Research Icebreaker
CCGS Amundsen. We used the EPA 1630 method and
reached a detection limit of 0.01 ng/L with high precision
using the on-site method. This allows us to report the depth
profiles of MMHg, along with total Hg and other chemical
parameters, in the coastal and oceanic waters from the
Amundsen Gulf region. This method of analysis is being
used for other Arctic regions and is expected to provide
crucial MeHg data needed to understand the role of the
aquatic system in the production/degradation and cycling
of MMHg in the Arctic marine ecosystem under a changing
climate.
Beluga of the eastern Beaufort Sea population
winter in the Bering Sea in and along the edge of the ice
pack. In spring, using leads and cracks in the ice, they
migrate from the Bering Sea to the Amundsen Gulf where
they have been reported to arrive in late May and early
June. The timing of the migration is thought to be either
dependent on ice conditions or determined by photoperiod.
Multiple beluga sightings were made from a Twin Otter
aircraft, a helicopter and from the CCGS Amundsen during
May 2008 surveys of the eastern Beaufort Sea. These
animals were observed on the west side of Banks Island
and in the Amundsen Gulf. The early arrival of belugas
into the Amundsen Gulf may be due to unusually light sea
ice conditions throughout the Beaufort Sea in the winter
of 2007-2008. The impacts on beluga of changing ice
conditions resulting from climate change could encompass
variations in their migration patterns, their ability to evade
predators and the availability of their prey.
Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of
Environment and Geography, Faculty of Environment,
Earth and Resources, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg,
Manitoba, R3T 2N2
2
Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 501 University
Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N6
SNOW COVER DISTRIBUTION AND MELT
ACROSS A HIGH ARCTIC WETLAND, POLAR
BEAR PASS, NUNAVUT
Assini, Jane1 ([email protected]), K.L. Young1 and A.
Abnizova1
Department of Geography, York University, Toronto,
Ontario, M3J 1P3
1
Extensive high arctic wetlands are areas of lush
vegetation cover in an otherwise barren arctic landscape.
They help to store and cleanse water and are critical
ecosystems for arctic wildlife such as migratory birds,
caribou and muskoxen. To date, an understanding of the
hydrology of these regions has eluded us but we need to
better understand how these extensive wetlands will sustain
themselves under both shifting climatic conditions (warm/
172
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
dry; cool/wet seasons) and eventually a warmer climate.
Snow is considered the predominate input of water to most
hydrological systems in the north. This study examined the
end-of-winter snow cover and spring melt of a High Arctic
wetland ecosystem located at Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst
Island, Nunavut (98o 30’ W, 75o 40’ N) from mid-May until
July, 2008. This wetland (ca. 20 km x 5 km) is composed of
a myriad of terrain-types (ponds, lakes, wet meadows) and
is bordered by rolling hills. Late-lying snowbeds occur in
the lee of slopes and small and large steam channels dissect
the bordering hills. Snow surveys were conducted across the
different terrain types, and both snow depth and density was
measured along a series of transects in order to determine
the end-of-winter snowcover (snow water equivalent unitsmm, SWE). Ablation sites were established at representative
sites (pond, wet meadow, late-lying snowbed, plateau) and
daily estimates of snow surface lowering along with surface
snow density measurements allowed surface melt to be
quantified. In addition, a physically-based snowmelt model
was used to define the daily melt and to examine the spatial
melt pattern across the different terrain units and hillslope
stream channels. End-of-winter snowcover on the ponds
ranged from 28 to 73 mm. Lake snowcover was comparable
at 52 mm. Deepest snowcover occurred at the sheltered
late-lying snowbed sites (129 mm) and incised stream
channels (59 mm). Spring 2008 was cool (avg. Tair = 2.5°C)
and melt did not begin until June 9 and persisted for about
20 days. Good agreement between modelled and measured
melt indicate that exposed areas with little snow (plateau
zones) and windswept ponds melted out earlier (June 17,
2008), while sheltered areas (late-lying snowbed sites) and
stream channels melted out 10 days later. Accurate estimates
of snowcover and melt are required for assessing the water
budget of this wetland system both at the local (pond) and
the regional scale. Our plans for 2009 include expanding our
snow survey to other areas in the pass and defining more
clearly the link between climate and snowmelt across the
wetland.
MERCURY AND STABLE ISOTOPES IN TEETH
AS TRACERS OF A POTENTIAL DIET CHANGE
OVER FOUR DECADES IN POLAR BEARS
(URSUS MARITIMUS) FROM SVALBARD
Aubail, Aurore1,2 ([email protected]), R. Dietz1, F. Rigét1, Ø.
Wiig3 and F. Caurant2
National Environmental Research Institute,
Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde,
Denmark
2
Littoral Environnement et Sociétés, UMR 6250 CNRS1
University of La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000
La Rochelle, France
3
Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, P.O. Box
1172 Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway
Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) depend on sea ice for
the hunting of seals, being their main prey. Because of the
earlier break-up of the Arctic sea ice, resulting from the
climate warming, their access to seals is reduced during the
summer season and the polar bears may be forced to fast
for longer periods and search for alternative food sources.
This study investigates the use of total mercury (Hg) and
stable isotopes of carbon (d13C) and nitrogen (d15N) in polar
bear teeth as tracers of a potential diet change over four
decades. The hypothesis is that the elemental and isotopic
values will reflect changes appearing from altered food
sources.Mercury levels were determined in teeth (n=87) of
polar bears from Svalbard (Norway) sampled between 1964
and 2003. The concentrations of Hg were low, ranging from
0.6 to 72.3 ng/g dry weight. In addition, they were found
to decrease significantly over time (P<0.02). Stable isotopes
were also determined in the dental tissue. Stable nitrogen
isotopic ratios ranged from 17.75‰ to 21.78‰ reflecting
the high trophic level of this species while d13C values
ranged from -17.44‰ to -14.77‰ reflecting a primary use
of the marine food chain by the polar bear. Neither d15N
nor d13C signatures showed significant temporal trends.
Although Hg values were found to be significantly
correlated to d15N values, the temporal variations in Hg
concentrations could not be related to them. The decreasing
time trend reported for Hg levels in the dental tissue of
polar bears appears therefore to reflect a reduction in
environmental mercury burden and not a diet change of this
species.
WINTER DYNAMICS OF SMALL ZOOPLANKTON
IN AMUNDSEN GULF
Aubert, Anaïs1 ([email protected]), G. Darnis2 and L.
Fortier2
Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of
Tromsø, 9037 Tromsø, Norway
2
Québec-Océan, Département de Biologie, Université Laval,
Québec, Québec, Canada, G1V 0A6
1
In the marine ecosystem, zooplankton is a
particularly important component of the food web as it
actively participates in various ways in the carbon fluxes.
The effects of climate warming are most strongly felt
in the Polar Regions and emphasize the need to better
173
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
understand the role of zooplankton in the functioning
of the Arctic marine ecosystem. The highly abundant
small copepod species dominate numerically most Arctic
marine zooplankton communities. They remain active
and sustain reproduction even during the dark winter
period. Their growth rates are believed to be high, making
their contribution to the marine ecosystem productivity
worth consideration. The winter dynamics of the
mesozooplankton small size fraction was investigated in
Amundsen Gulf (southeastern Beaufort Sea) during the
International Polar Year – Circumpolar Flaw Lead system
study (IPY-CFL 2008). In this study we considered 29
stations sampled from 19 November 2007 to 17 March
2008 using a 50 µm fine mesh net towed vertically from
bottom to surface. Moreover, in March a rosette cast was
used to assess the vertical distribution of small zooplankton.
Cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling
revealed three distinct mesozooplankton assemblages that
were separated chronologically. An autumn community
was present until early December and was replaced by two
successive winter assemblages. An outlier corresponding
to a shallow coastal station was occupied by a neritic
community dominated by Pseudocalanus spp. The three
assemblages were essentially comprised of various nauplius
and copepodite stages of the small copepods: Cyclopina spp.,
Oithona similis, Oncaea borealis, Pseudocalanus spp., nauplius
stages of the large copepods Calanus hyperboreus and Metridia
longa, as well as larvae of the pteropod Limacina helicina and
bivalves. Cyclopoid nauplii contributed predominantly to the
discrimination of the three assemblages. Their abundance
and proportion increased over the sampling period,
representing 61% of the total zooplankton in the winter
communities. This enhanced production in the middle of
winter should be beneficial to the survival of the first larvae
produced by the Arctic cod early spawners. Indeed Arctic
cod larvae that hatch under the sea ice cover start feeding
by preying on cyclopoid nauplii. However the source of
energy to fuel this cyclopoid production, in the absence
of primary production, remains to be investigated. Eggs
and nauplii of the large Calanus hyperboreus that dominates
the Arctic zooplankton assemblage appeared in December
and their importance increased over time, confirming the
winter reproduction of this species. In March most of the
zooplankton was distributed below 100 m depth at day
time and Calanus eggs were found in higher abundance at
depth. This study reports on a very abundant and active
small mesozooplankton assemblage in winter, with values
that can exceed abundance measured later in the season
in other Arctic locations. Further analysis of zooplankton
samples covering most of the annual cycle and investigation
of the environmental variables potentially responsible for
the observed fluctuations in abundance will permit a better
understanding of the zooplankton dynamics in Amundsen
Gulf.
ARCTIC BIOLOGY ON THE LAND - THE
IVVAVIK NATIONAL PARK EXPERIENCE
Bacheschi, Adriana1 ([email protected]), D. Pat1
Parks Canada, Western Arctic Field Unit, Inuvik,
Northwest Territories, X0E 0T0
1
Situated in the Canada’s northwestern corner,
bordered by Alaska and the Beaufort Sea, Ivvavik National
Park was the first National Park in the country to be
established as a result of a land claim agreement. Ivvavik,
like all national parks, is part of our heritage as Canadians.
Ivvavik is also specifically part of the heritage of the
Inuvialuit people, who have asked Canada to safeguard it
and to ensure that Canadians learn about it. For the past
four years, Parks Canada in the Western Arctic partnered
with Samuel Hearn Secondary School in Inuvik to take
Biology 20 high school students, a local elder, teachers
and parks staff into Ivvavik National Park for a week long
science camp. In the camp, students are introduced to
biology field research, which helps them learn first-hand
about how a natural arctic ecosystem works. They also
explore Ivvavik National Park and learn about the Yukon
North Slope environment protected by the national park.
Along with the scientific purposes of the excursion, there
is also a cultural objective. Helped by a local elder, students
learn about the cultural history of Ivvavik and how it
continues into this day, including learning some Inuvialuit
names for plants and animals. Every year students find
that through the program they gain scientific knowledge, a
connection to the land and an appreciation of the survival
skills and traditional living of their ancestors. According
to the teachers, students also gain a new awareness and
understanding of themselves. All parties involved consider
the program to be of great value and continue to support its
offer in the Western Arctic.
VERTICAL MIGRATION OF HIGH ARCTIC
ZOOPLANKTON IN AUTUMN: ACOUSTIC DATA
AND DEPTH STRATIFIED NET SAMPLES FROM
TWO SVALBARD FJORDS
Bailey, Allison1 ([email protected]), A. Beiersdorf1, M.
Fuhrmann1, M. Vihtakari1, J. Wallenschus1, M. Wallace2, J.
Soreide1, Ø. Varpe1 and J. Berge1
1
Biology Department, The University Centre in Svalbard,
174
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
PB 156, N-9171 Longyearbyen, Norway
2
Gatty Marine Laboratory, University of St Andrews, Fife,
KY16 8LB, Scotland, UK
fjords, and may be explained by different hydrographical
regimes.
The diel vertical migration (DVM) of the three
copepods (Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis and C. hyperboreus)
in two fjords on the west coast of Spitsbergen (78°N) was
investigated this autumn from August 25- September 7.
The study period fell during the transition between the
Arctic midnight sun and the onset of autumn diurnal
variations in light. Depth-stratified samples of the
zooplankton community were taken every six hours for 24h
in Billefjorden and Kongsfjorden. Each fjord was sampled
twice, with an interval of one week between sampling dates.
The abundance of Calanus glacialis, C. finmarchicus and C.
hyperboreus, and a proxy of lipid sac size were measured.
Changes in the light conditions during the course of the
study period were measured with a LiCor light logger
onboard the ship. A 300 kHz acoustic Doppler current
profiler (ADCP) provided data on the backscatter (as a
proxy for biomass) and vertical movements of particles
in the water column continuously for 24h at each station.
Billefjorden is a threshold fjord dominated by locally
formed cold water. The Arctic shelf species C. glacialis
dominated in this fjord, and its population consisted mainly
of older copepodite stages (≥ CIV). Kongsfjorden is an
open fjord influenced by relatively warm Atlantic water. C.
finmarchicus, an indicator species for Atlantic water masses,
dominated in this fjord. Copepods in the deeper layers
of both Billefjorden and Kongsfjorden had significantly
larger lipid sacs than the copepods in the upper 50 m.
No DVM was detected for older stages of Calanus spp. in
Billefjorden. They had most likely performed their seasonal
vertical migration (SVM) to depth, i.e. entered diapause for
overwintering. This was supported by the large lipid sacs of
copepods in the deep layers. In contrast, DVM was detected
for both older (≥ CIV) and younger stages of Calanus
in Kongsfjorden. The ADCP data showed a clear DVM
pattern in Billefjorden. A DVM pattern was also seen from
the ADCP recordings in Kongsfjorden, but the pattern
was weaker than in Billefjorden. The lack of evidence for
Calanus spp. DVM in Billefjorden strongly suggests that
other species than Calanus performed DVM there, whereas
in Kongsfjorden Calanus spp. contributed to the DVM
pattern seen. The DVM patterns were more pronounced
during the second sampling period in both fjords, which
can be explained by the larger difference in light between
day and night at that time. In conclusion, vertical migration
of zooplankton, which represents one of the largest
synchronized movements of biomass in the world, occurred
in these Arctic fjords on both diurnal (DVM) and seasonal
(SVM) time scales. The timing of SVM differed between
WHIMBREL, NUMENIUS PHAEOPUS, NESTING
HABITAT USE AND CHANGE IN CHURCHILL,
MB
Ballantyne, Kate1 ([email protected]) and E. Nol2
Environmental & Life Sciences, Trent University,
Peterborough, Ontario, K9J 7B8
2
Biology Department, Trent University, Peterborough,
Ontario, K9J 7B8
1
Whimbrel nesting habitat was studied at two scales
during the 2007 breeding season. Percent cover of dominant
vegetation, water and substrate classes were quantified at
mesohabitat (within 150m radius of nest) and microhabitat
(within 1m radius) scales. Mesohabitat analysis compared
nest areas to randomly selected, available areas. Whimbrel
occupied two main habitat types characterized either by
high percent cover of lichen and Ericaceae and Dryas, or
standing water and sedge. Whimbrel avoided shrubby and
treed habitats. Microhabitat anaylsis compared nest sites
to other potential nest sites within perceived territories.
At the microhabitat level nest sites in drier tundra habitat
had significantly more lichen and Ericaceae and Dryas
than non-nest sites; while in wetter, sedge and standing
water dominated habitats nest sites had significantly more
vegetative cover than non-nest sites. Nests were commonly
placed on hummocks and lichen ridges (30/44, 68%),
and protrusions often rimmed nest cups (37/44, 84%).
Hatch success, with predation as the cause of high nest
failure, was 40% (18/45 nests) in 2007 and 28% (11/39) in
2008. Daily nest survival rate calculated with the constant
logistic exposure model was 0.94704 in 2007 and 0.92399
in 2008, corresponding to a hatch success of 26% and 14%
respectively. These hatch successes are lower than previously
reported.Under climate change scenarios, increases in
forest extent and shrub cover, drying of wetlands, and an
overall reduction in lichen and graminoid dominated tundra
ecosystems and arctic ponds are expected for sub-arctic and
arctic regions (Suarez et al. 1999, Sturm et al. 2001, Smith et
al. 2005, Sturm et al. 2005, Kaplan and New 2006, Tape et
al. 2006). Habitat may also be lost as sea level rise outpaces
isostatic rebound (Gough 1998). Furthermore, other
negative implications exist such as mistimed phenology
between food sources, migration and nesting activities, and
changes in the biological community which may introduce
new predator types (Crick and Sparks 1999, Cotton 2003,
Parmesan and Yohe 2003, Visser et al. 2004). Land changes
175
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
associated with industry and human settlement are also
likely. Such projected changes would cause a decrease in
Whimbrel nesting habitat. Current nesting distribution
contrasts that reported in the 1930s (Taverner & Sutton
1934) and 1970s (Skeel 1976), but resembles the distribution
reported in the 1990s (Lin 1997), with greater use of sedgemeadow, fen and coastal tundra habitat, and much lower
use of hummock-bog habitat adjacent to tree lines. Most
notably nesting use of a 2.56km2 hummock-bog habitat,
just north of the tree line and west of the airport, which
historically had the highest nesting density and hatch success
(Skeel 1976) has drastically declined. The causality of this
shift is currently unknown. It has been hypothesized that
the drying up, shrub and tree encroachment, and increases
in Canadian Geese and Common Ravens in the area are
possible reasons. A habitat change analysis based on
historic aerial photography from 1973 and 1986, and recent
high-resolution satellite imagery from 2006 will explore
the hypothesis that Whimbrel nesting use of the area has
decreased due to shrub and tree encroachment.
ARCTIC CLIMATE CHANGE YOUTH
FORUM (ACCYF) – FORUM JEUNESSE DES
CHANGEMENTS CLIMATIQUES DANS
L’ARCTIQUE (FJCCA)
Barber, Lucette1 ([email protected]), FJCCA
organizing committee2
Centre for Earth Observation Sciences, Clayton H. Riddell
Faculty of Environment Earth and Resources, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2
2
Le Petit Séminaire de Québec, Québec, QC G1R 5X8
1
Piloted in 2006 in conjunction with the CASES
science meeting, the Schools on Board Arctic Climate
Change Youth Forum has become a standing component
of the program, co-hosted every two years with a high
school; planned by a student organizing committee with
the guidance from Schools on Board and teachers; in
conjunction with an international science conference
(ArcticNet/CASES/IPY-CFL).
The forum focuses on: 1) the science behind Arctic
climate change research, featuring keynote presentations
and science sessions by leading scientists and graduate
students, and 2) the role of science in policy and decision
making – engaging participants in discussions and debates
on environmental issues related to climate change in the
Arctic. The aim of the forum in to extent outreach
activities of the Schools on Board program to greater
number of students and teachers, raising awareness of the
science and environmental issues; and promoting science
and environmental education. This presentation includes
a description of this program and the 2008 experience of
co-hosting the FJCCA in Quebec City in conjunction with
Arctic Changes 2008. PROJET ANT-ARCTIQUE – A CLASSROOM
APPROACH TO POLAR RESEARCH
Barber, Lucette1 ([email protected]), P. Collin1, L.
Malo2, N. Snape2, S. Roy3
Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2
2
Collège Jeanne Sauvé, Winnipeg, Manitoba
3
Université de Québec à Rimouski, QC
1
In the fall of 2006, two teachers from le Collège
Jeanne Sauvé (Winnipeg, MB) collaborated with Schools
on Board in a project that examined their grade 10 science
curriculum to explore the links between classroom science
education and polar climate change research. Meetings
with teachers revealed areas in the science program where
connections could be made between science concepts
learned in the classrooms, and the same concepts being
used in scientific research. From September to December,
these two teachers committed to including a polar theme to
their science program. Scientists onboard two very different
vessels, the CCGS Amundsen in the Arctic and the Sedna
IV in the Antarctic interacted by email with two grade 10
classrooms on a weekly basis, addressing questions linked to
their science class, as well as questions related to life at sea. The email interactions were complemented by classroom
visits by scientists from the Centre for Earth Observation
Sciences (University of Manitoba). This project led to the
school sending a student on the 2008 International Schools
on Board Field Program, and hosting their first Climate
Change Expo.
This poster describes the process used to connect
these two classrooms to polar research and the lessons
that were learned by both educators and Schools on
Board on the bridges between science education and
scientific research
176
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
PALEOMAGNETIC DATING OF HOLOCENE
WESTERN CANADIAN ARCTIC SEDIMENTS:
COMBINED USE OF SECULAR VARIATION
AND TIME-VARYING SPHERICAL HARMONIC
MODEL OF THE GEOMAGNETIC FIELD
Barletta, Francesco1,2 ([email protected]), G. StOnge1,2 and A. Rochon1,2
Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski, Rimouski,
Québec, G5L 3A1
2
GÉOTOP
1
A major problem in Holocene paleoceanographic
reconstruction from the Canadian Arctic is the difficulty
to derive a robust chronology due to an often poorly
constrained radiocarbon reservoir effect and the paucity of
both datable material and well-dated paleoclimatic records.
Here we assess the potential of using both Holocene
regional paleomagnetic secular variation records and a
time-varying spherical harmonic model of the geomagnetic
field (CALS7K.2) to establish a preliminary age model for
a marine sedimentary record recently recovered from the
Beaufort Sea.
Core 2004-804-650 (hereinafter referred to as core
650) was raised from the Mackenzie Shelf (Beaufort Sea)
at a water depth of 246 m. The magnetic properties were
studied using a 2G-Enterprises high-resolution cryogenic
magnetometer in order to isolate the characteristic remanent
magnetization (ChRM). In addition, the anhysteretic and
the isothermal remanent magnetizations were induced in
order to identify the magnetic mineralogy and grain size.
The ChRM is characterized by a stable single component
magnetization carried by pseudo-single domain magnetite,
implying that core 650 recorded coherent paleomagnetic
secular variations. A preliminary age model was constructed
for the last ~6000 cal BP utilizing one AMS-14C date
and four paleomagnetic tie-points derived from the
comparison between core 650 ChRM declination record
and the expected magnetic declination computed using the
CALS7K.2 model. Based on this age model, a significant
inclination low was recorded at ~2500 cal BP and is
synchronous with a distinct inclination low observed in
radiocarbon-dated Holocene Arctic and North American
paleomagnetic secular variation records, further supporting
the initial age model of core 650. Finally, the preliminary
age model depicts a constant sedimentation rate of ~30
cm/ka during the last ~6000 cal BP, much lower than cores
collected closer to the mouth of the Mackenzie River, thus
reflecting lower sediment supplies from the Mackenzie
River.
EVALUATING MARINE ECOLOGICAL
INTEGRITY MONITORING MEASURES FOR
NACHVAK AND SAGLEK FIORDS, NORTHERN
LABRADOR
Bastick, Jacquie1 ([email protected]), Ken Reimer1
and T.W. Knight2
Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Stn.
Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4,
2
Parks Canada, Western Newfoundland and Labrador Field
Unit, Box 130, Rocky Harbour, NL, A0K 4N0
1
Labrador Inuit are concerned about the impact
of stressors, such as climate change, industrialization, and
contaminants, to the marine environment in northern
Labrador. Nunatsiavut Nuluak, an ArcticNet project
providing a baseline inventory and comparative assessment
of three fiords in northern Labrador, examines the impacts
of these stressors. This particular Nunatsiavut Nuluak
research in Nachvak and Saglek Fiords, adjacent to the
newly established Torngat Mountains National Park
Reserve, examines the utility of two key indicators to assess
and monitor ecosystem change through time. Fieldwork
from both shore and ship-based platforms was conducted
during the summers of 2007 and 2008. Preliminary results
include productivity profiles for the mouth and head of
the fiords, bathymetric mapping, and data collected to
generate habitat maps. Mollusc and sculpin samples also
were collected throughout the fiords, in collocation with
water column profiles. These data will be used to analyze
clam-community compositions, establish fish health indices,
and provide contaminant loading information. Results
of this study will provide Parks Canada with significant
baseline data required to establish the park’s long-term
marine monitoring program. It will also provide Labrador
Inuit with a comparative snapshot of ecosystem health in
relatively pristine reference sites.
177
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
CHARACTERIZING THE ARCTIC
STRATOSPHERE USING A COMBINATION
OF GROUND-BASED FTIR TRACE GAS
MEASUREMENTS, DYNAMICAL VARIABLES
AND MODELS
Batchelor, Rebecca ([email protected]
ca), K. Strong1, R. Lindenmaier1, T. Chshyolkova2, A.
Manson2, C. Meek2, S. Polavarapu3, M. Reszka3, M. Neish1,
A. Robichaud4, J. de Grandpré4, M. Roch4, S. Beagley5
1
Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto,
Ontario, M5S 1A7
2
Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of
Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan,S7N 5E2
3
Environment Canada, Downsview, Ontario, M3H 5T4
4
Environment Canada, Dorval, Quebec, H9P 1J3
5
Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering,
York University, North York, Ontario, M3J 1P3
1
Atmospheric changes resulting from ozone
depletion and greenhouse gas emission are felt particularly
strongly in the Polar Regions. Since the early 1980’s,
significant ozone depletion has been observed each spring
in the Antarctic stratosphere. Similar ozone depletion has
also been experienced in the spring-time Arctic stratosphere,
but as conditions are far more dynamically variable in the
North, this is not an annual, Arctic-wide phenomenon, but
varies considerably from year to year and place to place. In
order to fully understand changes occurring in the Arctic
stratosphere, it is thus important to combine information
from a range of complementary information sources to
better understand the dynamics and chemistry as a whole.
A new Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform
infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was installed at the Polar
Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL)
at 80ºN, 86ºW, in July 2006. This high resolution instrument
is capable of measuring a wide variety of trace-gas species,
including important ozone-related stratospheric species
O3, HCl, HNO3, ClONO2 and HF. This presentation will
introduce the new instrument, and will highlight the findings
of the first two years of its measurements. Discussion of
these findings will incorporate Arctic-wide observations
of the dynamics of the polar vortex in 2007 and 2008, and
comparison of the measurements with those predicted by
two meteorologically assimilated global chemistry models,
the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model – Data Assimilated
(CMAM-DA), and the Environment Canada Global
Environmental Multiscale stratospheric model, run with
the BIRA (Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy) online
chemistry package (GEM-BACH). In addition, select results
from FTIR instruments at other Arctic research stations will
be presented and compared with those observed at PEARL
and predicted by the dynamical and chemical conditions of
the Arctic atmosphere.
TREE RING STUDIES IN LABRADOR:
INVESTIGATING SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL
PATTERNS IN CLIMATIC AND ECOLOGICAL
FACTORS INFLUENCING TREE GROWTH
Bell, Trevor1 ([email protected]), A.D. Dumeresq1,2, C.
Kennedy1,2, P.H. Nishimura2, M. Trindade1,2, C.P. Laroque1,2
and A.B. Young2
Department of Geography, Memorial University, St. John’s,
Newfoundland and Labrador, A1B 3X9
2
Mount Allison Dendrochronology Laboratory, Mount
Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, E4L 1A7
1
IPY-funded collaborative research between
the Mount Allison Dendrochronology Laboratory and
the Labrador Highlands Research Group of Memorial
University is addressing questions that explore annual tree
growth sensitivity to past and present climate variability
and ecological disturbance in Labrador. Our research
approach varies from intensive, multi-species, single-site
studies that illuminate species-specific disturbances (e.g.
insect infestations), to regional, multi-species networks
that illustrate the spatially complex radial growth/climate
relationship across Labrador. Specific research questions include: (1) what are the
temporal and spatial patterns in radial growth among the
primary species at alpine and latitudinal treeline in Labrador? (2) How do climate parameters, forest disturbance events,
and coastal proximity to the frigid, foggy Labrador Sea
explain the variability in radial tree growth over space and
time (last 150 years or so)? (3) What factors explain the
high degree of variability in the climate sensitivity of spruce
trees across central Labrador and how do these factors
relate to the phenomenon of divergence? Using living tree-ring chronologies from up
to 4 species (Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Abies balsamea,
Larix laricina) at more than 30 sites – for the most part
arranged in a systematic gridded network (1° latitude by 2°
longitude) with some opportunistic sampling conducted
to accommodate altitudinal and latitudinal treeline – we
have developed a powerful database to understand how
environmental factors control the growth of Labrador trees.
Added to this network, in situ sub-fossil trees
preserved in bogs and shallow ponds on highland tundra
well above present day treeline, attest to more favourable
environmental conditions for tree growth in Labrador 3000-
178
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
4000 years ago. Crossdated tree ring chronologies from
more than 200 log samples from a single upland – locked
into time by radiocarbon dates – are being used to generate
annual-resolution reconstructions of temperature and/or
precipitation that signify what the climatic conditions were
like when treeline was higher than at present. In a related project we are slowly attempting to link
these live and upland master tree-ring chronologies for these
same species in central Labrador. All of the main river
systems draining central Labrador contain subfossil wood
in abandoned terrace sediments. The age of the wood has
been radiocarbon-dated to hundreds and thousands of years
before present. Dendrochronological analysis of over 150
samples from the Churchill, Goose and Crooked rivers is
providing an initial feasibility study to better understand if
the wood samples collected could generate sufficient data to
bridge the gap between chronologies.
Together, the tree ring data from these various
studies will improve our understanding of treeline
ecosystems in Labrador, with particular emphasis on their
sensitivity to local climates, their evolution under past
climates, and their predicted response to future, perhaps
very different, climatic conditions.
GLACIER OBSERVATIONS IN THE TORNGAT
MOUNTAINS, NORTHERN LABRADOR
Bell, Trevor1 ([email protected]), N. Barrand2, Philippe Leblanc1
and M. Sharp2
Department of Geography, Memorial University, St. John’s,
Newfoundland and Labrador, A1B 3X9
2
Department of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences, University
of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E3
1
Cirque glaciers in the Torngat Mountains of
northern Labrador are the only glaciers on mainland
Canada east of the Rocky Mountains and represent the
southernmost limit of glaciers in the eastern Arctic. A
compilation of recent inventories suggests that there may be
as many as 86 ice masses in the Torngat Mountains, though
not all of them are strictly glaciers. The largest glaciers
are <2 km2 in area and tend to be shaded by high cirque
backwalls. The earliest detailed observations were made by
Edward Bryant and Henry Forbes on Bryant’s Glacier in
the Four Peaks range in 1908. Their photographs of the
glacier snout were used by Noel Odell during a subsequent
visit in 1931 to calculate a retreat rate of ~3.5 m a-1. Mass
balance studies on four glaciers in the Selamiut and Cirque
Mountain ranges by Robert Rogerson between 1981 and
1984 indicated an overall negative balance, averaging -0.26
m. Abraham Glacier was the only one of the four that
measurably re-advanced (1.2 m a-1) during the monitoring
interval.
A new initiative to measure glacier change in the
Torngat Mountains National Park is part of ArcticNet’s
Nunatsiavut Nuluak project and operates in partnership
with Parks Canada and the Nunatsiavut Government. It
has as its primary goal to establish a baseline of current
glacier conditions to be used for future monitoring, recent
change detection and local hydrological assessment. The
research plan involves remote sensing, field surveys and
local knowledge from Inuit elders who lived and travelled in
the Torngat Mountains.
Field activities in 2008 focused on some of
the glaciers previously studied by Rogerson in the early
1980s. Precise surveys of glacier surface elevation and
margin position were carried out on Abraham, Hidden
and Minaret glaciers using a differential global positioning
system (DGPS). DGPS was also used to measure a selected
number of static points on stable, non-moving (i.e. rock)
terrain surrounding the three glaciers. These points, which
are identifiable in metric vertical aerial photographs, are used
as three-dimensional ground control points, essential to
deriving stereo-photogrammetric measurements of surface
elevation. The high-quality DEM surfaces of each glacier
and its surrounding terrain will be compared with archival
elevation data sources (e.g. satellite laser altimetry from
the Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) aboard
NASA’s Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat)).
Glacier surface elevation data are complimented
by bed topography derived from ground penetrating radar
(GPR) data. These data, once filtered, processed, and
topographically-corrected (using DGPS elevations along
coincident survey lines) will provide accurate bed elevations
which may be subtracted from surface elevations to measure
ice thickness. These data may be used to estimate total ice
volume and in combination with repeat surface elevations to
measure volume loss over time.
Preliminary highlights of the 2008 data indicate
significant ice marginal retreat, on the order of 100s of
metres, over the last 25 years. Bryant’s Glacier, for example,
which was re-photographed in 2008 from the same location
as in 1908, shows substantial loss in ice volume.
179
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
VARIABILITY OF CHLOROPHYLL-A FROM
OCEAN COLOR IMAGES IN THE BEAUFORT
SEA
Ben Mustapha, Sélima1 ([email protected]
ca), P.Larouche2
Département de Géomatique appliquée, Université de
Sherbrooke, Québec, J1K 2R1
2
Institut Maurice Lamontagne, Pêches et Océans Canada,
Mont-Joli, Québec, G5H 3Z4
1
Satellite remote sensing offers a powerful tool
for regional and global scale monitoring of the spatial
distribution of key environmental parameters. This is
particularly true for the study of the arctic marine ecosystem
that is highly undersampled. In the framework of the
Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchanges Study (CASES) and the
Arcticnet programs we investigated seasonal and interannual
variability of chlorophyll in the Beaufort sea in order to
better understand the biological processes occurring and
to evaluate the variability of environmental conditions and
physical forcing affecting phytoplankton. Multiple remote
sensing data sources were used in the study. SeaWiFS and
MODIS weekly and monthly composites from 1998 to
2008 were used to measure the phytoplankton biomass,
AVHRR-derived sea surface temperatures were used to
detect oceanographic features and SSMI data were used to
measure the ice cover. Using a set of in situ measurements
gathered during CASES (2004) and the Arcticnet (2005,
2006, 2007) field programs, we first conducted an evaluation
of the current ocean color operational algorithms as the
region is strongly influenced by dissolved organic matter
coming from the Mackenzie river. We were able to show
that these algorithms overestimate the actual in situ biomass
by roughly a factor of four. To solve that problem, we built
our own algorithm using optical data measured during
CASES-2004. Results show that we are now able to estimate
phytoplankton biomass in the Amundsen Gulf region
with a much better precision. However, given the strong
influence of the Mackenzie River outflow on the optical
properties along the Beaufort Sea coast, we selected to
eliminate these areas based on the R490/R669 reflectance
ratio that is highly correlated to salinity. After this screening
was done, time series were built for five sub-areas (Cape
Bathurst, Franklin Bay, Amundsen Gulf, Sachs harbour
coast and offshore Beaufort). These areas were selected to
correspond to locations where long term oceanographic
moorings are deployed. Because of the ice cover and the
high latitude, phytoplankton in these areas can be observed
by ocean color satellite only from April to September.
Results show that monthly mean chlorophyll concentration
for all sub-areas has a high interannual variability in the
timing, importance and duration of blooms. The seasonal
trend shows that chlorophyll-a normally reaches a maximum
value between May and July but fall blooms are also seen
at some occasions. Spatially, Sachs harbour and Amundsen
Gulf are the only regions having similar trends showing
regional scale variability. Future work will try to explain
how the phytoplankton distribution is influenced by various
environmental parameters and physical processes.
MARINE RECORDS OF SEDIMENT FLUX
FROM GLACIATED AND UNGLACIATED
CATCHMENTS, TORNGAT MOUNTAINS,
CANADA
Bentley, Samuel1 ([email protected]), E. Kahlmeyer1
Earth Sciences Department, Memorial University of
Labrador and Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL A1B3X5
1
Records of environmental processes and
conditions (over decadal to millennial timescales) are very
sparse for the Torngat Mountains National Park Reserve
(Nunatsiavut, Canada), although recent evidence indicates
that the surrounding Labrador Peninsula is undergoing
rapid environmental changes. In order to evaluate marine
sedimentary records of river discharge (of sediment, a
proxy for water discharge), a program of sonar seabed
mapping, sediment coring, water-column measurements,
and stream measurements was initiated in 2008 for the
McCornick River (a presently glaciated catchment of 80 km2
area), Nachvak Brook (presently unglaciated, 170 km2 area),
and associated marine basins in Nachvak Fjord and Saglek
Fjord, respectively. In summer 2008, approximately 180 km
of sidescan and subbottom survey lines were collected from
deep, muddy marine basins closest to the two river mouths,
to augment data collected during previous ArcticNet
cruises. Boxcores were collected to sample specific acoustic
facies identified in sonar, and cores were subsampled
for analysis of sedimentary structures (X-radiography),
radioisotope geochemistry (Th-234, Be-7, Pb-210, and
Cs-137, to evaluate sediment depositional processes), and
granulometry.
Preliminary analysis of sonar results suggest that
the thickness of postglacial sediments in the marine basin
for the McCornick River (16 km2 area, 150-170 m deep)
is 5-10 m, and 10-20m in the basin off Nachvak Brook
(20 km2, 250m deep), implying that sediment volumes are
proportional to catchment area. In both basins, sediments
have been deposited in wedges that thicken towards the
river mouth. X-radiographs of sediment cores show very
180
Arctic Change 2008 Conference Programme and Abstracts
faint stratification in mostly bioturbated clay-rich sediments.
The presence of stratification in bioturbated sediment,
however faint, is suggestive of rapid episodic sediment
delivery (such as by gravity-driven mechanisms), rather
than from water-column plumes. This possibility is being
evaluated in more detail at present thro