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APES 9 Week Review Sheet
Name:__________________________________ Mods: ________ Date:_________
Define the following vocabulary words.
Biological Magnification: introduced toxic chemicals, which accumulate in the tissues higher in the food chain
Net Primary Production: gross primary productivity minus photosynthesis
Competition: Two or more species attempt to use a common resource
Biosphere: Atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere
Genetic Variation: the unique combination of traits in the environment
Overproduction: population number is over carrying capacity
Evolution: series of changes in species overtime (bacteria become resistant to antibiotics)
Natural Selection: those organisms better suited for the environment survive and have offspring
Primary succession: growth of organisms where they have never been before (volcanic rock, glacier, sand dune)
Secondary succession: disturbance kills life, soil intact, quick
Species: organisms that can breed together are described by their trophic level, symbiotic relationships, predator/
prey, competition
Coevolution: species evolve together (symbiosis, mutualism, parasitism, commensalism)
Parasitism: take resources from another while keeping it alive
Symbiosis: close association between organism (mutualism, parasitism, commensalism)
Mutualism: symbiosis where both species benefit
Fundamental Niche: potential niche
Realized Niche: actual niche
Competitive exclusion principle: occurs when two organisms compete for the same resources, one will win
Interspecific competition: competition between species
Intraspecific competition: competition within species
Pioneer species: First to arrive during primary succession (lichen and algae)
Ecological Niche: organism’s role, lifestyle within an ecosystem
Keystone Species: essential to the ecosystem, usually not the most abundant species
Renewable Resources: resource that is not used up faster than it is being used
Answer the following questions:
1) The following is a real food web from Yellowstone.
a. Describe one pathway of energy flow from producer to
secondary consumer.
Grain, grass, fruit to vole, coyote, elk to grey wolf
b. What happens to the other organisms if the grey wolf
population died off?
Herbivores would increase, and wolfs would decrease
c. What would happen if the vole population died off?
The wolfs would start eating more elk and coyote
2) Relationships between organisms such as symbiosis, parasitism, commensalism and mutualism are a result
of coevolution.
3) Why was Katrina flooding more devastating today than in the past?
We are building on flood plains
4) What are the effects of removing fresh water from a river or lake?
Increasing salinity for associated estuaries
5) What are some adaptions of successful predators?
Ambush, camouflage, speed, intelligence
6) What are some adaptations of successful prey?
Camouflage, warning colors, speed
7) What factors affect the number of species in a community?
Geological history, productivity, niches, stability
8) What is an example of a pioneer species?
Lichen and algae
9) Draw a graph of two species attempting to use the same
resources. What do we call this?
Competitive exclusion principle
10) The color of bird’s feathers is most likely the result of coevolution and natural selection (they are from the
vocab list above.