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Transcript
Multi-Apartment Buildings
Tamás Perényi
Tamás Niczki
Zsófia Dankó
Boglárka Szentirmai
Zoltán André
Tímea Nikházy
Margó Szécsi
Zoltán Török
Viola Tóth
Andor Wesselényi-Garay
Patrick Mullowney
Anikó Annamária Németh
Péter Brenyó
Albert Máté
Multi-Apartment Buildings
by Tamás Perényi
by Tamás Niczki, Zsófia Dankó, and Boglárka Szentirmai
by Zoltán André, Tímea Nikházy, Margó Szécsi, Zoltán Török, and Viola Tóth
by Andor Wesselényi-Garay, Patrick Mullowney, and Anikó Annamária Németh
by Péter Brenyó and Albert Máté
Publication date 2013
Copyright © 2013 BUTE Department of Residential Building Design, The curriculum development
of the BME Department of Residential Building Design was implemented under the
preject TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0055.,
,
,
Abstract
In our curricular collection entitled Multi-Apartment Houses, we focus on multi-storey, multi-apartment residential
buildings, while we deal with all the other types of multi-apartment houses in Low-Rise High-Density Housing.
Copyright 2013
Table of Contents
Introductory Essay ........................................................................................................ ix
The Topic of Multi-Apartment Buildings .................................................................. ix
Categories of Multi-Apartment Houses ..................................................................... ix
The Structuring of This Collection ........................................................................... ix
Examples of Historic Periods and Vernacular Architectural Prototypes ............................ x
Multi-Apartment Buildings in the First Half of the 20th Century ................................... xi
Projects in the Latter Half of the 20th Century ......................................................... xiii
Contemporary Experiments, Design Issues ............................................................... xv
1. Apartment Buildings from the First Part of the 20th Century – International Projects ............... 1
........................................................................................................................... 1
Majolica House, Vienna, Austri ...................................................................... 1
mp; Russell, Graham Court, New York, US ........................................................ 5
Rue Franklin Apartments, Paris, Franc ............................................................. 7
Casa Milà, Barcelona, Spain, 19 .................................................................... 13
Klerk, Hembrugstraat, Amsterdam, Netherland .................................................. 16
Gradins Vavin, Paris, Franc .......................................................................... 19
der Rohe, Weissenhofsiedlung, Stuttgart, German .............................................. 22
- Martin Wagner, Britz Hufeisensiedlung, Berlin, Germany, ................................. 26
- Ignati Milinis, Narkomfin Communal House, Moscow, Russi ............................. 31
Siemensstadt Housing, Berlin, German ........................................................... 37
Karl-Marx-Court, Vienna, Austria .................................................................. 41
Highpoint Apartment Blocks, London, U ........................................................ 45
- Pietro Lingeri, Casa Lavezzari, Milan, Ital ..................................................... 50
Giuseppe Terragni - Pietro Lingeri, Casa Rustici, Corso Sempione, Milan, 1936 ...... 55
Charles Marshall - William Tweedy, Viceroy Court in St. John’s Wood, London,
UK, 1934-36 ............................................................................................... 59
amus - Palanti, Fabio Filzi Quarter - Residential complex in the Milan suburbs,
Ital ............................................................................................................ 64
Micthell - Bridgwater - Gollins & Smeeton AA, Viceroy Close, Birmingham,
UK, 1938 ................................................................................................... 68
Robert Atkinson, Oslo Court, London, UK, 1938 .............................................. 71
Mario Terzaghi - Augusto Magnaghi Delfino, Apartment Building, Como, Italy,
1939 .......................................................................................................... 76
Giuseppe Terragni, Giuliani-Frigerio Apartments, Como, Italy, 1940 .................... 78
2. Apartment Buildings from the First Half of the 20th Century – Hungarian Projects ............... 82
......................................................................................................................... 82
Henrik Böhm – Ármin Hegedűs, Török Bank, Szervita Square No. 3, Budapest,
District V, 1906 ........................................................................................... 82
Béla Lajta, Rózsavölgyi House, Szervita Square No. 5, Budapest, District V,
1911-12 ...................................................................................................... 87
Béla Málnai, Former Czech-Hungarian Industrial Bank, Nádor Street No. 6,
Budapest, District V, 1912 ............................................................................. 94
Iván Kotsis, Luther House, Nyíregyháza, 1929 ................................................. 99
Pál Ligeti – Farkas Molnár, Delej Mansion, Mihály Street No. 11, Budapest,
District I, 1930 .......................................................................................... 103
Károly Rainer, Mailáth Houses, Keleti Károly Street, Budapest, District II,
1930 ......................................................................................................... 105
Pál Detre - Máté Major, Tenement House, Attila Road No. 129, Budapest, District
I, 1934 ..................................................................................................... 108
Lajos Kozma, Six-Flat Tenement Mansion, Bimbó Road No. 39, Budapest,
District II, 1934 ......................................................................................... 110
László Lauber - István Nyíri, Tenement House, Kékgolyó Street No. 10,
Budapest, District XII, 1934 ......................................................................... 113
Gábor Preisich - Mihály Vadász, Manfréd Weiss’s Pension Funds Tenement
House, Bartók Béla Road No. 62–64, Budapest, District XI, 1934 ....................... 119
iv
Multi-Apartment Buildings
Aladár Árkay - Sándor Faragó - József Fischer - Károly Heysa - Pál Ligeti Farkas Molnár - Móric Pogány - Gábor Preisich - Mihály Vadász, OTI Tenement
Houses, Pope John Paul II Square (formerly Köztársaság Square) Nos. 14,15 and
16, Budapest, District VIII, 1935 .................................................................. 125
Lajos Kozma, Átrium House, Margit Boulevard No. 55, Budapest, District II,
1936 ......................................................................................................... 131
Dr. Béla Barát - Ede Novák, Georgia Tenement Palace, Rákóczi Road No. 4,
Budapest, District VII, 1936 ......................................................................... 137
Béla Hofstätter - Ferenc Domány, Dunapark House, Pozsonyi Road No. 38-40,
Budapest, District XIII, 1936 ........................................................................ 143
László Lauber - István Nyíri - Sándor Bálint, Tenement House, Irányi Street No.
8, Budapest, District V, 1936 ........................................................................ 148
Farkas Molnár, Condominiums, Pasaréti Road No. 7, Budapest, District II, 1936 ... 150
Móric Pogány - István Janáky, Bérvilla, Áfonya Street, Budapest, District II,
1936 ......................................................................................................... 155
Károly Bálint, Tenement Mansion with Businesses, Kolumbusz Street No. 57/b,
Budapest, District XIV, 1937 ........................................................................ 158
Lajos Kozma - Vilmos Dénes, Tenement House, Régiposta Street No. 13,
Budapest, District V, 1937 ........................................................................... 160
György Rumszauer, Tenement House of the Association of the Royal Hungarian
Postmasters and Postal Employees, Szalay Street No. 5/a, Budapest, District V,
1937 ......................................................................................................... 168
Gyula Wälder, Tenement House (Holitscher House), Rákóczi Road No. 12,
Budapest, District VII, 1937 ......................................................................... 172
János Wanner, Tenement Mansion, Szilágyi Erzsébet Avenue No. 61, Budapest,
District II, 1937 ......................................................................................... 174
Béla Hofstätter - Ferenc Domány, Tenement House of Weiss Manfréd
Companies’ Recognised Pension Fund, Margit Boulevard Nos. 15-17, Budapest,
District II, 1938 ......................................................................................... 176
Tibor Hübner - István Janáky, OTI Tenement House, Károly Boulevard Nos.
13-15, Budapest, District VII, 1940 ............................................................... 182
Dr. Dezső Hültl, Tenement House of the Hungarian Academy of Science (MTA),
Károly Boulevard No. 1, Budapest, District VII, 1939 ....................................... 186
Aladár and Viktor Olgyay, Tenement House, Városmajor Street No. 50/b,
Budapest, District XII, 1941 ......................................................................... 189
Gedeon Gerlóczy, Tenement House with Businesses, Petőfi Sándor Street No. 12,
Budapest, District V, 1944 ........................................................................... 194
3. Apartment Buildings from the Latter Half of the 20th Century – International Projects ......... 200
....................................................................................................................... 200
Luciano Abenante - Francesco Di Salvo - Gian Tristano Papale, Social Housing,
Naples, Italy, 1947 ..................................................................................... 200
Luigi Moretti, Il Girasole, Rome, Italy, 1950 .................................................. 204
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Lake Shore Drive Apartments, Chicago, USA,
1951 ......................................................................................................... 208
Le Corbusier, Unité d'Habitation, Marseille, France, 1948-52 ............................ 213
Mario Asnago - Claudio Vender, Residential Building, Via Faruffini 6, Milan,
Italy, 1954 ................................................................................................. 219
José Antonio Coderch, Casa de la Marina, Barcelona, Spain, 1951–54 ................. 223
Attilio Mariani - Carlo Perogalli, Via Crivelli, Milan, Italy, 1955 ........................ 231
Frank Lloyd Wright, Price Tower, Bartlesville, Oklahoma, USA, 1956 ................ 234
Gio Ponti, Casa Via Dezza, Milan, Italy, 1957 ................................................ 240
Kunio Maekawa, Harumi Apartments, Tokyo, Japan, 1958 ................................ 243
Gian Luigi Banfi - Lodovico Belgiojoso - Enrico Peresutti - Ernesto Rogers
(Studio BBPR), Velasca Tower, Milan, Italy, 1958 ............................................ 251
Johannes Hendrik van der Broek - Jaap Bakema, Hansaviertel Tower, Berlin,
Germany, 1960 .......................................................................................... 256
Bertrand Goldberg, Marina City, Chicago, USA, 1964 ..................................... 259
Ernő Goldfinger, Balfron and Trellick Tower, West-London, UK, 1968–72 ........... 264
v
Multi-Apartment Buildings
Moshe Safdie, Habitat ’67, Montreal, Canada, 1967 ........................................ 267
Alison and Peter Smithson, Robin Hood Gardens, London, UK, 1972 ................. 273
Kisho Kurokawa, Nakagin Capsule Tower, Tokyo, Japan, 1972 .......................... 277
Rudolf Olgiati, Apartment House, Flims-Dorf, Switzerland, 1973 ....................... 283
Ricardo Bofill - Taller de Arquitectura, Walden 7, Barcelona, Spain, 1973 ............ 286
Cruz y Ortiz Arquitectos, Calle Doña María Coronel 26, Sevilla, Spain, 1976 ....... 291
Rudolf Olgiati, Tschaler House, Chur, Switzerland, 1977 .................................. 294
Jean Nouvel, Nemausus I-II, Nîmes, France, 1985–88 ...................................... 298
4. Apartment Buildings in the Latter Half of the 20th Century – Hungarian Projects ................ 303
....................................................................................................................... 303
Zoltán Kiss, Apartment Building, Délibáb Street, District VI, Budapest, 1954 ....... 303
Károly Weichinger–Csaba Virág, OTP Apartments, Liszt Ferenc Square, District
VII/VI, Budapest, 1961 ............................................................................... 306
Zoltán Gulyás, OTP Apartments, Rumbach Sebestyén Street, District VII,
Budapest, 1963 .......................................................................................... 310
György Vedres, OTP Apartments, Bem Embankment, District I, Budapest, 1962 .... 317
György Jánossy, Apartments, Úri Street No. 38, District I, Budapest, 1963 ........... 320
Tibor Tenke, Medium-Rise Apartment Houses of an Experimental Housing
Estate, Budapest, XXII, 1963 ....................................................................... 325
Lajos Schmidt, Apartments, Gellérthegy Street, District I, Budapest, 1965 ............ 329
György Tokár - Attila Emődy, Apartments, Hajnóczy József Street, District XII,
Budapest, 1965 .......................................................................................... 333
János Sedlmayr, Apartments, Tárnok Street No. 7, District I, Budapest, 1964 ........ 337
Béla Borvendeg, Apartments, Szeged, Oskola Street, 1968 ................................ 342
Levente Varga, Terrace House, Lévay Street No. 8, District II, Budapest, 1967–
1969 ......................................................................................................... 348
Csaba Virág, White Dove House, Úri Street, District I, Budapest, 1969 ................ 352
Zoltán Farkasdy - Attila Kenessey, Apartments in the Castle District, Dísz
Square, District I, Budapest, 1970 ................................................................. 357
Zoltán Farkasdy, Apartments, Úri Street, District I, Budapest, 1970 .................... 362
Mrs János Sedlmayr, Apartments, Hátsókapu Street, Sopron, 1971 ..................... 367
Olga Mináry, Apartment Buildings, Hankóczy Jenő Street, District II, Budapest,
1974 ......................................................................................................... 371
Lajos Horváth, Infill Development in the Castle District, Úri Street, District I,
Budapest, 1972 .......................................................................................... 374
Károly Jurcsik, Apartments, Toboz Street, District III, Budapest, 1977 ................ 381
5. Contemporary Apartment Buildings – International Projects ........................................... 384
....................................................................................................................... 384
Gilles Perraudin - Françoise Jourda, Croix Rousse Social Housing, Lyon, France,
1992 ......................................................................................................... 384
Philippe Gazeau, Logements Postiers, Rue de l’Ourcq, Paris, France, 1993 ........... 388
Carlo Baumschlager-Dietmar Eberle, Rohrbach 2 Residential Complex, Dombirn,
Austria, 1997 ............................................................................................. 392
Frédéric Borel, Apartment Building, Rue Pelleport, Paris, France, 1999 ............... 396
Carlos Ferrater, Paseo de Gracia - Diputación Building, Barcelona, Spain, 1999 ..... 401
Herzog & de Meuron, Rue des Suisses Apartment Buildings, Paris, France,
2000 ......................................................................................................... 406
de Architekten Cie, The Whale, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2000 ......................... 412
Kazuyo Sejima–Ryue Nishiziwa (SANAA), Kitagata Housing, Kitagata, Japan,
2000 ......................................................................................................... 416
Carlo Baumschlager - Dietmar Eberle, Hötting-West Development, Innsbruck,
Austria, 2000 ............................................................................................. 422
Eduardo Souto de Moura, Maia Apartments, Maia, Portugal, 2001 ...................... 425
Cino Zucchi, D/Residential Building on La Giudecca, Venice, Italy, 2002 ............. 430
Ercilla - Campo Arquitectura, 168 FLATS Public Housing, Lakua, VitoriaGasteiz, Spain, 2002 ................................................................................... 433
Alfonso Reyes - Dellekamp Arquitectos, 58 Apartments, Mexico City, Mexico,
2003 ......................................................................................................... 437
vi
Multi-Apartment Buildings
MVRDV, Silodam, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2003 .......................................... 445
Alvaro Siza Vieira, Terraços de Bragança, Lisbon, Portugal, 2004 ...................... 454
Claus en Kaan Architecten, Ter Huivra, Joure, Netherlands, 2004 ....................... 458
Edouard François, Flower Tower, Paris, France, 2004 ...................................... 463
Miller & Maranta, Schwarzpark Residences, Basel, Switzerland, 2004 ................. 467
Alexis López Acosta - Xavier Iván Díaz Martín, Edificio Inakasa, Las Palmas,
Gran Canaria, 2005 .................................................................................... 474
David Chipperfield - EMV Social Housing, Villaverde, Madrid, Spain, 2005 ........ 478
MVRDV - Blanca Lleó Asciados, Mirador Apartment Building, Madrid, Spain,
2005 ......................................................................................................... 482
PLOT (BIG+JDS), VM House, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2005 ............................ 487
Rafael Moneo - Martinez Lapena, Apartment House, Barcelona, Spain, 2005 ........ 490
Riano Arquitectos, 22-Flat Housing, Madrid, Spain, 2005 ................................. 494
Ryue Nishizawa (SANAA), Moriyama House, Tokyo, Japan, 2005 ..................... 501
S-M.A.O., Social Housing, Carabanchel, Madrid, Spain, 2005 ........................... 505
Amann - Canovas - Maruri, 61-Apartment Social Tenement House, Coslada
Puerto, Madrid, Spain, 2006 ......................................................................... 507
C.F. Møller Architects, Østerbrogade 105, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2006 .............. 511
Edouard François, La Closeraie, Louviers, France, 2006 ................................... 514
Emiliano López - Monica Rivera, 27-Apartment Social Tenement House for
Young People, Barcelona, Spain, 2007 ........................................................... 516
Xiaodu Liu & Yan Meng (Urbanus Architecture & Design Inc.), Tolou Collective
Housing, Nanhai District, Guandong Province, China, 2008 ............................... 522
ZIGZAG Arquitectura, VIVAZZ Social Housing, Mieres, Spain, 2011 ................. 527
6. Contemporary Multi-Apartment Buildings – Hungarian Projects ...................................... 533
....................................................................................................................... 533
Tamás Tomay, Three-Flat Apartment House, Kavics Street No. 8/D, Budapest,
District II, 1996 ......................................................................................... 533
György Vadász - László Váncza, Residential Community, Beregszászi Road,
Budapest, District XI, 1999 .......................................................................... 536
Sándor Pálfy - Ferenc Keller, Residential Community, Csejtei Street Nos. 15–19,
Budapest, District II, 1998 ........................................................................... 539
Péter Reimholz, Hapimag Apartments, Fortuna Street, Budapest, District I,
2000 ......................................................................................................... 544
Zsófia Csomay - Péter Reimholz, Raul Wallenberg Guesthouse, Toldy Ferenc
Street Nos. 8-10 and Szabó Ilonka Street No. 7, Budapest, District I, 2000 ............ 547
János Dobai, Passage House, Mária and Horánszky Streets, Budapest, District
VIII, 2001 ................................................................................................. 555
Dévényi Tamás, Magház (“Core-House”), Rottenbiller Street, Budapest, VII,
2002 ......................................................................................................... 561
Tamás Tomay, Apartment House, Gül Baba Street, Budapest, District II, 2002 ....... 567
Ferenc Cságoly - Ferenc Keller, Barbican House, Pécs, 2001 ............................. 575
Margit Pelényi, Social Tenement House, Pécs, 2002 ........................................ 580
Gábor Turányi, Owner-Occupied Apartment House in Mecset Street, Budapest,
District II, 2003 ......................................................................................... 584
Gábor Csernyánszky, Municipal Tenements, Rákóczy F. Street Nos. 97–105,
Budapest, District XXI, 2004 ....................................................................... 588
László Kalmár - Zsolt Zsuffa, 4-Flat Apartment Block, Vágás Street No. 22,
Budapest, District XIV, 2004 ........................................................................ 592
Boros Pál, Owner-Occupied 9-Flat Apartment Block, Kecskemét, 2005 ............... 597
Gunther Zsolt - Csillag Katalin, Owner-Occupied Apartment Block in Futó
Street, Budapest, District VIII, 2005 .............................................................. 604
Zsolt Hajnal, Residential Complex, Kapás Street No. 26–44, Budapest, District II,
2005 ......................................................................................................... 607
László Vincze, Azúr Apartmant House, Siófok, 2005 ....................................... 611
Hajnal Zsolt, Apartments in Futó Street, Budapest, District VIII, 2006 ................. 614
György Hild, Owner-Occupied 12-Flat Apartment Block, Virág árok Street No.
17, Budapest, District XII, 2006 ................................................................... 618
vii
Multi-Apartment Buildings
Kis Péter - Valkai Csaba, Municipal Apartments, Práter Street Nos. 30-32,
Budapest, District VIII, 2007 ........................................................................ 622
Brigitta Mayer - László Szentgyögyi, Owner-Occupied Apartments in Nevegy
Street, Budapest, District XI, 2007 ................................................................ 627
Péter Reimholz, Corvinus Palace, Szalag Street, Budapest, District I, 2008 ........... 631
Gábor Zoboki - Nóra Demeter, Dorottya Palace, Dorottya Street, Budapest,
District V, 2008 ......................................................................................... 636
Lukács István - Vikár András, Simplon Court Apartments B, Váli Street,
Budapest, District XI, 2009 .......................................................................... 639
János Bitó - Gyula Fülöp - Tamás Perényi, Reconstruction and Extension of an
Historic Residential Building, Nándor Street No. 9, Budapest, District I, 2009 ........ 646
Gábor Turányi - Bence Turányi, Simplon Court, Bercsényi Steet, Budapest,
District XI, 2010 ........................................................................................ 651
7. Sustainable and Energy-Efficient Apartment Buildings .................................................. 656
....................................................................................................................... 656
BKK-2, Sargfabrik, Vienna, Austria, 1996 ..................................................... 656
Hentrich - Petschnigg & Partner (HPP), Dwellings for Young People, Leipzig,
Germany, 2000 .......................................................................................... 661
BKK-3, Miss Sargfabrik, Vienna, Austria, 2000 .............................................. 664
Roos Architekten, Apartment Block, Jona-Kempraten, Switzerland, 2004 ............. 668
Johannes and Hermann Kaufmann, AM Mühlweg Housing Complex, Unit A,
Vienna, Austria, 2006 ................................................................................. 671
sps-architekten, Passive Energy Housing Complex “Samer Mösl", Salzburg,
Austria, 2006 ............................................................................................. 675
Aldric Beckmann - Françoise N’Thépé, Lot M3B3, Paris, France, 2007 ............... 679
Elenberg Fraser, Huski Apartments, Falls Creek, Australia, 2008 ........................ 683
Feilden Clegg Bradley Studios, One Brighton Apartment Complex, Brighton,
Great Britain, 2009 ..................................................................................... 687
Grab Architekten, Kraftwerk B, Bennau, Switzerland, 2009 .............................. 689
8. Bibliography .......................................................................................................... 693
viii
Introductory Essay
The Topic of Multi-Apartment Buildings
In our curricular collection entitled Multi-Apartment Houses, we focus on multi-storey, multiapartment residential buildings, while we deal with all the other types of multi-apartment houses
in Low-Rise High-Density Housing. However, these two types of housing cannot be precisely
distinguished, because – for example – multi-storey row houses or terraced (deck) houses may be
included in both categories. Speaking of multi-storey (high-rise) multi-apartment houses, we mean
townhouses and tenement houses in general, or the developments formerly referred to as owneroccupied blocks (condominiums), urban mansions (villas) or even apartment houses. What all these
examples have in common is that they are complexes containing several dwelling units that open from
a shared circulation system.
Categories of Multi-Apartment Houses
Multi-apartment houses may be classified according to several aspects. Our collection is based on a
chronological order: the historical examples are followed by contemporary ones relevant from aspects
of design. However, multi-apartment buildings are traditionally grouped according to their many other
characteristics, too. The final design of the buildings, the dimensions of the apartments and their
standards are defined by several factors. The clients commissioning the building are crucial to the
outcome. In this regard, we can make a distinction between market-based investment, social housing
(tenement flats), houses built by corporate builders (typical of the early-20th century), as well as
co-operative houses built by the owners in collaboration. Except for the latter, it holds true for all
these projects that the would-be occupants are unknown at the time of design work, which means that
architects need a brand-new method instead of the usual design strategy used in the case of singlefamily detached houses. While having to meet the needs of an unknown prospective apartment-dweller,
architects also depend on the economic and cultural standards of their direct clients. Categorizations
based on propriety nexus (private house, tenement house), building height (medium-height, high-rise)
or trusses (brick, reinforced concrete frame, prefab panels, etc.) also have numerous architectural
consequences and relevances. However, for design considerations, it is categorizations based on the
type of circulation system and the development that seem to be the most relevant, since they certainly
influence the design of dwelling units and thus the lives of their would-be dwellers. According to
the circulation system, we distinguish tiered buildings and buildings with passages and corridors.
Examples of these two categories occur in countless formations, in mixed forms or even blended. The
appropriate choice defines aspects such as the orientation of the apartments, their exposure to sunshine,
interior configuration, ventillation, the economical maintenance and operation of the building, or
even the ratio of the useable and overall floor-area, which is a most important concern regarding
the costs of investment. Regarding the type of development, we distinguish free-standing (detached)
dwelling-houses containing one or more buildings and development in unbroken rows adjusting to
the existing urban fabric. Previously such developments were built exclusively to surround a closed
internal courtyard. Later on, by building around site blocks like a frame, larger livable internal gardens
were left undeveloped. In any given situation, architects’ inventiveness is manifest primarily in the
way they are able to integrate the above so that as many of the units within the complex as possible
have the same, or at least almost equally advantageous conditions. More often than not, the issues of
development go beyond the confines of the actual structure. Thus, a genuinely innovative development
entails consequences for town planning and civic design.
The Structuring of This Collection
When compiling this collection, we selected and analysed remarkable international and local examples
of the various periods from the point of view of building design. We developed our examination
criteria along the lines of what we judged to be the most important issues that arise when designing
multi-apartment residential buildings. It was not our aim to compile a comprehensive presentation.
Instead, we focussed on some prominent buildings typical of their own time. The structures included
ix
Introductory Essay
in our collection are representative examples either of the time of their construction, or their given
socio-cultural environment and context. They are either lasting achievements of their own age,
or their principles constitute a tradition that could be continued. This is why we often refer to
them and treat them as prototypes to be revised during design work. Prototypes should, of course,
always be seen through an appropriate filter, as many of them have assumed significant physical
and moral obsolescence by now, coming into being under various cultural, social, economic or
climatic conditions. We do hope that the analysis of the dwelling-houses we selected will prove to
be educational. Their responses to certain issues faced then should help today’s architects to make
professional decisions in their design work.
Our selection contains seven sub-chapters surveying Hungarian and international projects of the
first and the latter half of the 20th century, followed by contemporary projects, all in chronological
order. The collection concludes with descriptions of some exemplary sustainable and energy-efficient
buildings.
Examples of Historic Periods and Vernacular
Architectural Prototypes
The evolution of multi-storey, multi-apartment residential buildings is generally associated with
industrial revolution and the dwellings created for the masses of working class people flocking into
towns and cities in its wake. According to the interpretation discussed in detail in the introduction,
this form of housing actually became massively widespread in the early 20th century. However, it
has some fairly early prototypes. If we survey secular vernacular or early architectural examples,
it also becomes obvious that, in spite of its multi-storey design and density, it does not only exist
in societies that enjoy higher technological standards in an urbanized environment. In the town of
Shibam, Yemen, ten-storey residential high-rises were built in the 16th century with fairly simple
building technology using adobe. As for today, in South-East China and Malaysia, clans co-farming
still build common dwellings of more than one storey in natural environments. Whereas, in the 19thcentury, multi-apartment houses are a form of high-densitiy co-habitance where people feel compelled
to live; the Chinese tulous (“earthen buildings”, LINK: Habitatio: V 37. Fucsieni Tulou) as well as the
Malaysian longhouses (LINK: Habitatio: V 14. Iban longhouse) are advantageous formations of cooperation or joint defence against the enemy.
Unfortunately, very little information remains to us about dwelling-houses from historic periods, since
they were typically made of poorer quality building materials than public buildings and thus were
destroyed. Although some of the palaces in the ancient world were multi-storey and housed several
suites, these cannot be interpreted as prototypes of more recent multi-apartment buildings. Built for the
purposes of the ruling circles, they contain enormous, elegant suites as well as subordinate structures
functioning as dwelling units for the servants and guests. In this formast they are actually enlarged
variations of dwelling-houses. However, we also know of the insulae [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Insulae] built for the poorer social groups of the urban population in ancient Roman times. Many of
these early tenement houses were constructed during the Republic in the 2nd-1st centuries B.C.E. The
earliest of its known surviving examples are found in Ostia [http://www.ostia-antica.org/dict/12.htm].
Masses of merchants, artisans, sailors and unskilled workers rented dwellings for themselves in these
buildings. The propped upper storeys projected above the ground-floor businesses and worskhops on
the mezzanine floor. The height of the houses reached 20 metres, and the structures sometimes housed
more than 8-9 storeys owing to the low heights. Designs with a central courtyard or patio (Casa di
Diana [http://www.ostia-antica.org/regio1/3/3-3.htm]), with a central passage (Casa delle volte dipinte
[http://www.ostia-antica.org/regio3/5/5-1.htm]) and with a garden (Casa a Giardino [http://www.ostiaantica.org/regio3/9/9.htm]) were also documented. Although these structures typically collapsed or
were destroyed by fire due to poor construction, they are still highly important milestones in the history
of urban residential architecture. The stairwell on the façade or the latrine opening from a communal
landing drew attention to important practical issues. Multi-apartment residential buildings, however,
did not reach the standards of the insulae until the late Middle Ages and the early Renaissance period.
In medieval urban centres, multi-storey residential developments in unbroken rows, occupying tight
sites surrounded by town walls, were initially built from wood or with timber frames. Later on, in the
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Gothic Period, as the middle-class grew richer, they were typically made of ashlar and brick. Chapters
of architectural history describing dwelling-houses, however, tend to focus on palaces, fortress-style
castles and keeps or donjons. In the Renaissance and Baroque Era, secular architecture and townplanning grew more significant. Middle-class dwelling-houses were modelled after urban palaces. In
the 18th century, the issues of middle-class comfort and the facilitation of cosiness came in focus.
Towns were becoming equipped with watermains and sewage, although canalization was not unknown
even in the Roman insulae built about 2,000 years ago. The façades of these buildings follow classic
Roman prototypes, while the interiors are follow-ups upon axial sequences of spaces, typical of
enfilades borrowed from the Baroque.
The masses of people moving into towns and cities after the industrial revolution had found the
cheapest homes available for them in multi-apartment residential buildings. In the latter half of the
19th century, the urban population substantially multiplied all over Europe. The tenement blocks built
on the outskirts of the cities, then near the factories, or on downtown sites to replace old houses soon
deteriorated into slums. Because of the poor living and housing conditions, the concept of multiapartment buildings was a synonym for the housing for the poor. Since it was a profitable investment
of capital, the construction of tenement houses provided a temporarily response to the urgent housing
shortage issue; yet, the lack of basic hygienic equipment, the stuffiness, the scarcity of light, and the
high-density of housing led to frequent epidemics among people living in unhygienic dwellings. Overcrowded high-density tenement houses generate similar problems both in Europe and North America.
In Hungary, new tenement houses were also built mainly for the masses of workers flocking into the
capital. Tax exemption was introduced to encourage the transformation of certain parts of the city by
constructing multi-storey houses. This is how the Great Boulevard of Budapest was constructed. The
old ground-floor houses were replaced by multi-storey residential buildings. The houses built with
outside corridors in this period still define the atmosphere of downtown Budapest today. As regulations
only defined the cornice height on street façades, the construction of tenement houses soon turned into
a hotbed of speculation. In order to cover the largest area possible, the internal (enclosed) courtyards
were completely enclosed; thus, the courtyard apartments were dark and airless. To make this situation
even worse, the site layout system was insufficient. Building regulations became obsolete, while social
demands remained conservative. There was a world of difference between the spacious street-facing
apartments of merchants and civil servants, designed as enfilade-like sequences of rooms, and the tight
courtyard-facing bedsitters of the poorer. The latter had no separate bathrooms, and their tenants had
to share the toilet next to the back stairs for servants. The role of architects in housing was insignificant
both in Hungary and abroad. The interiors of houses were made after standard designs; it was only the
façades and the main stairwells of the more important buildings that were given more attention. Some
ackowledged architects were commissioned to design them. All over Europe these eclectic tenement
houses associated with historic forms define town- and cityscapes even today. Residential buildings
built in this period tend to have anachronistic ground-floor plans. Thus, they were unsuitable as starting
points for progress. This is why the introduction of a new urban form of housing seemed an imperative
necessity.
Multi-Apartment Buildings in the First Half of
the 20th Century
Following the examples set by British urban planner Ebenezer Howard in his book titled Garden Cities
of To-morrow (1898), the garden city movement made efforts to blend gardens representing rural life
with the density of urban housing and without high-rise apartment buildings. The influence of these
single- or two-storey row house-style developments was substantial both in Europe and overseas. Their
basic design principles were borrowed for a large number of projects later on. Although they were also
criticised by many because of their density and rural character, it was now obvious to opponents as well
that the improvement of dwelling places was an urgent issue that brooked no delay. In the Netherlands,
H. P. Berlage had already made dwellings top priority, striving to provide occupants with private and
semi-private green areas that were as large as possible. In Paris, streets were designed by disrupting
the building line strictly regulated by Haussmann and thus buildings were set back to allow more
light and air into the streets and hence the apartments overlooking them (e.g., Aguste Perret: Paris,
Rue Franklin Apartments; Henry Sauvage: Paris, Gradins Vavin). In the larger towns and cities of the
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USA, wide-spannig row-houses and multi-storey apartment houses influenced by French examples
became widespread. The latter were also favoured by the affluent strata. Nonetheless, by increasing
both the floor area and the building height, the sites were utterly exploited. The apartments contained
in buildings tailor-made for well-defined social types (e.g., smaller homes were designed for single
tenants). The convenient hotel-style services, famous communal areas and cafés that endowed the
buildings with unique identities made them immensely popular (Clinton&Russell: New York, Harlem,
Graham Court).
In Europe, the first genuine breakthrough was somewhat precipitated by the housing shortage
following World War I. Each war-stricken country of the Old World made efforts to tackle issues
of inhabitability, which in turn resulted in the evolution of a new architecture. Progressive architects
focussed on social issues instead of formal ones in the hope that they could be solved by architectural
means. As they popularized their theoretical research work and realised buildings with exhibitions
and series of publications, the role of architects in residential buildings design grew more important
than ever before. This new architecture defined practical objectives and articulated basic concepts
of residential design that are still used today. A more rational lifestyle came into focus, which
resulted in the birth of functional architecture. For the sake of appropriate utilization, advantageous
orientation and satisfactory exposure to sunshine and ventillation, from then on the primary concern of
design became an internal spatial organisation that was both economical and practicable. Apartments
were designed by integrating contemporary technical achievements, introducing the bathroom,
central heating, built-in kitchen furnishing and wardrobes. Exteriors emphasizing the structures
of buildings were simplified, omitting ornamentation typical of historic periods. Forms were of
secondary importance, and architects preferred constructing from the inside outwards, carefully
avoiding associating and limiting themselves with the definition of any kind of “style”. Buildings
now expressed an ultimate breakaway from historic elements in every respect. The new structural
components, such as the reinforced concrete and steel frame, allowed for the separation of loadbearing and exterior spatial separation. This way, a formerly unforeseen and unprecedented multitude
of potentials opened up, resulting in closer contact between the interior space and nature, basically reformulating the relationship between people and their environment.
In Germany, tenements were built as municipal projects. Housing estates with social purposes designed
by Bruno Taut and Ernst May were successful and became widepsread (Bruno Taut–Martin Wagner:
Berlin, Britz Hufeisensiedlung). In 1927 the Weissenhofsiedlung, a housing estate in Stuttgart, was
built with unprecedented residential buildings that served as prototypes for a large number of dwellings
later on. The multi-apartment house by Mies van der Rohe contained through apartments thanks to its
smaller width. Two years later, the housing estate in Siemensstadt presented the latest achievements
of functionalist housing. Breaking away from the former urban fabric, the apartments of these multistorey linear developments along a north-south axis boasted undoubtedly more advantageous designs.
A year later, CIAM (Congres Internationaux d’Architecture Modern), the international organisation
of Modernist architects, was founded, summoning the representatives of the new architecture to
participate in worldwide co-operation. This marked a new social sensitivity and an ultimate breach with
academism. In the years to come, congresses focussed on issues of studio apartment construction and
new methods of development. Managed by Walter Gropius, the Bauhaus school was built meanwhile
in Dessau to evolve into the intellectual centre of the new architecture.
In France, Le Corbusier’s housing project in Pessac was the very first experimental housing estate that
was entirely new in its own time, both in the structural and aesthetic sense. In the Netherlands and
England, the new apartments in housing estates built for the working class were typically equipped
with more modern conveniences than the outdated housing of the middle-class. In the USSR, a
utopian attempt was made to construct communal houses instead of apartment buildings based on the
traditional family model. Level by level, these minimal apartments shared a communal kitchen as well
as a dining-room (Moisei Ginzburg and Ignati Milinis: Moscow, Narkomfin).
Hungary followed in the wake of Western European architecture with a few years’ delay. Our
progressive-minded architects were familiar with international projects of Modernist architecture, and
those delegated to the CIAM regularly attended the international conferences. In the early 1930s,
especially in Budapest, the Modernist approach was widespread in Hungary. However, while in
Germany – thanks to the subvention policy – up-to-date social housing estates proliferated, Hungary
had no significant achievement in this field owing to the lack of social policy which would complement
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Introductory Essay
and facilitate architecture. A strange situation developed here. It was the more affluent middle-class
which proved to be most open-minded to architectural experimentation. Meanwhile, advocates of
the new architecture turned against the insincerity of rigid, closed buildings that only served the
time’s representational demands, and they condemned residential buildings built after design books,
drawing attention to the contradictions of “temporary one-room-and-kitchen lodgings” concealed
behind “palazzo façades”. First, with their theoretical writings, then – from the mid-1930s on – with the
construction of their houses, they laid the foundations for the developmental forms that have prevailed
in the design of multi-apartment residential buildings up till now. The decree on a new housing tax in
1934 only supported the development of the side of the site along the street. Although it allowed for a
span width of 14.0 metres, instead of the eliminated lateral wings, it meant the end of the pre-existing
hierarchy of apartments within the building. The tier-system that ensued included units opening from
the stairwells. This way, outside galleries, airshafts and backstairs for the servants were abandoned.
The appropriately-sized rooms enjoyed more light. The achievements of the era in Hungary were two
new development forms typical in green-belt zones, the tenement mansion (e.g., those designed by
Lajos Kozma, Móric Pogány, István Janáky and János Wanner in Budapest) and the owner-occupied
mansion (e.g., Farkas Molnár: Budapest, District II, Pasaréti Road).
However, many could not accept the schematic of Modernist architecture unconditionally. The
dogmatic principles found their expressions in more softened forms that adapted more willingly to the
existing urban fabrics as a result of the influence of local characteristics, especially in Scandinavia (in
the wake of Gunnar Asplund and Alvar Aalto) and the Mediterranean. A fine example of this tendency
is Casa Rustici, a building by Giuseppe Terragni in Milan.
Projects in the Latter Half of the 20th Century
Throughout the post-war era, especially in the European cities and towns that were destroyed by
bombs, there was enormous demand for new residential buildings. The ideas of pre-war Modernist
architecture were put in practice by architects reviving districts of towns and cities and erecting
large-scale buildings. The disappearance of servants co-living with families brought about significant
structural changes in the designs of interiors, just like the introduction and wide-spread use of
technological novelties such as central heating and electric washing machines. The rooms of
apartments were transformed, the servants’ quarters next to the kitchen disappeared, while the
bathrooms and kitchens were completely upgraded. There was a tendency now to include various
comfort features, as well as communal spaces, kindergartens and playgrounds within residential
buildings. The most epochal project of this era was Le Corbusier’s Unité d'Habitation, which was an
attempt to construct a vertical town as a follow-up of the principles realized by the aforementioned
communal house in Moscow. Although this form of housing did not live up to expectations in
Marseille, it has proven to be an important point of reference in the history of multi-apartment buildings
design. This project has been influential worldwide ever since. Similar houses have sprung up in
Germany (Van der Broek en Bakema: Berlin, Hansaviertel Tower) and Japan alike (Kunio Maekawa:
Tokyo, Harumi Flats). As a rule, experimentation is about more economical construction and issues
such as the reduction of the areas occupied by the shared circulation system. The preferred responses
were typically duplex apartments with small floor sizes, since this allowed for a communal circulation
passage that only had to be integrated on every third level. From the 1940s on, prefabrication
technology spread all over Europe, and mainstream architectural practice actually meant massive
projects of large-scale dwelling houses. This resulted in essentially similar residential environments
everywhere with few exceptions – such as Mediterranean countries where residential designs followed
the traditional urban model, or the terrace houses in Germany and Switzerland that became widespread
in the 1960s.
Hungarian architecture evolved along with the European trends up until the 1950s, but then it broke
away from global tendencies in architecture for 40 years through the centralised enforcement of
Socialist-Realism.
In the USA, the new architecture was introduced by European emigrants (Mies van der Rohe, Walter
Gropius and Marcell Breuer). High-rise buildings have remained popular ever since overseas. The
second wave of the former skyscraper-construction boom brought along even taller buildings with
new forms. Previously used on office blocks exclusively, the curtain-wall façade was first applied
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Introductory Essay
to a residential structure by Mies van der Rohe (Chicago, Illinois, 860-880 Lake Shore Drive),
while Wright pioneered in the blending of offices and dwelling units in his mixed-use Price Tower
(Bartlesville, Oklahoma), which was an unprecedented novelty back in those days. Later on, mixeduse developments were specified in regulations as compulsory in more and more states of the USA
to counteract the nightly abandonment of office districts. Some smaller scale high-rises were built in
England, too. There were several experiments accompanying their design work, raising the issue of
the proximity of dwelling units for the first time. Wright, for instance, held the opinion that in less
densely populated small towns and on the outskirts, high-rise apartments could have more intimacy.
In other projects, the separate dwelling units were strung along the central vertical core of the highrise structure much like a bunch of grapes.
The idealist concepts of the Modernist housing estates did not work out. More often than not, people
found the functionalist apartments too tight, and tensions among the lower social strata heightened.
Later on, cars needing parking space occupied the greeneries between row houses. Changing needs
were not taken into account, however. Dissatisfaction with the precedents of Modernism gave birth
to new architectural theories in the 1960s and 70s. What these various concepts had in common was
that they approached the town as a dynamically changing environment. Plug-In City by Archigram
architects in England describes this exactly. Their theoretical project presented the city as a machine
walking on legs that keeps redefining itself to suit changing circumstances. Extreme examples of
residential buildings constructed in this era represent attempts to find alternative ways. Concerning the
forms of houses, as opposed to Modernist façades stripped of all superfluous components, they saw
potential in geometrical motifs, a systematic repetition of basic units and the creation of extraordinary
structures. Bertrand Goldberg’s Marina City (Chicago, Illinois, USA) is an excellent example of the
latter, while the capsule house by the Metabolist architect Kurokawa (Tokyo, Japan) and Habitat 67
by Moshe Safdie (Montreal, Canada) exemplify structures made up of dwelling units connected in a
flexible way. Buildings representing English Brutalist architecture of this era were designed by Ernő
Goldfinger (London, Balfron and Trellick Tower) and by the Smithsons, a married couple (Alison and
Peter Smithson: London, Robin Hood Gardens).
By the late 1970s and early 80s, the popularity of multi-storey residential buildings rapidly decreased
in the more developed countries, and social tensions within housing estates grew more intense. In Aldo
Rossi’s wake (L'architettura della città, 1966) many emphasized the significance of traditional towns.
An architectural exhibition was organized to revive bomb-devastated West Berlin (Internationale
Bauausstellung Berlin, IBA Berlin: 1979-87) with the slogan “the inner city as a dwelling-place”. This
brought about the re-evaluation of town centres and the traditional urban fabric. The exhibition defined
two fundamental strategies: the “humane approach to urban reconstruction" and “critical-judicial
reconstruction", both of which emphasized the necessity of adjusting to context, the given and existing
conditions and circumstances. Instead of a comprehensive reconstruction, now the conservation of
urban fabric and structures was given priority, along with establishing dialogue with the people
concerned. The enclosure-type development and the urban villa or mansion (see Rauchstrasse in
Berlin) re-appeared. The exhibition presented the achievements of contemporary residential design.
The architects invited to represent Post-Modernism (e.g., Peter Eisenman, Aldo Rossi, Rob Krier,
Hans Hollein and James Stirling) reached back to historical forms as opposed to the anonimity of
Modernism.
There were also significant residential projects in France, though more typically in suburbs. These
regions had no powerful historical background comparable to that of Berlin’s revival, but there was
also the need for a continuity of the past. An interesting momentum in the history of design theories
concerning multi-apartment residential buildings is the social dwelling house (Nemausus) by Jean
Nouvel in Nîmes with flexibly adjustable living spaces that were more spacious than usual. Apart from
the service/ancillary areas rooms, the apartments form a large open-plan space lacking separations.
The costs of construction were reduced by using simple structures applied exclusively on industrial
building up till then, as well as by disregarding internal finishes, doors and openings. Compared to
other social housing projects, the resulting apartments were larger. However, Nouvel had concrete
objectives with the simple, unadorned, incomplete interiors. Contrary to early 20th-century utopists,
he was convinced that architect as a cultural agent must not determine the lifestyle of tenants and
should only offer them some options instead.
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Introductory Essay
Just like on the continent, there was a buzz of similar tendencies in England. They returned to the street,
the basic element of the traditional town’s physical and social organisation, and rediscovered 19thcentury row and terrace houses. Trying to find a solution to one of the dilemmas of multi-apartment
housing, Ralph Erskine made an attempt to forge a relationship between the would-be tenants and
their apartments when involving them in the design process of the social housing in Newcastle’s Byker
Wall. In Europe, meanwhile, social housing entailed the reinterpretation of high-rise buildings and
row houses. In luxury projects throughout the cities of the USA and Australia, residential buildings
gradually assumed these typical forms.
Hungarian architecture in the 1950s followed the Socialiast-Realist trend. Tension developed between
the representational, external façades of buildings and the tightness of the small apartments they
concealed. However, the enclosure-type development of typically symmetrical blocks undoubtedly
conveyed certain values. Later on, with the loosening up of the enclosures, localised dwellings and row
houses became widespread. Built as public projects, the brick houses of the Socialist housing estates
were replaced by concrete block houses in the early 1960s, only to be replaced by prefab buildings
by the end of the very same decade. Imported from the Soviet Union, this technology ruled housing
projects in Hungary for the next 20 years. In the spirit of economic efficiency, only a few building types
were erected, while variations were concentrated on the margins of towns and cities with standardized
flat sizes. Prefab houses seemed like adequate responses to the housing shortage, chiefly because
they embodied the promise of social equality and welfare to people flocking from the countryside to
cities. However, the monotony of the buildings combined with poor-quality construction soon ruined
hopes, and thus the houses rapidly became obsolete, both in the physical and moral sense. Owneroccupied multi-apartment buildings built by OTP (National Savings Bank) or on public initiative were
not limited by norms. In the green-belts of Buda, or on vacant sites downtown and in the Castle District,
prefab technology could not be applied. Hence, these areas offered more scope for architects. Péter
Molnár, György Jánossy and Zoltán Gulyás are only a few of the architects who designed houses
with Modernist tones, responding sensitively to their environment as the counterpoint of industrial
production. The brick cladding often used on their buildings resulted as much from their desire for
originality as the rejection of prefab technology. The 1980s put an end to prefab constructions and
brought about uncertainty. The change of the political system and the privatisation of state-owned
apartments brought about a reconfiguration in the housing market and a dramatic drop of the ratio
of residential projects. The wide variety of new building materials appearing in the 1990s, the lack
of reference points and the expectations of typically profit-oriented private investors posed particular
problems for architects.
Contemporary Experiments, Design Issues
Residential projects in the 1990s had the tendency of appearing more like portions of urban
rehabilitation, both in Europe and in the USA. The ambition to integrate with existing urban fabric and
brown-field developments as such require a new kind of design approach. Items on the agenda include
a differentiated use of homes, resulting from the polarisation of society, combined with the need for
flexibility, as well as issues of energy conservation and sustainability which are now invoked in the
social sense. In this world of rapid changes, our homes play a key role in how we define ourselves.
Communal life in the traditional sense has also undergone radical changes, while new social activities
came into being in a digitized world. Although physical contact among individuals tends to dwindle,
contact is expanded unbelievably through a variety of media such as the Internet. Compared to the
concepts of idealistic designs of housing estates in the 1960s, the role of the individual in this world has
undergone fundamental changes. Communal spaces conceived and designed to facilitate meetings and
free-time activities have been abandoned. Meanwhile, the world itself has accelerated, and people tend
to be left to themselves more and more as individual human beings. The difference between communal
and private spaces has become apparent: the former is losing its appeal, while we are more particular
and have higher expectations about our own private domains. To meet such demands is an especially
difficult task for designers of multi-apartment buildings that represent a form of mass housing, since
their prospective dwellers are unknown during design work. More often than not, the solution in such
cases is found in non-defined living spaces with the scope for versatile use. When designing multiapartment buildings, this could be the reason why we may feel on the safe side returning to early 20thcentury Modernism, since this movement experimented with several issues still timely and current
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Introductory Essay
such as the flexible arrangability of the apartments, amongst many others. A significant difference is,
though, that social and economic positions have undergone significant changes.
Contemporary housing projects present a variety of responses to numerous unsettling issues. While
some search for the individuum in monstrous buildings made up of masses of apartments (see
MVRDV: Silodam, Amsterdam or Mirador, Madrid), others tend to find the answers in full
anonymity (SANAA: Kitagata House, Kitagata, Japan). By virtue of their very nature, the results
of experimentation are diverse, depending on the architects’ approach or the specific socio-cultural
characteristics of the given location. Surveying the real needs of residents, the demand for lowmaintenance buildings and the application of participating methods in design based on comprehensive
communication tend to come into focus. It is the occupants who are going to have the final word
everywhere. The buildings they live in either survive or become outdated quickly, depending on
whether or not they treat their homes as their own.
xvi
Chapter 1. Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th Century –
International Projects
Majolica House, Vienna, Austri
A unique building designed by Otto Wagner, a prominent architect of the Viennese Secession
(Jugendstil) movement, Majolika Haus was built in 1898–1899. Distinguishing features of this
apartment block include the ornamental tendrils and floral motifs wrapped over its entire surface and
the flat façade articulated by simple openings. A characteristic decorative material of the five-storey
front is the eponymous majolica, a type of durable, colour- and weather-proof glazed ceramic. Another
distinguishing feature of the streetscape is the predominate green wrought-iron balcony railing evoking
botanical forms – found on the bottom two floors of the street elevation, but only on the topmost storeys
of the two lateral spans of the house. Designed to contain elegant flats with all the conveniences, this
house rose to fame because of its exemplary dwelling unit featuring a glass-walled bathtub.
© Wien Museum, source: August Sarnitz: Wagner, Taschen / Vincze Kiadó 2006
1
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© Monica Nikolic, source: August Sarnitz: Wagner, Taschen / Vincze Kiadó 2006
© Wien Museum, source: August Sarnitz: Wagner, Taschen / Vincze Kiadó 2006
2
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© Foto Bildarchiv, source: August Sarnitz: Wagner, Taschen / Vincze Kiadó 2006
© Technische Universitat Wien, source: August Sarnitz: Wagner, Taschen / Vincze Kiadó 2006
3
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© Foto Bildarchiv, source: August Sarnitz: Wagner, Taschen / Vincze Kiadó 2006
© Otto Wagner, source: August Sarnitz: Wagner, Taschen / Vincze Kiadó 2006
4
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© Technische Universitat Wien, source: August Sarnitz: Wagner, Taschen / Vincze Kiadó 2006
© Akademie del Bildenden Künste, source: August Sarnitz: Wagner, Taschen / Vincze Kiadó 2006
mp; Russell, Graham Court, New York, US
Graham Court is the result of extensive real estate developments at the turn of the 19th and
20th centuries, a stylistically flourishing era when the adaptation of classical architecture was
a tool to design large-scale buildings, which in turn also showed the influence of extravagance
and monumentality. This was the first project of Clinton and Russell in the style of Renaissance
palatial (palazzo) architecture, which evolved into a prototype of residential buildings with similar
designs. The house, focussed on a central court, was equipped with elevators to satisfy contemporary
demands for luxury. The high standards of both the materials used and the realisation met upperclass expectations. The symmetrical layout, the hierarchy of the faces and the classical components
all reflect the stylistic features of historic palace façades.
5
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© Museum of the City of New York, Wurts Collection, source: New Urban Housing, 56. old.
© Emilio Guerra, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/emilio_guerra/7976208525/
© Museum of the City of New York, Print Archives, source: New Urban Housing, 57. old.
6
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
©
ismeretlen,
harlem.html
source:
http://veronicatsgardens.blogspot.hu/2012/05/graham-court-gem-in-
© ismeretlen, source: New Urban Housing, 57. old.
Rue Franklin Apartments, Paris, Franc
This apartment block is significant for the generous use of the then-new R-C frame (Hennebique’s
system); the weight of the ceilings is supported by free-standing columns. The technology allowed
for a reduction in wall surfaces, thus opening the interior spaces more towards the street. Due to the
spatial organization resulting from the structure, it may be regarded as the prototype of free horizontal
organisation, which is favoured by Modernism. Turning towards the street, the U-shape plan of the
house made it possible to utilize the dimensions of the site more efficiently. As a result of the layout,
the stairs, the lifts and the water blocks are housed at the rear, so the dwelling spaces have more
advantageous views and light conditions. The in-between levels of the nine-storey building contain
the apartmants with the parlour, the dining- and the bedroom at their centres.
7
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© Studio Chevojon, source: Peter Gössel-Gabriele Leuthauser: Architecture in the Twentieth Century,
Taschen, Köln, 1991
© Claire Gouldstone / Cecilia Mackay, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth
Century, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
8
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© ismeretlen,
franklin.html
source:
http://parisisinvisible.blogspot.hu/2011/09/homes-of-auguste-perret-rue-
9
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© ismeretlen,
franklin.html
source:
http://parisisinvisible.blogspot.hu/2011/09/homes-of-auguste-perret-rue-
© ismeretlen,
franklin.html
source:
http://parisisinvisible.blogspot.hu/2011/09/homes-of-auguste-perret-rue-
10
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© ismeretlen,
franklin.html
source:
http://parisisinvisible.blogspot.hu/2011/09/homes-of-auguste-perret-rue-
11
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© Auguste Perret, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence
King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© Auguste Perret, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence
King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
12
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© Auguste Perret, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence
King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
Casa Milà, Barcelona, Spain, 19
Barcelona’s Casa Milà (La Pedrera – The Quarry) ranks amongst Gaudí’s most famous residential
projects of symbolic significance. (It presently functions as a public building.) The five-storey
apartment house* is an elegant iconic building with an undulating floor-plan and two skylit interior
courtyards. An essential design in the architect’s oeuvre, this building uniquely blends the forms of
nature and architecture. The frame consists of steel columns, buttresses and vaults. The façade is
graced with a profusion of ornaments (floral motifs, cave-like balconies, sculpturesque chimneys) and
organic components. Casa Milà, which is a UNESCO [http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/UNESCO] World
Heritage Site, was built after some drafts by Gaudí who supervised the construction process himself
without working drawings.
© ismeretlen, source: http://laboratoriodeintervencionespacial.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/lapedrera-vista-general.jpg
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© Lara Vinca Masini, source: Lara Vinca Masini: Antoni Gaudi, Sadea Sansoni, Firenze, 1969
© K. W. Schmitt, source: Karl Wilhelm Schmitt: Multi-Storey Housing, Verlag Gerd Hatje, Stuttgart,
1966
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Apartment Buildings from
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© Antonin Gaudi, source: Karl Wilhelm Schmitt: Multi-Storey Housing, Verlag Gerd Hatje, Stuttgart,
1966
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Apartment Buildings from
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© Antonin Gaudi, source: Karl Wilhelm Schmitt: Multi-Storey Housing, Verlag Gerd Hatje, Stuttgart,
1966
Klerk, Hembrugstraat, Amsterdam, Netherland
This complex was designed by Michel de Klerk, a prominent figure of the Modernist architectural
movement in the 1920s, who headed the prestigious Amsterdam School, which orchestrated the young
generation. Evoking the expressive forms of naval designs, the complex named Het Schip (“The Ship”)
was built on a triangular site. Housing a total of 102 apartments originally meant for workers, it
includes a post office fitted to the acute-angle of the site (presently the Museum of the Amsterdam
School), as well as a community hall. The apartments are accessible from the intermediate zone, along
which the central courtyard is oriented. The arc-shaped retraction of the whole development, which
created an entrance plaza, is accentuated by a tower motif. The complex as such shows the influence
of Expressionism. The overall impression of Het Schip is defined by its versatile masonry, ornamental
spires, round forms, unusual window designs and unique motifs. Wrought-iron and carpentry work
(with a palette of black, dark green and white) are characteristic features of the simple decoration.
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© Nieuwe-Nederlandsche Bouwkunst I, 1924, source: Peter Gössel-Gabriele Leuthauser: Architecture
in the Twentieth Century, Taschen, Köln, 1991
© Tihanyi Judit - Halmos György, source: Tihanyi Judit - Halmos György: Az Amszterdami Iskola,
Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1993
© Tihanyi Judit - Halmos György, source: Tihanyi Judit - Halmos György: Az Amszterdami Iskola,
Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1993
17
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Klaus Frahm, source: Peter Gössel-Gabriele Leuthauser: Architecture in the Twentieth Century,
Taschen, Köln, 1991
© Tihanyi Judit - Halmos György, source: Tihanyi Judit - Halmos György: Az Amszterdami Iskola,
Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1993
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© Klaus Frahm, source: Peter Gössel-Gabriele Leuthauser: Architecture in the Twentieth Century,
Taschen, Köln, 1991
© Klaus Frahm, source: Peter Gössel-Gabriele Leuthauser: Architecture in the Twentieth Century,
Taschen, Köln, 1991
© Michel de Klerk, source: Peter Gössel-Gabriele Leuthauser: Architecture in the Twentieth Century,
Taschen, Köln, 1991
Gradins Vavin, Paris, Franc
Designed by Henri Sauvage, this terraced apartment block was built in 1922 on Rue Vavin, Paris. By
applying the monolith reinforced concrete frame, which was a novelty then, the architect was trying to
unleash the potentials of this material in terms of volume. Besides constructing cheap social housing,
another important concern of the project was to create healthy living conditions. Originally a follower
of Art Nouveau, Sauvage later on experimented with terraced houses and realised a building this time
with minimal reliance on architectural devices combined with a vocabulary of sophisticated forms. In
line with his ambition to improve the environment, the terraces on the receding façade made both the
apartments and the street breezier and more advantageously exposed to sunshine. The white glazed
tiles enriched with dark-blue ornamentation and the natural vegetation which enwraps the balustrade
are extraordinary formal components of the façade. The seven storeys of the apartment block contain
78 apartments altogether. The interior zone, freed up by the terraced form resembling a stair-stepped
pyramid, has become a venue for healthy lifestyle. It contains a 33 × 10 m pool.
19
Apartment Buildings from
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© Fondation Sauvage, Direction des Archives de France, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing
of the Twentieth Century, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
20
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Artedia, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence King
Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© Sylvie Niel, source: http://blog.couleuraddict.com/post/2011/06/26/Fa%C3%A7ade-en-gradins-d
%C3%A9grad%C3%A9e-d%E2%80%99Henri-Sauvage
© Sylvie Niel, source: http://blog.couleuraddict.com/post/2011/06/26/Fa%C3%A7ade-en-gradins-d
%C3%A9grad%C3%A9e-d%E2%80%99Henri-Sauvage
© Clément Guillaume, source: http://www.archiref.com/en/image/img4170-5157#.UWVrYzf6j-s
21
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Henry Sauvage, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence
King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© Henry Sauvage, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence
King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
der Rohe, Weissenhofsiedlung, Stuttgart, German
Built by the Deutscher Werkbund in Stuttgart as an exemplary housing project, Weissenhofsiedlung
was designed under the supervision of Mies van der Rohe as curator and by famous architects such as
Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius. Containing a total of 21 buildings completed within a short period of
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21 weeks, this project marked the accomplishment of both modern housing and Modernism. Erected
on the north-south axis of the site as a free-standing structure, the five-storey building designed by
Rohe is uniquely atmospheric and evokes the designs of linear developments. It is also the largest
of all the residential buildings here. The rhythm of its façade is defined by the projecting balconies
and openings accentuating its horizontal nature. The floor-plan layout of the apartments allowed a
broad scope for spatial organisation. The steel-frame structures on the façade walls, the centre and the
stairwell made the dwelling units fairly flexible. With the exception of the kitchen and the wet areas,
the flats may be freely rearranged to meet their users’ needs. This mode of floor-plan configuration
offered an excellent solution to realise both long- and short-term interventions. Residential units could
have versatile layouts and variable dimensions.
© Rui Morais de Sousa, source: Mies van der Rohe, szerk. Paco Asensio, teNeues 2002
© Rui Morais de Sousa, source: Mies van der Rohe, szerk. Paco Asensio, teNeues 2002
23
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Rui Morais de Sousa, source: Mies van der Rohe, szerk. Paco Asensio, teNeues 2002
© Rui Morais de Sousa, source: Mies van der Rohe, szerk. Paco Asensio, teNeues 2002
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Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Rui Morais de Sousa, source: Mies van der Rohe, szerk. Paco Asensio, teNeues 2002
© Rui Morais de Sousa, source: Mies van der Rohe, szerk. Paco Asensio, teNeues 2002
© Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, source: Mies van der Rohe, szerk. Paco Asensio, teNeues 2002
© Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, source: Mies van der Rohe, szerk. Paco Asensio, teNeues 2002
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Apartment Buildings from
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© Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, source: Mies van der Rohe, szerk. Paco Asensio, teNeues 2002
- Martin Wagner, Britz Hufeisensiedlung, Berlin,
Germany,
After the 1920s, demand for homes with modern conveniences called for the first housing
estates. Managed by Bruno Taut [http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruno_Taut], an exemplary project
of social housing was realised in Britz, a district of Berlin, on the so-called Horse-Shoe Estate
(Hufeisensiedlung). Built in seven stages, this ensemble contains more than 1,000 flats with 4 different
floor-plans. Besides detached houses, 600 residential units are contained in three-storey apartment
blocks here. Breezy and spacious greeneries in between the buildings, providing a sensitively
connection with the garden city environment, highlight the importance of gardens. Using architectural
means economically, Bruno Taut [http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruno_Taut] achieved spectacular
effects through the use of various plastered surfaces, integrating mullioned doors and windows and
adopting a palette dominated by “Berlin red“. When designing this simple and functional housing
estate, standardized floor-plans, prefabrication technology and the rationalisation of the building
system came into focus. The prevailing logic of the configuration of the apartments placed the
important living spaces and niches, the balconies or loggias, along the elevation facing the garden. The
entrances, staircases and service functions are situated along the street façade. The rather small (49
m²) dwelling units have been popular ever since. Significant as an historical monument, this housing
estate was listed by UNESCO as a protected World Heritage Site in 2008.
© ismeretlen, source: http://www.dieselpunks.org/profiles/blogs/tauts-horseshoe
© Doctor Casino,
photostream/
source:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/doctorcasino/4946524476/sizes/o/in/
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Century – International Projects
© Doctor Casino,
photostream/
source:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/doctorcasino/4946524476/sizes/o/in/
© Doctor Casino,
photostream/
source:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/doctorcasino/4946524476/sizes/o/in/
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Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Doctor Casino,
photostream/
source:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/doctorcasino/4946524476/sizes/o/in/
© Doctor Casino,
photostream/
source:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/doctorcasino/4946524476/sizes/o/in/
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© ismeretlen, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence King
Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© Bruno Taut - Martin Wagner, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© Bruno Taut - Martin Wagner, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
29
Apartment Buildings from
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© Bruno Taut - Martin Wagner, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© Bruno Taut - Martin Wagner, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
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Apartment Buildings from
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© Bruno Taut - Martin Wagner, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
- Ignati Milinis, Narkomfin Communal House, Moscow,
Russi
A prominent figure of the Russian avantgarde (materialistic and pragmatic) architecture, Ginzburg
also headed the OSA group (the association of contemporary Russian architects). The main objective
of this organisation was a communal housing project to construct modern flat types and thus realise
a new form of housing. Narkomfin Dom Kommuna in Moscow is one of the variations of the
strojkem standardized apartment type, designed by a research team under Ginzburg’s management. The
designer focussed on such issues as the integration of communal and individual dwelling spaces, while
propagating the principle of gradually introducing collectivity and the communal use of amenities.
A distinguishing feature of this communal house is the two-way internal street connecting duplex
apartments. The green-roof building unit containing a restaurant, a library, a gym hall and a day-care
nursery is also strung along the circulation axis. Due to its severely dilapidated condition, Narkomfin
Dom Kommuna has been scheduled for demolition.
© Katharine Holt, source: http://katharineholt.tumblr.com/post/11149109562/a-friend-introducedme-to-the-constructivist
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©
NVO,
source:
File:Narkomfin_Building_Moscow_2007_04.jpg
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/
©
NVO,
source:
File:Narkomfin_Building_Moscow_2007_04.jpg
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/
©
NVO,
source:
File:Narkomfin_Building_Moscow_2007_04.jpg
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/
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©
NVO,
source:
File:Narkomfin_Building_Moscow_2007_04.jpg
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/
© Owenhatherley at en.wikipedia, source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Narkmomfinfoto2.jpg
33
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© foto 1945 előttről, source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Narkmomfinfoto1.jpg
© Moisei Ginzburg / Ignati Milinis, source: http://nickkahler.tumblr.com/image/18091543720
34
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Moisei Ginzburg / Ignati Milinis, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth
Century, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© Moisei Ginzburg / Ignati Milinis, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth
Century, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© Moisei Ginzburg / Ignati Milinis, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth
Century, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
35
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Moisei Ginzburg / Ignati Milinis, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth
Century, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© Moisei Ginzburg / Ignati Milinis, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth
Century, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
36
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Moisei Ginzburg / Ignati Milinis, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth
Century, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
Siemensstadt Housing, Berlin, German
Showing characteristics of Modernist architecture and featuring different vocabularies of forms
designed by several architects (Scharoun, Gropius, Forbat, Bartning, Henning and Häring), the highly
versatile Siemensstadt estate created new standards in social housing. Based on a concept by Hans
Scharoun, a residential complex with open spaces floating in green was constructed. Divided into three
parts, the five-storey apartment block, arranged on a north-south axis to optimise building orientation,
offered exemplary forms of housing, primarily containing dwelling units with 2+1 rooms. Since
distinguishing features of the design – such as the loggias, roof superstructures and the proportions
of openings – are reminiscences of naval architecture (ship forms), this tenement house earned the
moniker “Panzerkreuzer“ (or armoured cruiser). As a significant Modernist residential estate of Berlin,
the Ring Estate (in German: Großsiedlung Siemensstadt, also known as Ringsiedlung) was recognized
by UNESCO [http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/UNESCO] as a World Heritage Site in 2008.
37
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Dieter Leistner/artur, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© ismeretlen, source: http://katkestuste-linn.blogspot.hu/2010/04/101-tukike-weimari-vabariigiunistust.html
© ismeretlen, source: http://katkestuste-linn.blogspot.hu/2010/04/101-tukike-weimari-vabariigiunistust.html
38
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© ismeretlen, source: http://katkestuste-linn.blogspot.hu/2010/04/101-tukike-weimari-vabariigiunistust.html
©
ismeretlen,
source:
File:Berlin_GS_Siemensstadt_Panzerkreuzer.jpg
39
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© Alexander Hartmann, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© Hans Scharoun, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence
King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
40
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© Hans Scharoun, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence
King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© Hans Scharoun, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence
King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© Hans Scharoun, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence
King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
Karl-Marx-Court, Vienna, Austria
As a result of intensive housing projects after World War I, more than 60,000 new homes were
built in the capital of Austria. The majority of municipal tenement complexes (Gemeindebauten) of
”Red Vienna” (Rotes Wien) were designed by Otto Wagner’s apprentices. Typologically, the KarlMarx-Hof (“Court”) complex may be regarded as a large-scale block development. The apartments
are organized around huge interior courtyards which span almost 1 km long and 11 m deep. The
street front – with gates leading into the courtyards and rhythmically spaced spires – represents
both monumental architecture and social housing. The design programme contained a total of 1,382
apartments, the overwhelming majority of them with two rooms. The premises include a variety of
communal amenities such as laundromats, baths, shower rooms, two kindergartens, a library and 25
business offices.
41
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Dreizung, source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Karl-Marx-Hof_2009.jpg
© Georg Mittenecker, source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Karl-Marx-Hof2b.jpg
© Georg Mittenecker, source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Karl-Marx-Hof2b.jpg
© ismeretlen, source: http://students.washington.edu/ems29/Red%20Vienna/KarlMarxHof1.JPG
42
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© ismeretlen, source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:K.M.Hof_Vienna_detail.JPG
© Anton-kurt, source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:JosefFranzRiedl.KarlMarxHof.C.jpg
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Century – International Projects
©
Peter
Mulacz,
source:
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:T%C3%BCrdr
%C3%BCcker_von_einem_Tor_des_Karl_Marx.Hofs.jpg
© Karl Ehn, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence King
Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
44
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© Karl Ehn, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence King
Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© Karl Ehn, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence King
Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
Highpoint Apartment Blocks, London, U
Highpoint 1 may be regarded as the first realised designs of Le Corbusier’s five architectural points in
England. The transversal wings allowed for ideal separation of the adjacent apartments. The majority
of the residential units are open on three sides, which makes them both breezier and lighter. Highpoint
1 was meant for affluent clients, as well as for women wanting modern and comfortable housekeeping.
The floor-plan layout of the two- and three-room flats created an exemplary formal and functional
order. The interior spatial organization of the flats is logical and clear. The design of the bedroombathroom-hall, separate from the spaciously furnished living and dining room has proven exemplary.
As a follow-up, Highpoint 2, built on an adjoining site, contains duplex apartments with symmetrical
floor-plans.
© ismeretlen, source: http://www.kristerbladh.co.uk/blog/?tag=berthold-lubetkin
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Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© adrian welch, source: http://openbuildings.com/buildings/highpoint-1-profile-1863#
© adrian welch, source: http://openbuildings.com/buildings/highpoint-1-profile-1863#
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Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© adrian welch, source: http://openbuildings.com/buildings/highpoint-1-profile-1863#
© adrian welch, source: http://openbuildings.com/buildings/highpoint-1-profile-1863#
© Philip Sayer, source: http://www.coppindockray.co.uk/projects/highpoint-i-apartment/
47
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© ismeretlen, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence King
Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© Berthold Lubetkin, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence
King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
48
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© Berthold Lubetkin, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence
King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© Berthold Lubetkin, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence
King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
49
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Berthold Lubetkin, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence
King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
- Pietro Lingeri, Casa Lavezzari, Milan, Ital
Designed by Giuseppe Terragni, a member of Gruppo 7 and a prominent figure of Modernist Italian
architecture, Lavezzari House in Milan was erected on an acute-angled site as a development in
unbroken rows with a symmetrical, flat-roof structure. With its modern vocabulary of forms and
materials, it is one of the five most remarkable multiple-family dwelling houses in Milan, which
Terragni co-designed with Pietro Lingeri. On each strorey, three apartments open from the circulation
core, centred around a three-flight stairwell and a lift. Jutting out from the front, as well as in the
direction of the side streets, cantilevered balconies with upturned R-C sheets provide the leitmotifs
of this corner building, which is divided into three parts. The side façade is gradually stepped back
towards the neighbouring houses.
50
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Thomas R. Schumacher, source: Thomas R. Schumacher: Surface and symbol, Princeton
Architectural Press, New York 1991
© Thomas R. Schumacher, source: Thomas R. Schumacher: Surface and symbol, Princeton
Architectural Press, New York 1991
51
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© CharlierBrigante, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/4799436064/
52
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© CharlierBrigante, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/4799436064/
© CharlierBrigante, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/4799436064/
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Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Giuseppe Terragni - Pietro Lingeri, source: Thomas R. Schumacher: Surface and symbol, Princeton
Architectural Press, New York 1991
© Giuseppe Terragni - Pietro Lingeri, source: Thomas R. Schumacher: Surface and symbol, Princeton
Architectural Press, New York 1991
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Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Giuseppe Terragni - Pietro Lingeri, source: Thomas R. Schumacher: Surface and symbol, Princeton
Architectural Press, New York 1991
Giuseppe Terragni - Pietro Lingeri, Casa Rustici, Corso
Sempione, Milan, 1936
Built after one of the Rationalist designs by Terragni, Casa Rustici realises two innovative architectural
concepts: transparency and the integration of glass surfaces. With this strictly organised, Moderniststyle seven-storey block of flats, Terragni interpreted the communication between the environment
and the building’s space in his own characteristic and original way. The building is made up of parallel
cubes, which open towards the street, creating transparency and a living space bathed in light. The
volumes perpendicular to the street front and the court that they surround are strung along bridges and
terraces that are open in the direction of the public space.
© ismeretlen, source: http://photo.net/photodb/photo?photo_id=5984065&size=lg
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Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© sokan, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore Ulrico Hoepli,
Milano 1941
© Hilary French, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence King
Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© ismeretlen, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore Ulrico
Hoepli, Milano 1941
56
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© ismeretlen, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore Ulrico
Hoepli, Milano 1941
© ismeretlen, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore Ulrico
Hoepli, Milano 1941
57
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Laura Montedoro, source: https://sites.google.com/site/lauramontedoro/varie
© Giuseppe Terragni, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence
King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
58
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Giuseppe Terragni, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence
King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
© Giuseppe Terragni, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Laurence
King Publishing Ltd, London, 2008
Charles Marshall - William Tweedy, Viceroy Court in St.
John’s Wood, London, UK, 1934-36
Designed by Marshall & Tweedy, this building in St. John’s Wood contains 84 modern luxury
apartments. The seven-storey block stands out against its environment with its elegant and yet
restrained style, volume and materials. Clinker-clad and trimmed with cast stone borders, the
projecting main front overlooking the street features semi-circular windows, loggias and balcony
doors. The leitmotifs of the façade are the semi-circular, cantilevered balconies joining the glass
partitions. They turn around the angles of the building with their horizontal metal railings. Owing to its
simple and smooth brick cladding, the front overlooking the court remains a restrained composition.
The elongated H-shape of the block contains a variety of apartment types, ranging from studio units
with minimum floor space to the largest five-bedroom flats. The modern and generous apartments are
furnished and equipped with all the modern conveniences. Besides, tenants have an underground car
garage at their disposal.
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the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© nincs megjelölve, source: The Architectural Review, 1938 january-june, The Architectural Press,
London
© nincs megjelölve, source: The Architectural Review, 1938 january-june, The Architectural Press,
London
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Apartment Buildings from
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© nincs megjelölve, source: The Architectural Review, 1938 january-june, The Architectural Press,
London
© nincs megjelölve, source: The Architectural Review, 1938 january-june, The Architectural Press,
London
61
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© nincs megjelölve, source: The Architectural Review, 1938 january-june, The Architectural Press,
London
62
Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© nincs megjelölve, source: The Architectural Review, 1938 january-june, The Architectural Press,
London
© nincs megjelölve, source: The Architectural Review, 1938 january-june, The Architectural Press,
London
© nincs megjelölve, source: The Architectural Review, 1938 january-june, The Architectural Press,
London
63
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Marshall and Tweedy Architects, source: The Architectural Review, 1938 january-june, The
Architectural Press, London
© Marshall and Tweedy Architects, source: The Architectural Review, 1938 january-june, The
Architectural Press, London
amus - Palanti, Fabio Filzi Quarter - Residential
complex in the Milan suburbs, Ital
Taking up a whole city block, this residential complex containing small flats was built after integral
designs of a linear development. The main principles of design work typical of Modernist architecture
were to position parallel buildings aligned on a north–south axis, as well as to position empty spaces
rhythmically and volumes succeeding each other in rows. This standardized residential district contains
ten buildings in three rows inside the slab along the perimeter of the housing estate. Featuring simple
Modernist architecture, the complex has a floor-plan system contained in a rectangle which mediates
the finely articulated, composed facade and the well-balanced volumes. The distances between the
buildings are in proportion with their heights, thus optimising light and ventillation. The block’s
general types are made up of three-tiered parts. The flats of one, two or three rooms have a floor space
of 25, 45 and 55 m² respectively. The minimal studio units include an integrated bathroom-kitchen
block, as well as a living room with a loggia, while the living areas include the dining hall and the
hallway. By the early 1980s, the buildings had deteriorated to an extent that they were in a dangerous
condition.
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Century – International Projects
© sokan, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore Ulrico Hoepli,
Milano 1941
© ismeretlen, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore Ulrico
Hoepli, Milano 1941
© ismeretlen, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore Ulrico
Hoepli, Milano 1941
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Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© ismeretlen, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore Ulrico
Hoepli, Milano 1941
© ismeretlen, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore Ulrico
Hoepli, Milano 1941
66
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Scott Budzynski, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/7800816934/
© Scott Budzynski, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/7800816934/
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Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Albini-Camus-Palanti, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore
Ulrico Hoepli, Milano 1941
Micthell - Bridgwater - Gollins & Smeeton AA, Viceroy
Close, Birmingham, UK, 1938
Viceroy Close was built in downtown Birmingham as the first multi-storey block of flats in the interwar
period on the sites of former Victorian houses. It was also the first to include a vast expanse of garden,
offering tenants a suitable space for privacy despite the high density development. The entrance core
of each building is a lounge from which flats are accessible via the staircase and an elevator. The robust
brick-clad volume of the building is articulated by the refined tracery in the shifting planes along the
façade. Of the eight flat types this block contains, the single-room units feature a bathroom, dining
room and living room, while the five-room flats contain two bathrooms and two living rooms.
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Century – International Projects
© ismeretlen, source: The Architectural Review, vol. 83, 1938
© ismeretlen, source: The Architectural Review, vol. 83, 1938
© ismeretlen, source: The Architectural Review, vol. 83, 1938
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Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© ismeretlen, source: The Architectural Review, vol. 83, 1938
© ismeretlen, source: The Architectural Review, vol. 83, 1938
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Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© Mitchell - Bridgewater - Golins - Smeeton AA, source: The Architectural Review, vol. 83, 1938
© Mitchell - Bridgewater - Golins - Smeeton AA, source: The Architectural Review, vol. 83, 1938
© Mitchell - Bridgewater - Golins - Smeeton AA, source: The Architectural Review, vol. 83, 1938
Robert Atkinson, Oslo Court, London, UK, 1938
An apartment building with Modernist tones, Oslo Court graces St. John's Wood, one of the most
exclusive districts of London. Designed especially to meet the needs of young married couples,
residential buildings containing luxury apartments were constructed here intensively during the 1930s.
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Oslo Court is a development that illustrates this. The fan-shaped floor plan allowed 112 of its 125
apartments to have direct views over the neighbouring Regent's Park. The units are accessible from
the two staircase cores via a corridor between them. The two main entrances open from the park, but
there is a third entrance from the opposite side leading on to the garage level. The building contains
flats with five different floor plan layouts; the single-room (one-bedroom) units include a living room,
a kitchen, a separate bathroom and a balcony.
© ismeretlen, source: The Architectural Review, vol. 83, 1938
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Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© ismeretlen, source: The Architectural Review, vol. 83, 1938
© ismeretlen, source: The Architectural Review, vol. 83, 1938
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Apartment Buildings from
the First Part of the 20th
Century – International Projects
© ismeretlen, source: The Architectural Review, vol. 83, 1938
© ismeretlen, source: The Architectural Review, vol. 83, 1938
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Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© ismeretlen, source: The Architectural Review, vol. 83, 1938
© ismeretlen, source: The Architectural Review, vol. 83, 1938
© Robert Atkinson, source: The Architectural Review, vol. 83, 1938
75
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
Mario Terzaghi - Augusto Magnaghi Delfino, Apartment
Building, Como, Italy, 1939
This free-standing, four-storey, flat-roofed, multi-tenant apartment building was built in the Modernist
style with a symmetrical layout to contain six apartments in a compact volume only differentiated by
the staircase in its central axis, which is a different height. Yet, there are no shifts in the plane along
the façade. Two-tier, three-room apartments have a clear and logical floor plan layout. Each apartment
has a loggia that faces the garden and runs along in front of the wing. Rooms overlooking the street
feature French balconies. The simple plaster-clad volume is closed on the end elevations, while it folds
out towards the garden with frames that open up. The character of the façade overlooking the internal
courtyard is mediated by solid and pierced parapets outside the apartments, as well as by the rhythm
and harmony of the open stairwell’s railings. There are parking spaces in the ground-floor street lane,
aw well as light-bathed communal spaces that open towards the courtyard.
© nincs pontosítva, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore Ulrico
Hoepli, Milano 1941
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Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© nincs pontosítva, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore Ulrico
Hoepli, Milano 1941
© nincs pontosítva, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore Ulrico
Hoepli, Milano 1941
© nincs pontosítva, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore Ulrico
Hoepli, Milano 1941
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Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Terzaghi-Magnaghi Delfino, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale,
Editore Ulrico Hoepli, Milano 1941
© Terzaghi-Magnaghi Delfino, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale,
Editore Ulrico Hoepli, Milano 1941
Giuseppe Terragni, Giuliani-Frigerio Apartments,
Como, Italy, 1940
Located in downtown Como, Casa d’affitto Giuliani-Frigerio is the last realised apartment block by
Terragni. It shows the influence of forms used by Italian Modernism, as well as those of buildings
designed by Le Corbusier (who was respected by Terragni as an exemplary architect), especially with
regard to the composition of the roof garden and the ribbon windows. In line with Terragni’s philosophy
of architecture, the house is composed of parallel volumes and rows of empty spaces, which in this
case he combined with the rotation of the building. The architect was fond of asymmetrical designs,
which he also applied elsewhere. The five-storey Frigerio house contains 14 apartments. Its northern
façade ranks amongst the most sophisticated compositions by Terragni.
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© nincs pontosítva, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore Ulrico
Hoepli, Milano 1941
© nincs pontosítva, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore Ulrico
Hoepli, Milano 1941
© nincs pontosítva, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore Ulrico
Hoepli, Milano 1941
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© nincs pontosítva, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore Ulrico
Hoepli, Milano 1941
© roryrory, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/roryrory/2456755348/in/photostream/
© roryrory, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/roryrory/2456755348/in/photostream/
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© roryrory, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/roryrory/2456755348/in/photostream/
© Giuseppe Terragni, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architectura funzionale, Editore
Ulrico Hoepli, Milano 1941
81
Chapter 2. Apartment Buildings from
the First Half of the 20th Century –
Hungarian Projects
Henrik Böhm – Ármin Hegedűs, Török Bank, Szervita
Square No. 3, Budapest, District V, 1906
A building in the Hungarian version of Art Nouveau, it was designed by architects who followed in
Ödön Lechner’s footsteps. This U-shaped development containing offices, retail spaces and apartments
turns towards the street with a three-axis façade. The structure is crowned with a stone-framed gable
graced by a colourful mosaic (designed and realised by Miksa Róth) representing the “Apotheosis
of Hungary” (actually, the glorification of Patrona Hungariae, the patron saint of the country). The
glass elevation, a novelty back in those days, blends with the Lechnerian gable cornice design and
ornaments in a unique way.
© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: a szerző
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© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: a szerző
83
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – Hungarian Projects
© K. Pintér Tamás, source: K. Pintér Tamás: Századeleji házak Budapesten, Magyar Építőművészek
Szövetsége, Budapest 1987
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© K. Pintér Tamás, source: K. Pintér Tamás: Századeleji házak Budapesten, Magyar Építőművészek
Szövetsége, Budapest 1987
© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: a szerző
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Century – Hungarian Projects
© Böhm Henrik - Hegedűs Ármin, source: K. Pintér Tamás: Századeleji házak Budapesten, Magyar
Építőművészek Szövetsége, Budapest 1987
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Béla Lajta, Rózsavölgyi House, Szervita Square No. 5,
Budapest, District V, 1911-12
An early Modernist design in Béla Lajta’s oeuvre, it abandons the Hungarian-style ornamentation
typical of the Lechnerian Art Nouveau. This building reflects the priority of constructive components
as opposed to decoration. The various functions (a retail and office block, as well as a residential
house) are obviously separate and projected on the façade of the building. Above the verticallyarticulated shop fronts, the façade features impressive horizontal shoulders graced with geometric
patterns alternating with large smooth finishes of snow-white enamel bricks. The ornamentation of the
façade anticipates multipliable and reproducible works of applied arts with an industrial background.
Regarding its internal spatial organisation, the building still rermains traditional. Thus, it cannot be
categorized as clearly Modernist in design. Inside the building, the furnishings of the Rózsavölgyi
Zeneműbolt (a retail music publisher) were designed by Lajos Kozma, working in Lajta’s studio at
the time.
© K. Pintér Tamás, source: K. Pintér Tamás: Századeleji házak Budapesten, Magyar Építőművészek
Szövetsége, Budapest 1987
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© K. Pintér Tamás, source: K. Pintér Tamás: Századeleji házak Budapesten, Magyar Építőművészek
Szövetsége, Budapest 1987
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Apartment Buildings from
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© K. Pintér Tamás, source: K. Pintér Tamás: Századeleji házak Budapesten, Magyar Építőművészek
Szövetsége, Budapest 1987
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Apartment Buildings from
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Century – Hungarian Projects
© Vámos Ferenc, source: Vámos Ferenc: Lajta Béla, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1970, 211. old.
© Vámos Ferenc, source: Vámos Ferenc: Lajta Béla, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1970, 213. old.
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© ismeretlen, source: K. Pintér Tamás: Századeleji házak Budapesten, Magyar Építőművészek
Szövetsége, Budapest 1987
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Apartment Buildings from
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© Lajta Béla, source: K. Pintér Tamás: Századeleji házak Budapesten, Magyar Építőművészek
Szövetsége, Budapest 1987
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Century – Hungarian Projects
© Lajta Béla, source: Vámos Ferenc: Lajta Béla, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1970, 209. old.
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Century – Hungarian Projects
© Lajta Béla, source: Vámos Ferenc: Lajta Béla, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1970, 206. old.
Béla Málnai, Former Czech-Hungarian Industrial Bank,
Nádor Street No. 6, Budapest, District V, 1912
A remarkable building by Málnai, co-designed with Gyula Haasz for the purposes of the former CzechHungarian Industrial Bank on a corner site in Nádor Street, it ranks amongst the most significant
designs of pre-modern Hungarian architecture. The architectural duo received the commission via
tendering, but had to revise their designs according to instructions from two prominent members of
the jury (namely, Ignác Alpár and Béla Lajta). This imposing five-storey bank building stands out
among the neighbouring structures with its sophisticated and elegant, yet restrained and moderate style,
its exterior mass and its façade formation. Clad in stone, the reserved exteriors on the ground-floor
and mezzanine office rooms are gently enhanced by the integrated decorative panels. In contrast, the
residential floors on the top four storeys have unadorned openings with simple designs. A characteristic
feature of the elevation is the tower-like mass designed without openings. It ends in a projecting cornice
which is characteristically accentuated by the four-storey glass bay windown framed in iron.
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© K. Pintér Tamás, source: K. Pintér Tamás: Századeleji házak Budapesten, Magyar Építőművészek
Szövetsége, Budapest 1987
95
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – Hungarian Projects
© K. Pintér Tamás, source: K. Pintér Tamás: Századeleji házak Budapesten, Magyar Építőművészek
Szövetsége, Budapest 1987
96
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – Hungarian Projects
© K. Pintér Tamás, source: K. Pintér Tamás: Századeleji házak Budapesten, Magyar Építőművészek
Szövetsége, Budapest 1987
97
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – Hungarian Projects
© K. Pintér Tamás, source: K. Pintér Tamás: Századeleji házak Budapesten, Magyar Építőművészek
Szövetsége, Budapest 1987
© Málnai Béla, source: K. Pintér Tamás: Századeleji házak Budapesten, Magyar Építőművészek
Szövetsége, Budapest 1987
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Century – Hungarian Projects
© Málnai Béla, source: K. Pintér Tamás: Századeleji házak Budapesten, Magyar Építőművészek
Szövetsége, Budapest 1987
© Málnai Béla, source: K. Pintér Tamás: Századeleji házak Budapesten, Magyar Építőművészek
Szövetsége, Budapest 1987
Iván Kotsis, Luther House, Nyíregyháza, 1929
The innovative feature of this development is the private street with an arched layout. As a result of
this, all the apartments contained in the tenement house open onto the street and thus receive more
light. As a founding member of the Department of Residential Building Design, Iván Kotsis held
firm beliefs concerning many fundamental issues of design. The symmetrical layout of Luther House
and the windows vertically concentrated on the façade still evoke by-gone days. Nevertheless, it still
includes several up-to-date components. The design, based on outside galleries leading to apartments,
permitted the entrances of the apartments to be independent of the location of the staircase, which in
turn allowed for their economical and up-to-date floor-plans. As it is, only the ancillary and service
rooms of the two-span building open onto the outside galleries. The rooms have plenty of full value,
and the old air-shafts could be omitted. Besides, the rooms have their own access via the hallways. One
of the representative means of middle-class homes, the two-winged entrance door, was also abandoned.
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© Kotsis Iván, source: A Tér és Forma, 1929/2 , 94. o
© Kotsis Iván, source: A Tér és Forma, 1929/2 , 94. o
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© Kotsis Iván, source: A Tér és Forma, 1929/2 , 95. o
© Kotsis Iván, source: A Tér és Forma, 1929/2 , 96. o
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© Kotsis Iván, source: A Tér és Forma, 1929/2 , 97. o
© Kotsis Iván, source: A Tér és Forma, 1929/2 , 97. o
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© Kotsis Iván, source: A Tér és Forma, 1929/2 , 97. o
© Kotsis Iván, source: A Tér és Forma, 1929/2 , 97. o
Pál Ligeti – Farkas Molnár, Delej Mansion, Mihály
Street No. 11, Budapest, District I, 1930
One of the pioneering projects of Modernist architecture in Hungary, this house reveals an odd duality.
While its excellent floor plans and diagonal form situated on a sloping terrain already reflect the
new principles, its truss is a traditional feature, owing to the backwardness of the Hungarian building
industry. The outdated technology probably left its mark on the design of building forms, and this may
be the reason why it has no prominently projecting balconies or large openings. The novelty of its
floor plan configuration lies in the fact that the rooms of the apartments open from a windowed central
living area instead of the hall. The building once housed Farkas Molnár’s own apartment of one and
a half rooms, which used to be open to visitors on Sundays to illustrate the economical uses of space.
© Bánó Ernő, source: A Tér és Forma, 1930, III., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest, 1. o.
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Century – Hungarian Projects
© Bánó Ernő, source: A Tér és Forma, 1930, III., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
© Bánó Ernő, source: A Tér és Forma, 1930, III., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
© Bánó Ernő, source: A Tér és Forma, 1930, III., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
104
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Century – Hungarian Projects
© Bánó Ernő, source: A Tér és Forma, 1930, III., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
© Ligeti Pál - Molnár Farkas, source: A Tér és Forma, 1930, III., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
Károly Rainer, Mailáth Houses, Keleti Károly Street,
Budapest, District II, 1930
Commissioned by Count József Mailáth, the complex wedged between Keleti Károly Street and Bimbó
Road contains a large-scale former hotel doubling as a tenement house. A tenement complex of four
semi-detached houses was built in 1930 in the same style. Architect Károly Rainer was commissioned
to design the house for the client after winning a closed design contest in 1928. As it was a giantscale project, selecting the building contractor was a priority. Another important concern was to hire
a reliable master builder who had the necessary funds. This is why Lajos Berey was chosen for this
position. Instead of the original layout, the site was divided into six parts in line with the designer’s
concept in order to realise the mansion-like, free-standing buildings. It was only the ground-floor
businesses where the development followed the line of the narrow Keleti Károly Street. From the first
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storey up, the façade plane is recessed by 5.5 metres, and the apartments with terraces are permitted
a more generous and breezier streetscape with more exposure to sunshine. Semi-detached U-shaped
residential buildings with outside galleries surround an internal courtyard. Characteristic features of
the five-storey corner building are the loggias in the centre on the three street fronts, the restaurant on
the bottom level and the parapets with balustrades that frame the recessed top floor, which features
terraces. The residential complex was designed to contain a total of 150 apartments with 2, 3 or 4
rooms plus a hall, while the corner building was to feature 80 bedsitters with 1 or 2 rooms.
© Rainer Károly, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1930/1
© Rainer Károly, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1930/1
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© Rainer Károly, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1930/1
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© Rainer Károly, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1930/1
© Rainer Károly, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1930/1
© Rainer Károly, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1930/1
Pál Detre - Máté Major, Tenement House, Attila Road
No. 129, Budapest, District I, 1934
Built for a private investor, this tenement house truly represents the potentials of design when confined
within the site boundaries. The development thus features imperfectly unbroken rows integrating
lateral gardens, which are a compulsory regulation for this section of Attila Road along Vérmező.
This design permitted a significantly larger expanse of façade. Featuring a façade on the cantilevered
volume of the tenement house organised with a lateral garden, the building shows a set of forms
characteristic of Modernist architecture. Despite the nice façades and elevations, the floor plans
of the two double-room and two single-room apartments opening from the four-tier stairway are
compromised to some extent, resulting from the elongated shape of the development. The spatial
proportions of the longish rooms with a concealed hall are not quite advantageous. The exterior form
and the interior contents contradict each other to some extent, owing to windows that are much too
small and balconies that connect to the bedrooms instead of the living rooms.
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© Detre Pál, Major Máté, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest, 15. o.
© Detre Pál, Major Máté, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
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© Detre Pál - Major Máté, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
Lajos Kozma, Six-Flat Tenement Mansion, Bimbó Road
No. 39, Budapest, District II, 1934
This building features the characteristics of modern tenement mansions built on green belt land. As
Kozma wrote in Space and Form, “The primary concerns of the arrangement are the four cardinal
points, air, light, economical structures, good heatability and protection against cooling, utilization
of shadow and light, and easy and transparent circulation, being closed toward the direction of the
wind and the street, but open toward the garden and sunshine.” The symmetrical building contains
the service areas next to the stairwell, while in the other direction there are the living areas fully
open towards the garden. The ambition to blur the external boundaries of the building whilst blending
the garden and the interior space is most evident in the completely adjustable glass partitions on the
building ends, the roof terrace and the rooms’ corner and ribbon windows. Both the functional design
of the apartments and the flexibility of the adjoining rooms are exemplary, since they permit a versatile
utilisation of living areas.
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© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1934, VII., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest, 252. o.
© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1934, VII., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
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© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1934, VII., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1934, VII., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
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© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1934, VII., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1934, VII., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1934, VII., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
László Lauber - István Nyíri, Tenement House,
Kékgolyó Street No. 10, Budapest, District XII, 1934
Although completed before the decree prohibiting total site enclosure, this building was never meant
to maximise site development. Breaking with the practice of constructing urban tenement houses
along the site boundaries, architects now created on-site greenery, a garden, and thus more valuable
apartments. The sole, small lateral wing next to the street did not exploit the site, which allowed
for a breezier development. Apartments contained in twos on each level feature functional and
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contemporary design. The rooms open separately from the living area, and en suite bathrooms with
windows directly join the bedrooms. Another specialty of the house – and also the very first one in
its kind in Budapest – was the 150 m² roof garden belonging to the apartment of the client on the
top lfloor. The openings piercing the walls surrounding the roof terrace artistically framed the views
of the Budapest skyline’s famous landmarks. Le Corbusier’s ideas are also evident elsewhere, as the
façade exposes. Thanks to fully openable folding windows without a corner prop, the boundaries of
the exterior and interior are blurred.
© Magyar Filmiroda, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
114
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© Magyar Filmiroda, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
© Magyar Filmiroda, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
115
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© Magyar Filmiroda, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
© Magyar Filmiroda, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
116
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© Magyar Filmiroda, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
© Magyar Filmiroda, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
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© Magyar Filmiroda, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
© Magyar Filmiroda, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
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© Lauber László - Nyíri István, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
Gábor Preisich - Mihály Vadász, Manfréd Weiss’s
Pension Funds Tenement House, Bartók Béla Road
No. 62–64, Budapest, District XI, 1934
The method of development used on this corner site is an innovative one. By leaving off the
development above the mezzanine facing the smaller street, a French courtyard was created. Thus,
the wing along the thoroughfare (formerly Horthy, today Bartók Béla Road) could have a southern
façade, and the ratio of the narrow and small side street improved considerably. Another novel feature
of the design is that the kitchens are housed on the street façade as well, while the internal southern
side contains bedrooms and bathrooms. The in-between apartments could do without the hall. The
dweling units in the two-span building can be ventillated throughout; thus, they are more valuable
than usual, which compensates for the lost undeveloped area. The ground floor of the building, which
once housed the Simplon movie cinema, featured top achievements in contemporary technology and
architecture with its sunken foyer, galleried interior, amphitheatre-style auditorium with tiers rising
towards the projection screen, and acoustic techniques. Designers chose the steel skeleton because of
the tax-exemption regulations (the building had to be completed as soon as possible), but the fragile
structure also had certain architectural advantages.
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© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1934, VII., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest, 279. o.
© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1934, VII., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
120
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© Máté Olga, source: A Tér és Forma, 1934, VII., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
121
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© Máté Olga, source: A Tér és Forma, 1934, VII., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
122
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© Máté Olga, source: A Tér és Forma, 1934, VII., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1934, VII., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
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© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1934, VII., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
© Preisich - Vadász, source: A Tér és Forma, 1934, VII., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
© Preisich - Vadász, source: A Tér és Forma, 1934, VII., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
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© Preisich - Vadász, source: A Tér és Forma, 1934, VII., Vállalkozók lapja, Budapest
Aladár Árkay - Sándor Faragó - József Fischer - Károly
Heysa - Pál Ligeti - Farkas Molnár - Móric Pogány Gábor Preisich - Mihály Vadász, OTI Tenement Houses,
Pope John Paul II Square (formerly Köztársaság
Square) Nos. 14,15 and 16, Budapest, District VIII, 1935
This cluster of social tenement houses by the representatives of CIRPAC (the elected executive body
of CIAM, Comité international pour la résolution des problèmes de l’architecture contemporaine, in
English: International Committee for the Resolution of Problems in Contemporary Architecture) broke
away from the enclosure-type development, which made it unique among tenement houses constructed
in Budapest during the interwar period. The main objective of the building with a linear design was
to achieve maximum and equal optimisation of sunshine, ventillation and views for the small, tiered
apartments it contained. The three row houses are connected by a sequence of businesses on the ground
floor, which creates an enclosure on the street side and maintains the continuity of the urban fabric. The
novelty of deployment and the functional design are unquestionable strengths of the project. However,
the exaggerated puritanism and the ambition to economise may have contributed to the miserable
deterioration of the houses witnessed today.
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© Máté Olga-műterem, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest, 185. o.
© Máté Olga-műterem, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
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© Máté Olga-műterem, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
127
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© Máté Olga-műterem, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
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© Máté Olga-műterem, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
© Máté Olga-műterem, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
© Máté Olga-műterem, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
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© Máté Olga-műterem, source: Tér és Forma, 1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
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© Árkay, Faragó, Fischer, Heysa, Ligeti, Molnár, Pogány, Preisich, Vadász, source: Tér és Forma,
1935/1, Sós György, Budapest
Lajos Kozma, Átrium House, Margit Boulevard No. 55,
Budapest, District II, 1936
With a client motivated by greed for gain, this speculative tenement house failed to produce anything
new with its concept of deployment. However, because of the brilliantly conceived floor-plan
arrangement, as well as its direct projection on the façade, innovative structural technique and, not
least, its careful detailing, this building still has significance beyond itself and its times. Its combination
of reinforced concrete and steel structure was a real novelty at the time. The building is an expressive
example of spatial systems focussed on a central core, which is reflected in the floor plans of the
apartments. It also provides a viable example of ingenuous façade formation amongst conditions that
restrict design work. The ground floor of the building once contained the Átrium movie cinema,
equipped with a modern ventillation system and acoustic techniques.
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© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest, 127.o
© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
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© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
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© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
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© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
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© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
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© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
© Kozma Lajos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
Dr. Béla Barát - Ede Novák, Georgia Tenement Palace,
Rákóczi Road No. 4, Budapest, District VII, 1936
Located in an important intersection of the city centre, this tenement house occupies a place between
traditional and modern architecture. Its deployment is the result of relevant regulations and taxexemption restrictions. Influence of the new architecture is apparent in the loggias facing the internal
garden, which is closed from the road and features an ornate basin; sun-decks on the flat roof; the
studio apartment on the top floor; the neon sign that wraps around the corner vertically on the street
side; and the clock standing out like a tower. Although they broke away from Eclecticism, designers
did not strip the façade of ornamentation. Clad in travertine, this surface is accentuated by French
balconies along the vertical axes framed with marble and ornate railings, while the studio flats are
equipped with segmental-headed windows. The materials used, the excellent subcontractor works and
the elegant stairwell design raise this representative luxury tenement house well above the average.
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© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest, 317. o.
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© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
139
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© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
140
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© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
141
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© Barát Béla - Novák Ede, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
© Barát Béla - Novák Ede, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
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© Barát Béla - Novák Ede, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
Béla Hofstätter - Ferenc Domány, Dunapark House,
Pozsonyi Road No. 38-40, Budapest, District XIII, 1936
The integral architectural design is a result of the centrally-regulated developmental form and the
façade structure. It was designed by architects who travelled extensively abroad and refused to follow
the pure aesthetics of rigid, orthodox Modernism. The generous foyers, high-quality materials and
examples of fine workmanship featured in this luxurious tenement house all served the customary
demands of the client, a large industrial company. A key factor guarenteeing the success of the marketbased project was the optimal satisfaction of middle-class expectations at the time. The ground floor
of the building houses the famous Dunapark Café.
© Haar Ferenc, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937, 111. o.
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© Haar Ferenc, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937
© Haar Ferenc, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937
© Haar Ferenc, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937
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© Haar Ferenc, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937
© Haar Ferenc, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937
145
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© Haar Ferenc, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937
© Haar Ferenc, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937
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© Haar Ferenc, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937
© Hofstatter Béla - Domány Ferenc, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma
szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala, Budapest, 1937
© Hofstatter Béla - Domány Ferenc, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma
szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala, Budapest, 1937
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László Lauber - István Nyíri - Sándor Bálint, Tenement
House, Irányi Street No. 8, Budapest, District V, 1936
A generous six-storey tenement house on a corner site, it is a typical modern building with a simple,
crystallised façade. Conceived in the spirit of new architecture, the asymmetrical layout of openings
on the façade continues around the corner and is interpretable together with the other side, a beautiful
example of this being the interrelation of the balcony and the windows running horizontally on the
façade. Originally, a two-room plus hall apartment and a three-room plus hall apartment opened from
the two-tier stairwell. The building forms a connection with the taller neighbouring structure via a
roof terrace with a pergola.
© Seidner, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
148
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© Borsos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest, 336. o.
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© Borsos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1936, IX., Sós György, Budapest
Farkas Molnár, Condominiums, Pasaréti Road No. 7,
Budapest, District II, 1936
A block of owner-occupied flats and a mansion were integrated when developing this triangular site.
Regarded as the climax of Molnár’s oeuvre, the building, as a rule, bears Neo-Plasticist features. The
integration of the two parts, the mural by Molnár once gracing the entrance area and the characteristic
chess-board grid evokes compositions by Mondrian and Doesburg. As a result of the logical floor plan
system and R-C skeleton, the freely alternating bay windows and loggias define the prominent street
façade. The fixed service functions are contained beside the stairwell along the rear façade, while the
rooms are placed along the more advantageously oriented street façade.
© Haar, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937, 367. o.
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© Haar, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937
© Sneider, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937
151
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© Haar, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937
© Mezei Ottó, source: Mezei Ottó: Molnár Farkas, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1987
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© Haar, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937
© Haar, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937
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© Haar, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937
© Molnár Farkas, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és
kiadóhivatala, Budapest, 1937
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© Molnár Farkas, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és
kiadóhivatala, Budapest, 1937
© Molnár Farkas, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és
kiadóhivatala, Budapest, 1937
Móric Pogány - István Janáky, Bérvilla, Áfonya Street,
Budapest, District II, 1936
A free-standing mansion containing one apartment on each level, this is a genuinely modern building.
Rooms clearly divided into intimate and daylight zones correspond to a functional design, which makes
them contemporary. The spatial contact created by the external garden, through the dining area, the
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floral window and the terrace, was hoghly auspicious. The perimeter terrace allowed all rooms to
communicate with the garden in a profound way. On the garden-facing side, the ground-floor terrace
raised on columns and the walkable roof terrace on the flat roof were inspired by Le Corbusier’s
concept and followed the principles of new architecture.
© Seidner, source: Tér és Forma, 1937, 326. o.
© Seidner, source: Tér és Forma, 1937, 327. o.
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© Seidner, source: Tér és Forma, 1937, 327. o.
© Pogány Móric, source: Tér és Forma, 1937, 327. o.
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© Pogány Móric, source: Tér és Forma, 1937, 327. o.
Károly Bálint, Tenement Mansion with Businesses,
Kolumbusz Street No. 57/b, Budapest, District XIV,
1937
This mass of the building shows the characteristic features of Modernist architecture. In line with
the ambition to blur the boundaries between the interior and exterior, the ground-floor patisserie is
contained beneath the plinths on the lower part the terrace. The corners of the house are are either
curved over with ribbon windows or alternatingly cut from the mass to create roofed open balconies.
The floor plan system was up-to-date for its time; all the main rooms were directly exposed to natural
light, and the volume’s depths contained service areas only. The common boiler room, laundry and
drying rooms on the ground floor serve their functions practically.
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© Seidner Zoltán, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és
kiadóhivatala, Budapest, 1937
© Seidner Zoltán, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és
kiadóhivatala, Budapest, 1937
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© Bálint Károly, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937
© Bálint Károly, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és kiadóhivatala,
Budapest, 1937
Lajos Kozma - Vilmos Dénes, Tenement House,
Régiposta Street No. 13, Budapest, District V, 1937
The novelty of this building, a development set back from the streetline, thus improving the narrowness
of Régiposta Street, was a compulsory condition set by regulations. The R-C frame building was
carefully designed down to the tiniest details, which is a trademark of designs by Kozma. The strip of
ribbon windows on the façade is only disrupted at the pillar level by the black marble cladding in-laid
in the windows’ plane, behind which the shutter system and engineering units are concealed. Despite
its tightness, the stairway foyer is not overwhelming, which is the positive effect of both the design (as
it is opened towards the internal L-shaped garden) and the high-quality materials. Each level contains
three single-room flats featuring clever details that are thoughtfully conceived and carefully designed.
These include the cupboards, built-in wardrobes sunk in the wall plane, a laundry box and a vanity
cabinet integrated in the grid of tiles in the bathroom, and even the pull-cord of the built-in watercloset tank.
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© Kozelka, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
161
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© Seidner, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
162
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© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: a szerző
163
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© Haar, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
164
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165
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© Kozelka, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
© Kozelka, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: a szerző
166
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© Kozma Lajos, Dénes Vilmos, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
© Kozma Lajos, Dénes Vilmos, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
167
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© Kozma Lajos, Dénes Vilmos, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
György Rumszauer, Tenement House of the
Association of the Royal Hungarian Postmasters and
Postal Employees, Szalay Street No. 5/a, Budapest,
District V, 1937
This corner building with an R-C skeleton is defined by the diagonally symmetrical floor plan
configuration, in which the six apartments housed on each storey are accessible via the enclosed
sector-shaped stairwell along the axis. However, the client’s compromising ambition to maximise
development prevented it from evolving into a truly Modernist building. In line with traditional
developments, the building takes on the contours of the site, which entails the disadvantageous
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north-facing orientation of the apartments overlooking Szalay Street. Dwellings feature contemporary
achievements of technology, each being equipped with built-in wardrobes and an air-tight hallway. The
generous stairway space and the entrance foyer are graced with fine architectural details. However, the
oversized depth of the three-span apartments is rather disturbing. The contrast between the horizontal
articulation of the street side and the vertical bay window on the corner lends this building its character.
© Seidner, source: A Tér és Forma, 1939, XII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest, 15. o.
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© Seidner, source: A Tér és Forma, 1939, XII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
© Seidner, source: A Tér és Forma, 1939, XII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
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© Seidner, source: A Tér és Forma, 1939, XII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
© Seidner, source: A Tér és Forma, 1939, XII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
© Rumszauer György, source: A Tér és Forma, 1939, XII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
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© Rumszauer György, source: A Tér és Forma, 1939, XII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
Gyula Wälder, Tenement House (Holitscher House),
Rákóczi Road No. 12, Budapest, District VII, 1937
This mass composition was borrowed from that of the building designed by Dénes Györgyi for the
same site, which remained in blueprint. An architect previously specialised in the Neo-Baroque style,
Gyula Wälder made his very first step towards Modernism with this project. As it is an extremely
high-density development containing two tenement blocks embracing a confined courtyard bordered
by three streets, it lacks innovation in its location. However, the designer was concerned with the
integrity of the cityscape when adjusting the house’s superstructure (its cornice and roof) to that of its
neighbour (Béla Lajta’s bank centre and tenement house in Erzsébetváros). The department stores on
the bottom floors and the apartments above are clearly distinguished on the façade. A projecting roof
separates the business portals from the brick cladding of the upper floors, graced by vertical pilaster
strips. The brick architecture of the façade and the Rococo-style grilles of the gateways and balconies
combined with the ornamentation of the cornice create an unusual blend with the modern-design shop
fronts and neon signs.
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© Kozelka Tivadar, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és
kiadóhivatala, Budapest, 1937, 195 o.
© Kozelka Tivadar, source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és
kiadóhivatala, Budapest, 1937
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© Walder Gyula , source: A Tér és Forma, 1937, X. szám, Tér és Forma szerkesztősége és
kiadóhivatala, Budapest, 1937
János Wanner, Tenement Mansion, Szilágyi Erzsébet
Avenue No. 61, Budapest, District II, 1937
This is one of the most beautiful free-standing tenement mansions of its time. The loggia that appears
in the composition of mass and the cutout stairway volumes are both evidence of Le Corbusier’s
influence, which is not accidental. Wanner worked for Le Corbusier’s studio between 1931 and 1932.
The symmetry of the enclosed rectangular block is gently upset by the asymmetrical position of the
solid components of the entrance and the parapet. Opening from the two-tier stairwell, the apartments
are excellent functionally and feature halls that are opened up by the loggias along the side façade.
This transforms them into naturally lit living spaces of optimal walue.
© ismeretlen, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architettura funzionale, Ulrico Hoepli,
Milano 1941
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© ismeretlen, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architettura funzionale, Ulrico Hoepli,
Milano 1941
© Wanner János, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architettura funzionale, Ulrico Hoepli,
Milano 1941
© Wanner János, source: Alberto Sartoris: Gli elementi dell'architettura funzionale, Ulrico Hoepli,
Milano 1941
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Béla Hofstätter - Ferenc Domány, Tenement House
of Weiss Manfréd Companies’ Recognised Pension
Fund, Margit Boulevard Nos. 15-17, Budapest, District
II, 1938
As the scheme had to respond to the neighbourhood’s screening partition wall (a compulsory criterion
defined by the Public Works Committee), a central elliptical stairway was designed in between the two
parallel row houses. This design features several advantages. It was enough to build a single largersize staircase facilitating easier access to the apartments via the central circulation system, the living
areas could be opened towards the streets, and the depth of the English courtyard between the two row
houses could be smaller, too. The floor plan configuration of the dwellings is up-to-date. Each unit
features a separate water-closet, the rooms are accessible via the bathroom or closet, while the kitchens
come with a separate household entrance connected to the other rooms of the dwelling via an air-tight
foyer. What makes this house a real specialty is the stylish corner volume in limestone cladding that
continues in a curve around the corner, the atmospheric stairway foyer that has mellowed with age,
and the beautiful skylit stairwell containing two circular elevators.
© Haar, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest, 180. o.
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© Haar, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
177
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© Haar, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
178
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© Haar, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
© Haar, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
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© Haar, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
180
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© Haar, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
© Hofstatter Béla - Domány Ferenc, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
© Hofstatter Béla - Domány Ferenc, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
© Hofstatter Béla - Domány Ferenc, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
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© Hofstatter Béla - Domány Ferenc, source: Tér és Forma, 1938, Pápai Ernő Műintézete, Budapest
Tibor Hübner - István Janáky, OTI Tenement House,
Károly Boulevard Nos. 13-15, Budapest, District VII,
1940
As one of the Madách Houses, it was designed as an integral development intended to head Erzsébet
Avenue, later rernamed as Madách Avenue, and an architectural event which included several building
regulation plans and design contests. Finally, Gyula Wälder was commissioned to draw the integral
plans of the buildings. The bottom levels are orchestrated by an arcade topped with a tall, towering
façade clad in clinker bricks. As a result, designers of the individual buildings had no free scope
and were only free to design the floor plans. The number of storeys, the façades with their axes, the
number and positions of the projections and the windows were all compulsorily defined by Wälder’s
concept. Despite all the restrictions, the duo of architects, Hübner and Janáky, came up with a clear
floor plan and structural organisation. Although this method of design work (realising interior contents
applied to the back of a ready-made exterior) clashed with the spirit of new architecture, the result
is an unquestionably integral urban development. The entrance area and the foyer of the building are
enriched with remarkable works of applied arts.
© Borsos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1940, XIII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest, 15. o.
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© Borsos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1940, XIII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
© Borsos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1940, XIII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
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© Borsos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1940, XIII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
© Borsos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1940, XIII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
184
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© Borsos, source: A Tér és Forma, 1940, XIII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
© Hübner Tibor - Janáky István, source: A Tér és Forma, 1940, XIII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
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© Hübner Tibor - Janáky István, source: A Tér és Forma, 1940, XIII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
Dr. Dezső Hültl, Tenement House of the Hungarian
Academy of Science (MTA), Károly Boulevard No. 1,
Budapest, District VII, 1939
Built four years later than the adjacent Georgia House, it was realised as a perfect complement to its
neighbour in response to regulations defining both the development’s embedding and its contours. Just
like the building designed by Béla Barát and Ede Novák, it features a façade highlighted by decorative
components such as the marble-framed French balconies along the vertical axes, the ornate steel rails
and the balustrade parapet along the cylindrical top floor – all conceived in the spirit of Eclecticism.
Just like Georgia House, this building is an imposing tenement house featuring a large, ornate entrance
hall with a colonnade and traditional residential floor plans.
© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1940, XIII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest, 64. o.
186
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© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1940, XIII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
187
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© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1940, XIII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1940, XIII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1940, XIII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
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© Kozelka, source: A Tér és Forma, 1940, XIII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
© Hütl Dezső, source: A Tér és Forma, 1940, XIII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
© Hütl Dezső, source: A Tér és Forma, 1940, XIII., Pápai Ernő műintézete, Budapest
Aladár and Viktor Olgyay, Tenement House,
Városmajor Street No. 50/b, Budapest, District XII,
1941
This is an excellent design of the new architecture, evidently influenced by Le Corbusier and the
Modernist architecture of the Mediterranean. Its embedding breaks free from the tenement house
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layouts prevailing till then, and in a novel fashion, instead of Városmajor Street, the apartments open
towards the internal garden. The street façade contains the stairway and the ancillary rooms of the
dwelling units. What heralds the new era here is the garden is utterly enjoyable from each apartment.
The ambition to blend nature on the outside with the interior and turn towards the greenery permeates
the design of the ground-floor apartment, which features garden access. Enclosed loggias envelop the
whole internal façade, and the top-floor apartment’s roof terrace includes a porch and shower. From a
functional viewpoint, direct access from the car park in the basement to the stairwell is also a novelty.
© Belvárosi Fotoműhely, source: A Tér és Forma, 1941, XIV., Ált. Nyomda, Budapest, 156. o.
© Belvárosi Fotoműhely, source: A Tér és Forma, 1941, XIV., Ált. Nyomda, Budapest
190
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© Belvárosi Fotoműhely, source: A Tér és Forma, 1941, XIV., Ált. Nyomda, Budapest
191
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Century – Hungarian Projects
© Belvárosi Fotoműhely, source: A Tér és Forma, 1941, XIV., Ált. Nyomda, Budapest
© Belvárosi Fotoműhely, source: A Tér és Forma, 1941, XIV., Ált. Nyomda, Budapest
© Belvárosi Fotoműhely, source: A Tér és Forma, 1941, XIV., Ált. Nyomda, Budapest
192
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© Olgyai és Olgyai, source: A Tér és Forma, 1941, XIV., Ált. Nyomda, Budapest
© Olgyai és Olgyai, source: A Tér és Forma, 1941, XIV., Ált. Nyomda, Budapest
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© Olgyai és Olgyai, source: A Tér és Forma, 1941, XIV., Ált. Nyomda, Budapest
Gedeon Gerlóczy, Tenement House with Businesses,
Petőfi Sándor Street No. 12, Budapest, District V, 1944
This building was erected on the site of the former Orczy House, on the corner of Petőfi Sándor and
Párizsi Streets. As opposed to the contours of the former development, which reached to the street, the
new one is stepped back, ameliorating the airspace of the downtown street, which was rather narrow
anyway. Another novel feature of the scheme was the roofed passage on the ground floor, which created
a private street in the depth of the site. Adherers of Modernism welcomed this idea and proposed to
introduce it in several parts of the Inner City. Another advantageous response to urban issues was the
gradual retraction of the mass above the first storey which mitigated the narrowness of the confining
Párizsi Street. Each apartment features a hall thanks to the three-span width of the building, which
was in turn a response to investors’ expectations. This stylish building is a genuine downtown house
representing lasting values with high-quality fine materials, stairwell details and works of applied arts
gracing the foyer.
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© Borsos Imre, source: A Tér és Forma, 1944, Tér és Forma Lapkiadó, Budapest, 69. o.
195
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© Borsos Imre, source: A Tér és Forma, 1944, Tér és Forma Lapkiadó, Budapest
196
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© Borsos Imre, source: A Tér és Forma, 1944, Tér és Forma Lapkiadó, Budapest
© Borsos Imre, source: A Tér és Forma, 1944, Tér és Forma Lapkiadó, Budapest
197
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© Borsos Imre, source: A Tér és Forma, 1944, Tér és Forma Lapkiadó, Budapest
© Borsos Imre, source: A Tér és Forma, 1944, Tér és Forma Lapkiadó, Budapest
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© Borsos Imre, source: A Tér és Forma, 1944, Tér és Forma Lapkiadó, Budapest
© Gerlóczy Gedeon, source: A Tér és Forma, 1944, Tér és Forma Lapkiadó, Budapest
© Gerlóczy Gedeon, source: A Tér és Forma, 1944, Tér és Forma Lapkiadó, Budapest
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Chapter 3. Apartment Buildings from
the Latter Half of the 20th Century –
International Projects
Luciano Abenante - Francesco Di Salvo - Gian Tristano
Papale, Social Housing, Naples, Italy, 1947
Containing 12 lines of buildings, this social housing estate was built right after the war in Poggioreale,
a suburb of Naples, on a site owned by the client, the Social Housing Institute. The stairwells of the
tiered buildings are accessible from the terraced street at the height of the first level. The varied designs
of the ground floors are the results of both necessity and the demand for rooms with different functions
(portico, concierge service and apartments for larger families). The new buildings had to be followups, using the foundations and the ground floors completed in the 1940s with housing levels different
from those of the buildings designed earlier. Each block contains 25 apartments each with 2, 3 or 4
rooms. From an architectural aspect, the residential complex is an integral one of good standards. The
facade is rhythmically articulated by enclosed ribbon windows at various parapet heights and visually
concluded by the expressively designed terraces on the top floor.
© nincs megjelölve, source: Carlo Pagani_ Architettura italiana oggi, Hoepli, Milano 1955
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© nincs megjelölve, source: Carlo Pagani_ Architettura italiana oggi, Hoepli, Milano 1955
© nincs megjelölve, source: Carlo Pagani_ Architettura italiana oggi, Hoepli, Milano 1955
© nincs megjelölve, source: Carlo Pagani_ Architettura italiana oggi, Hoepli, Milano 1955
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© nincs megjelölve, source: Carlo Pagani_ Architettura italiana oggi, Hoepli, Milano 1955
© nincs megjelölve, source: Carlo Pagani_ Architettura italiana oggi, Hoepli, Milano 1955
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203
Apartment Buildings from
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Century – International Projects
© Luciano Abenante, Francesco Di Salvo, Gian Tristano Papale, source: Carlo Pagani_ Architettura
italiana oggi, Hoepli, Milano 1955
Luigi Moretti, Il Girasole, Rome, Italy, 1950
Turning towards the main street with a mass cut in two parts down the middle by a narrow vertical
cleft, the building contains 2 large apartments on each general floor. Above the ground floor, the two
blocks, clad in rustic and smooth travertine, are retracted in every direction, so the housing levels seem
to float above. The lightweight appearance of the upper storeys is enhanced by the materials used
(the facade is enveloped in white glass mosaic) and the wrap-around ribbon windows. The designs of
the lateral balconies, the efficient positioning of the stairwell, combined with refined claddings and
finishes and other precisely executed details – all contribute to the highly expressive character of the
building divided in two parts.
© nincs megjelölve, source: Carlo Pagani_ Architettura italiana oggi, Hoepli, Milano 1955
204
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© nincs megjelölve, source: Carlo Pagani_ Architettura italiana oggi, Hoepli, Milano 1955
205
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Century – International Projects
© nincs megjelölve, source: Carlo Pagani_ Architettura italiana oggi, Hoepli, Milano 1955
© nincs megjelölve, source: Carlo Pagani_ Architettura italiana oggi, Hoepli, Milano 1955
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© nincs megjelölve, source: Carlo Pagani_ Architettura italiana oggi, Hoepli, Milano 1955
© Luigi Moretti, source: Carlo Pagani_ Architettura italiana oggi, Hoepli, Milano 1955
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© Luigi Moretti, source: Carlo Pagani_ Architettura italiana oggi, Hoepli, Milano 1955
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Lake Shore Drive
Apartments, Chicago, USA, 1951
This free-standing, twin pair of 26-storey towers actually reinterpreted urban housing projects with
their combination of glass and steel and the expression of skeletal frames on the facade. Placed at right
angles to each other, the two buildings face Lake Michigan and the inner city. Logically designed,
the steel skeleton of the towers offers a perfect solution to both the plan system and facade design.
Carefully selected for the structural pillars, the window profile creates the beautiful texture of the
steel-and-glass skin. The two high-rises have identical outer structures and geometries, but different
interior designs. What they have in common is the lift and the stairwell designed as their inner core.
The northern block contains 8 two-room apartments per level, while the southern one features 4 fourroom units.
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© Ezra Stoller/ESTO, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 96. o
© Rui Morais de Sousa, source: Mies van der Rohe, szerk. Paco Asensio, teNeues 2002
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© Rui Morais de Sousa, source: Mies van der Rohe, szerk. Paco Asensio, teNeues 2002
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© Rui Morais de Sousa, source: Mies van der Rohe, szerk. Paco Asensio, teNeues 2002
© Rui Morais de Sousa, source: Mies van der Rohe, szerk. Paco Asensio, teNeues 2002
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© Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, source: Mies van der Rohe, szerk. Paco Asensio, teNeues 2002
© Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, source: Mies van der Rohe, szerk. Paco Asensio, teNeues 2002
© Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, source: Mies van der Rohe, szerk. Paco Asensio, teNeues 2002
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Le Corbusier, Unité d'Habitation, Marseille, France,
1948-52
Of the buildings referred to as Unité d’Habitation (“collective house”, literally meaning “housing
unit”), five were completed between 1947 and 1960. The most famous of them is this residential
building in Marseille. Like a city built vertically, it is 165 m long, 56 m tall and 24 m wide and
contains 337 apartments of various sizes. Unite d'Habitation has a characteristic facade design, being a
concrete-coffered high-rise structure raised on 17 pairs of R-C pilotis. Le Corbusier adjusted the sizes
of the duplex dwelling units to Modulor, an anthropometric scale of proportions he devised himself, his
motto being that “the house is a machine for living in" basically meant to offer residents all the modern
conveniences. The circulation system of corridors only penetrates in between the prevailing duplex
units on every third level. The 7th and 8th floors house communal spaces (shopping, entertainment
and amenities). The architect designed the roof to contain a look-out point, an open-air theatre stage, a
gym hall, as well as a nursery-plus-kindergarten. Residents, however, felt the apartments too tight. The
internal streets of shops on the 7th and 8th floors did not work out quite well, and children living here
preferred to play in the parks outdoors. Although the collective house in Marseille failed to live up to
expectations, it has evolved into a ground-breaking, definitive design of multiple-family housing.
© Lucien Herve, source: Le Corbusier - Oeuvre complete 1946-1952, Editions Girsberger, Zurich,
1955
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© Lucien Herve, source: Le Corbusier - Oeuvre complete 1946-1952, Editions Girsberger, Zurich,
1955
© Lucien Herve, source: Le Corbusier - Oeuvre complete 1946-1952, Editions Girsberger, Zurich,
1955
© neil mp, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/5151685365/in/photostream/
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© Lucien Herve, source: Le Corbusier - Oeuvre complete 1946-1952, Editions Girsberger, Zurich,
1955
© Lucien Herve, source: Le Corbusier - Oeuvre complete 1946-1952, Editions Girsberger, Zurich,
1955
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© neil mp, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/5151685365/in/photostream/
© Lucien Herve, source: Le Corbusier - Oeuvre complete 1946-1952, Editions Girsberger, Zurich,
1955
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© Lucien Herve, source: Le Corbusier - Oeuvre complete 1946-1952, Editions Girsberger, Zurich,
1955
© neil mp, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/5151685365/in/photostream/
© Le Corbusier, source: Le Corbusier - Oeuvre complete 1946-1952, Editions Girsberger, Zurich,
1955
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© Le Corbusier, source: Le Corbusier - Oeuvre complete 1946-1952, Editions Girsberger, Zurich,
1955
© Le Corbusier, source: Le Corbusier - Oeuvre complete 1946-1952, Editions Girsberger, Zurich,
1955
© Le Corbusier, source: Le Corbusier - Oeuvre complete 1946-1952, Editions Girsberger, Zurich,
1955
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Mario Asnago - Claudio Vender, Residential Building,
Via Faruffini 6, Milan, Italy, 1954
The architectural philosophy represented by Asnago and Vender is reflected in this building on Via
Faruffini in a most authentic way. Their design method refers to a process of abstraction, resulting
in the formal clarity of strict rationalism. The multi-layered character of the architectural devices
applied deliberately on the street facade, the playfulness of alternating solid and open surfaces, and
the rhythmic layout of apertures – all contribute to a versatile and yet integral design. A unique formal
constituent, the metal grid fixed outside the third and fourth storeys, is a purely artistic detail lacking
function. The building is not a homogeneous one; its irregularities reflect the designers’ ambition to
make it an expressive, “passionate” work of architecture. The bottom level of the corner building
houses public space containing offices. On each floor, three larger dwelling units, both corner and
transitional types, join the vertical circulation core at the focus of the mixed-use building.
© Carlo Perogalli, source: Case d'abitazione, szerk: Carlo Perogalli, Görlich Editore, Milano, 1961
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© Carlo Perogalli, source: Case d'abitazione, szerk: Carlo Perogalli, Görlich Editore, Milano, 1961
© Carlo Perogalli, source: Case d'abitazione, szerk: Carlo Perogalli, Görlich Editore, Milano, 1961
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© Carlo Perogalli, source: Case d'abitazione, szerk: Carlo Perogalli, Görlich Editore, Milano, 1961
221
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© Carlo Perogalli, source: Case d'abitazione, szerk: Carlo Perogalli, Görlich Editore, Milano, 1961
© Carlo Perogalli, source: Case d'abitazione, szerk: Carlo Perogalli, Görlich Editore, Milano, 1961
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© Mario Asnago - Claudio Vender, source: Case d'abitazione, szerk: Carlo Perogalli, Görlich Editore,
Milano, 1961
© Mario Asnago - Claudio Vender, source: Case d'abitazione, szerk: Carlo Perogalli, Görlich Editore,
Milano, 1961
José Antonio Coderch, Casa de la Marina, Barcelona,
Spain, 1951–54
Following the classical configuration, this high-rise building was built near the waterfront in
Barcelona. The bottom two levels contain shops that are open via glass surfaces, while each of the
upper six floors houses an apartment. The attic holds two studios and a terrace. Unique features of the
house are the floor plans and the facade design. The interiors of the dwelling units are defined by an
intricate system of walls breaking the planes at oblique angles to create exciting apetures, practical
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foyers and the impression of spaciousness. Open on three sides, the building features a facade reflecting
the interior design with solid surfaces and the undulating dynamics of adjustable wooden louvers.
Because of its materials and forms, Casa de la Marina is a fine example reinterpreting the traditions
of the Mediterranean by blending them with a Modernist vocabulary of forms.
© Duccio Malagamba, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 92. o
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© Pere prlpz, source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Casa_de_la_Marina.jpg
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© Sandro Maggi, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/archimap/2472841671/in/photostream/
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© Sandro Maggi, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/archimap/2472841671/in/photostream/
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© Sandro Maggi, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/archimap/2472841671/in/photostream/
© Sandro Maggi, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/archimap/2472841671/in/photostream/
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© José Antonio Coderch, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 92. o
© José Antonio Coderch, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 92. o
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© José Antonio Coderch, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 92. o
© José Antonio Coderch, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 92. o
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Attilio Mariani - Carlo Perogalli, Via Crivelli, Milan, Italy,
1955
This building boasts an integral and characteristic streetscape, although relevant construction
regulations only allowed for a 5-metre-wide front garden. The rhythm of alternating open and closed
balconies contributes to the unique overall impression of the facade design. Besides the playfulness
reflected in forms, the facades and the palette are key factors in the architecture. Wall surfaces feature
chrome yellow ceramic mosaics, the cornices are wrapped in grey marble, and the plinth features a
plain matte marble ceramic mosaic. As a distinguishing feature of Italian Neo-Realist architecture, the
kitchen and the dining room were integrated to allow the living room to function as an independent
space. However, Perogalli designed this building with a reduced-size (3.2 m²) kitchen without a dining
room. The latter function is contained as part of the living area.
© Carlo Perogalli, source: Case d'abitazione, szerk: Carlo Perogalli, Görlich Editore, Milano, 1961
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© Carlo Perogalli, source: Case d'abitazione, szerk: Carlo Perogalli, Görlich Editore, Milano, 1961
© Carlo Perogalli, source: Case d'abitazione, szerk: Carlo Perogalli, Görlich Editore, Milano, 1961
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© Carlo Perogalli, source: Case d'abitazione, szerk: Carlo Perogalli, Görlich Editore, Milano, 1961
© Carlo Perogalli, source: Case d'abitazione, szerk: Carlo Perogalli, Görlich Editore, Milano, 1961
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© Attilio Mariani - Carlo Perogalli, source: Case d'abitazione, szerk: Carlo Perogalli, Görlich
Editore, Milano, 1961
Frank Lloyd Wright, Price Tower, Bartlesville,
Oklahoma, USA, 1956
This multi-use high-rise contains the offices of H. C. Price and other companies as primary tenants, as
well as apartments on its 19 storeys intended as income-raising ventures. The scheme is yet another
one by Wright that reflects his organic approach. The structural design incorporates the tree-motif with
its centrally positioned core representing the trunk, while the cantilevered floors projecting out from
it are like the branches. The outer skin of the tower is made up of curtain walls hung from the floors to
lend the facade its distinctly light appearance. The structural cores containing the four elevator shafts
and the interior walls perpendicular to each other divide the levels into four segments – three of which
are suited to house offices, while the fourth was to house a duplex apartment. Nowadays, the mixeduse building functions as an art centre and also contains luxury dwellings, which are as highly regarded
as one-of-a-kind.
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© ismeretlen, source: http://catalinamoreno88.wordpress.com/page/10/
© Ben Russell, source: http://architecture.about.com/od/franklloydwright/ig/Frank-Lloyd-Wright/
Price-Tower.htm
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© ismeretlen, source: http://catalinamoreno88.wordpress.com/page/10/
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© Joe Price, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence King
Publishing, London, 2008, 98. o
© Frank Lloyd Wright, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 98. o
© Frank Lloyd Wright, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 98. o
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© Frank Lloyd Wright, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 98. o
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© Frank Lloyd Wright, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 98. o
Gio Ponti, Casa Via Dezza, Milan, Italy, 1957
Gio Ponti is known as a master of both architecture and design. When working on this project, generous
spatial connections were the first on his priority list. The nine-level structure at 49 Via Dezza contains
Ponti’s own apartment and studio, too. Ponti’s careful attention to details when dressing his spaces,
designing the interiors according to an integral concept, certainly shows in the furnishing and the
accessories equipped with concealed lighting fixtures, the elm-wood wall panelling, the diagonal
ceramic floor-tiling, and the white ceiling that is in harmony with all the elements. His unique and
innovative solutions are the high-standard design of walls pierced by apertures to create borders
between interior and exterior. To open up the facade towards Via Dezza, he used generously-sized
windows in a versatile layout to enhance the exterior with refined playfulness.
© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: Szentirmai Boglárka
© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: Szentirmai Boglárka
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© Gio Ponti Archives - Salvatore Licitra, Milano, source: Graziella Roccella: Gio Ponti, Taschen,
Köln 2009
© Gio Ponti Archives - Salvatore Licitra, Milano, source: Graziella Roccella: Gio Ponti, Taschen,
Köln 2009
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© Gio Ponti Archives - Salvatore Licitra, Milano, source: Graziella Roccella: Gio Ponti, Taschen,
Köln 2009
© Centro Studi e Archivio della Communicazione, Univ. di Parma, Archivio Ponti, source: Graziella
Roccella: Gio Ponti, Taschen, Köln 2009
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© Gio Ponti Archives - Salvatore Licitra, Milano, source: Graziella Roccella: Gio Ponti, Taschen,
Köln 2009
Kunio Maekawa, Harumi Apartments, Tokyo, Japan,
1958
Located on Harumi, an artificial island in Tokyo Bay, this grand-scale building along a north-east and
south-west axis contains apartments which were popular with the affluent upper middle-class then.
The easy access and proximity of the amenities and services it offered made the dwelling units even
more attractive. Massive steel and R-C structures were justified by the need to resist earthquakes
and exposure to climatic extremes. Floor plans drew inspiration from the modern architecture of Le
Corbusier’s Unité d'Habitation in Marseille. Single-level and duplex apartments are contained along
the full length of the building with access only on every third level from the circulation corridor. The
smaller units, which face southeast, are housed on the circulation level, while transitional apartments
that occupy the full depth of the building are accessible from the same level via small staircases either
downward or upward.
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© ismeretlen, source: http://deseopolis.tumblr.com/image/34071543060
© Maekawa Associates, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 102. o
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© ismeretlen, source: http://www2.si.umich.edu/Art_History/UMMA/JA12/JA124.jpg
© Maekawa Associates, source: http://deseopolis.tumblr.com/image/34071543060
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© Kunio Maekawa, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 102. o
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© Kunio Maekawa, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 102. o
© Kunio Maekawa, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 102. o
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© Kunio Maekawa, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 102. o
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© Kunio Maekawa, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 102. o
Gian Luigi Banfi - Lodovico Belgiojoso - Enrico
Peresutti - Ernesto Rogers (Studio BBPR), Velasca
Tower, Milan, Italy, 1958
Torre Velasca, a 106-metre (26-storey) skyscraper, towers above the Gothic buildings of the old city
core. To respond to the historic fabric of Milan, designers borrowed the forms of medieval guard
towers. As a result, the lower part of the building is narrower, while the upper cantilevered section
extends out. This design was also justified by mixed functional demands. The lower, narrower levels
contain offices, businesses and exhibition spaces, while the upper (wider and more spacious) ones
house apartments. The positioning of the slender building stem in the middle of the site allowed for a
large, open-space pedestrian plaza around it. Adjustment of the development to the historic context is
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enhanced by the stone-cladding of the facade. The exterior mass features versatile textures defined by
the play of apertures that pierce the walls alternating with transparent and reflexive surfaces.
© ismeretlen, source: http://www.globeimages.net/data/media/186/torre_velasca_milan.jpg
© Magyar Építőművészet, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1960, Műszaki Kiadó, Budapest
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© Magyar Építőművészet, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1960, Műszaki Kiadó, Budapest
© Magyar Építőművészet, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1960, Műszaki Kiadó, Budapest
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© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1960, Műszaki Kiadó, Budapest
© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1960, Műszaki Kiadó, Budapest
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© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1960, Műszaki Kiadó, Budapest
© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1960, Műszaki Kiadó, Budapest
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© Lodovico Belgioioso / Enrico Peressutti, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1960, Műszaki Kiadó,
Budapest
Johannes Hendrik van der Broek - Jaap Bakema,
Hansaviertel Tower, Berlin, Germany, 1960
Bakema’s scheme for this high-rise, high-density housing project was realised as part of the
international building exhibition, IBA (Interbau), in 1957. The 16-storey local-acess tower has a splitlevel design creating a complicated fabric of single- and two-level apartments. Housed on two different
levels, the 6-metre-wide duplex units face west and east along an internal stairwell. The entrance level
gives access to the kitchen and the spacious living-room, while the next floor contains the bedroom,
bathroom and study. The spatial system thus created allowed for only six internal circulation corridors
and mainly transitional apartments, which optimizes ventillation and light conditions. The loggias
along the facade feature a clear and logical system that is a projection of the playful floor plan of the
building.
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© ismeretlen, source: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1375707
©
Dom
Garcia,
set-72157619784703391
source:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/domgarcia/5574018493/in/
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© Alexander Hartmann, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 108. o
©
buergerverein-hansaviertel,
source:
das_hansaviertel/seiten/091_broek_bakema.html
http://www.buergerverein-hansaviertel-berlin.de/
© Broek en Bakema, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 108. o
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© Van der Broek en Bakema, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 108. o
© Van der Broek en Bakema, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 108. o
Bertrand Goldberg, Marina City, Chicago, USA, 1964
When commissioned for this project, Goldberg had to design the complex so as to stop the urban
exodus (a suburbanisation tendency) affecting Chicago. Thus, the scheme is a response to this issue
of city planning and treats residential- and commercial-use zones as closely integrated, functioning
as a lively independent “city within a city” all day long. Besides offering 360° panoramic views, the
round, reninforced concrete towers house an internal circulation core which creates a secure structure,
resisting even strong gales. The bottom third of each buildings contains an 18-level parking garage
with a continuous, helical ramp. The upper two-thirds of the structures feature 450 flats ech, in a
combination of studios,as well as one- and two-room residences, thus totalling 900 apartments.
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© Barry Edwards/Arcaid, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
© ismeretlen, source: http://karahensley.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/marina_city_apartments.jpg
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© snjr22, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/snjr22/7119996889/sizes/o/in/photostream/
© snjr22, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/snjr22/7119996889/sizes/o/in/photostream/
© snjr22, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/snjr22/7119996889/sizes/o/in/photostream/
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©
ismeretlen,
source:
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chicago_%28ILL
%29_River_North,_Marina_city,_1964.jpg
© ismeretlen, source: http://bertrandgoldberg.org/
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© Bertrand Goldberg, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
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© Bertrand Goldberg, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
Ernő Goldfinger, Balfron and Trellick Tower, WestLondon, UK, 1968–72
Ernő Goldfinger was a prominent figure of post-war British architecture. In the 1940s, the government
launched a reconstruction program to replace the loss of approx. 4 million demolished homes. Highrise construction was a priority, and Goldfinger was a genuine specialist in this field. Widely known,
his 27-storey Balfron Tower and 31-storey Trellick Tower are rated now as protected buildings
representing English Brutalist architecture. Housing small tenement dwellings, Trellick Tower was
both dangerous and discredited in the 1970s. Since then, it has evolved into an iconic landmark. Balfron
Tower, the smaller constituent of this tower composition, is connected on each level to a narrow service
high-rise that houses the elevator and ancillary services.
© ismeretlen, source: http://architecturalmetabolism.blogspot.hu/2012_08_01_archive.html
© Wikimedia Commons / Sebastian F, source: http://www.archdaily.com/160672/ad-classics-balfrontower-erno-goldfinger/balfron_tower1/
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© Graeme Maclean, source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Balfron_tower.jpg
© ismeretlen, source: http://spin.co.uk/work-by-discipline/art-direction/trellick-tower
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© Arni Haraldsson, source: http://www.allartnews.com/artists-establish-a-dialogue-with-modernistarchitects-or-designers-in-exhibition/
© Goldfinger Ernő, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
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© Goldfinger Ernő, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
Moshe Safdie, Habitat ’67, Montreal, Canada, 1967
An experimental project, Habitat ’67 was realised for Expo '67, the world exhibition in Montreal.
The architect strove to design affordable apartments and thus opted for prefab technology. Designed
in a stacked, modular system, the dwelling units (sized 11.7 × 5.3 × 3 metres) are connected in a
loose, seemingly random pattern. Careful designing created three pyramid-shape structures with a selfcontained lift core. The top floors are connected via open circulation and access bridges. The kitchens
and bathrooms of the 15 various apartment types are prefab constituents. The dwellings are two-, threeand four-room units, the majority of them duplexes with roof gardens. Although the project has been
criticised for bad cost-efficiency, its ideological-conceptual background is exemplary by all means.
© ismeretlen, source: http://eliinbar.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/habitat_panorama.jpg
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© ismeretlen, source: http://www.arqhys.com/wp-content/fotos/2011/10/viviendas-HABITAT-67.jpg
© ismeretlen, source: http://rovingadobe.wordpress.com/2012/08/22/departure/p1070020/
© ismeretlen, source: http://blog.ocad.ca/wordpress/envr1b01-fw2011-01/2011/09/introductionernestine-aying-2/
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© jromero23, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jromero23/5826141905/sizes/l/in/photostream/
© ismeretlen, source:
montreal-canada.html
http://arch1101-2010kjb.blogspot.hu/2010/04/moshe-safdie-habitat-67-
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© Moshe Safdie, source: http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Habitat_67.html
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© Moshe Safdie, source: http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Habitat_67.html
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© Moshe Safdie, source: http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Habitat_67.html
© Moshe Safdie, source: http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Habitat_67.html
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© Moshe Safdie, source: http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Habitat_67.html
© Moshe Safdie, source: http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Habitat_67.html
Alison and Peter Smithson, Robin Hood Gardens,
London, UK, 1972
Designed by the Smithsons, a married couple, this council housing complex built in Poplar, an EastLondon residential district, is made up of two new Brutalist-style buildings. Embracing the extensive
garden, the buildings stretch north-south along the site bordered by main roads on three sides. To
optimise light condition, one is 10-story, while the other is 7-storey. The longish facade turns towards
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the city with a wide circulation corridor that could function as an inner street and thus a meeting point
and recreation area in line with the designers’ intention. The flats themselves are a mixture of singlelevel apartments and duplex maisonettes in both buildings. At entry level, the apartments feature the
kitchen and dining area; the bedrooms and the living area are accessible either up or down the stairs.
©
Steve
Cadman,
source:
File:Robin_Hood_Gardens_AP_Smithson.jpg
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/
© Neil Perry, source: http://neilperryphoto.com/category/housing/
© Neil Perry, source: http://neilperryphoto.com/category/housing/
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© Neil Perry, source: http://neilperryphoto.com/category/housing/
© ismeretlen, source: http://fuckyeahbrutalism.tumblr.com/image/20008390646
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© John Lewett, source: http://www.archdaily.com/150629/ad-classics-robin-hood-gardens-alisonand-peter-smithson/108684756_735be0b997_o/
© Alison és Peter Smithson, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
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© Alison és Peter Smithson, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
© Alison és Peter Smithson, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
Kisho Kurokawa, Nakagin Capsule Tower, Tokyo,
Japan, 1972
Kisho Kurokawa is a prominent architect of Metabolism, which is the most prestigious Japanese
movement of Modernist architecture in Japan. According to the Metabolist vision, a city is a system
of buildings made up of interconnecting, mobile and flexible constituents. As Kurokawa argues,
architecture must spur the evolution of the individual with its spaces and means. The Nakagin Capsule
Tower is an exemplary design of capsule architecture, a kind of modular construction. Owing to
its high-tech equipment, the capsule is a kind of minimal space with the potential to guarantee the
individual’s every essential condition. The owners can have their private modular units assembled to
their liking before they are plugged into the central core, which is shared with the other occupants.
The towerhouse was constructed by integrating 144 pods or capsules (temporary, residential or studio)
that are manufactured off-site and then fixed one by one to two vertical R-C cores. The cantilevered
hanging capsules of the service-circulation skeleton can be replaced and rearranged.
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© ismeretlen, source: http://www.archdaily.com/168654/168654/%C2%A9arcspace/
© TYO, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pict_u_re/1576839166/sizes/o/in/photostream/
© TYO, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pict_u_re/1576839166/sizes/o/in/photostream/
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© TYO, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pict_u_re/1576839166/sizes/o/in/photostream/
© TYO, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pict_u_re/1576839166/sizes/o/in/photostream/
© URBZOO, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/urbzoo/3767716132/sizes/o/in/photostream/
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© URBZOO, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/urbzoo/3767716132/sizes/o/in/photostream/
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© Kisho Kurokawa, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
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© Kisho Kurokawa, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
© Kisho Kurokawa, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
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© Kisho Kurokawa, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
Rudolf Olgiati, Apartment House, Flims-Dorf,
Switzerland, 1973
A characteristic condominium with unique tones, Olgiati’s architecture features a wall surrounding
the interior like a skin, combined with a body of sculptural forms. Blending traditional and modern
architecture, the architect created his own individual visual vocabulary of forms. His façades have
generous openings as entrances, as well as loggias, small windows and recesses to accentuate the
exterior shell design. A free-standing fire space and designed cooking area intensify the threedimensionality within the interiors. Its complex forms lend the building a characteristic appearance.
As an exciting solution, the transversal roofing of this multi-apartment building evokes the character
typical of detached houses. Highly efficient space utilisation reduced construction costs, which are
surprisingly low, just like in Olgiati’s other projects.
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© Speich AG, Fotoplast AG, Offset Repro AG, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati,
Organisationsstelle für Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
© Speich AG, Fotoplast AG, Offset Repro AG, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati,
Organisationsstelle für Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
© Speich AG, Fotoplast AG, Offset Repro AG, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati,
Organisationsstelle für Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
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© Speich AG, Fotoplast AG, Offset Repro AG, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati,
Organisationsstelle für Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
© Speich AG, Fotoplast AG, Offset Repro AG, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati,
Organisationsstelle für Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
© Rudolf Olgiati, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati, Organisationsstelle für
Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
285
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© Rudolf Olgiati, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati, Organisationsstelle für
Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
© Rudolf Olgiati, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati, Organisationsstelle für
Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
© Rudolf Olgiati, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati, Organisationsstelle für
Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
Ricardo Bofill - Taller de Arquitectura, Walden 7,
Barcelona, Spain, 1973
Much like a monumental fortification, Bofill’s building towers above a suburb of Barcelona. It is
indeed a development that deviates from the traditions of the housing project genre as such. The
basic idea was a vertical maze system, allowing occupants to open or close circulation between the
apartments and communal spaces on demand. Made up of 18 towers, the building mass contains
446 residences in total. The towers are gradually stepped to lean and bend together creating the 7
interconnected interior courtyards, suited to function as the venue of a variety of activities ranging
from playing games and sports to screening films in public. With a few exceptions, dwellings face both
outwards and into one of the internal courtyards. Their floor-plan is based on 30 m² modules creating
single-level studios or duplexes, the size of which range from 1 to 4 modules respectively.
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© Pere López,
uselang=es
source:
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Walden_7_P1090472.JPG?
© jordiferrer, source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Walden_7_edifici.JPG?uselang=es
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© jordiferrer, source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Walden_7_edifici.JPG?uselang=es
©
Till
F.
Teenck,
source:
File:Walden-7_Sant_Just_Desvern_5.jpg?uselang=es
288
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©
Till
F.
Teenck,
source:
File:Walden-7_Sant_Just_Desvern_5.jpg?uselang=es
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Century – International Projects
©
Till
F.
Teenck,
source:
File:Walden-7_Sant_Just_Desvern_5.jpg?uselang=es
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/
© Ricardo Bofill / Taller de Arquitectura, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth
Century, Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
© Ricardo Bofill / Taller de Arquitectura, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth
Century, Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
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© Ricardo Bofill / Taller de Arquitectura, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth
Century, Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
Cruz y Ortiz Arquitectos, Calle Doña María Coronel 26,
Sevilla, Spain, 1976
This building is part of the high-density development fabric of Sevilla. Local regulations strove to
reduce housing density in the inner city, which in this case meant that 25 % of the site had to be
left undeveloped. Designers positioned this zone in the focus, and thus opted for an irregular curved
internal courtyard inspired by the Mediterranean patio layout. The building contains 12 apartments
altogether (three dwellings per level) with approx. 100 m² of floor space. The flats completely occupy
the space between the patio and the adjacent buildings and are open towards the street, the courtyard
and two air-shafts. Responding to local climatic conditions, the roof-level patio is shaded to protect
against overheating in summer.
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© Duccio Magamba, source: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, 152. old.
© Duccio Magamba, source: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, 152. old.
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© Stefano - Stark, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/scaccia/13182843/sizes/z/in/photostream/
© ismeretlen, source: http://cuadernodepfc.wordpress.com/2011/08/16/tipologias-ii/
© ricardo_a, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ricardoalba/3563714974/
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© Cruz y Ortiz Arquitectos, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
© Cruz y Ortiz Arquitectos, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century,
Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
Rudolf Olgiati, Tschaler House, Chur, Switzerland,
1977
When rebuilding Haus Tschaler, Olgiati responded to the sensitive faculties of the existing building.
The sculptural body is manifest in both the exterior and interior of the house. The architect created
dynamism and refined tension inside by relying upon an optical play of lights and carefully designed
façade openings. His solutions of interior remodelling and spatial organisation are exemplary; the
inner space and outer forms are kept in harmonious equilibrium. Through the proportions and order
of apertures, as well as the articulation of the façades, the building creates its own unique paradigm
appropriate for the existing architecture. The face-lifted house is a characteristic blend of historic and
traditional components with modern motifs.
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© Speich AG, Fotoplast AG, Offset Repro AG, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati,
Organisationsstelle für Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
© Speich AG, Fotoplast AG, Offset Repro AG, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati,
Organisationsstelle für Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
295
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Century – International Projects
© Speich AG, Fotoplast AG, Offset Repro AG, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati,
Organisationsstelle für Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
© Speich AG, Fotoplast AG, Offset Repro AG, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati,
Organisationsstelle für Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
296
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Century – International Projects
© Speich AG, Fotoplast AG, Offset Repro AG, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati,
Organisationsstelle für Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
© Rudolf Olgiati, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati, Organisationsstelle für
Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
© Rudolf Olgiati, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati, Organisationsstelle für
Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
297
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© Rudolf Olgiati, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati, Organisationsstelle für
Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
© Rudolf Olgiati, source: Die Architektur von Rudolf Olgiati, Organisationsstelle für
Architekturaustellungen und ETH-Hönggerberg, Zürich, 1983
Jean Nouvel, Nemausus I-II, Nîmes [http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nîmes], France, 1985–88
Containing 114 apartments, this complex designed by Jean Nouvel offered novelty in multiple ways,
as opposed to traditional social housing projects. His innovative approach is manifest in both spatial
formation and materials. The two apartment blocks house 17 different variations of single-level flats,
duplexes and triplexes. His design priority was to contain spacious and light interiors, while keeping
to a cost-efficient budget. By using a simple structural skeleton (R-C frame) combined with prefab
technology, he minimized construction costs, which in turn allowed for larger dwellings. Free-standing
stairs and transparent surfaces allow for transparent apartment interiors, while the terrace with folding
doors on the southern façade exposes the living spaces to intense daylight.
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© ismeretlen, source: http://bellearc.blogspot.hu/2012/11/nemausus-jean-nouvel.html
© ismeretlen, source: http://bellearc.blogspot.hu/2012/11/nemausus-jean-nouvel.html
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© faasdant, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/faasdant/5641577857/sizes/o/in/photostream/
© luis186104, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/luis186104/5359136899/sizes/o/in/photostream/
© ismeretlen, source: http://littlearchitectinparis.wordpress.com/2012/07/01/nemausus-jean-nouvel/
l1070160/
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© Jean Nouvel, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence King
Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
© Jean Nouvel, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence King
Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
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© Jean Nouvel, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence King
Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
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Chapter 4. Apartment Buildings in
the Latter Half of the 20th Century –
Hungarian Projects
Zoltán Kiss, Apartment Building, Délibáb Street,
District VI, Budapest, 1954
Architect Zoltán Kiss chose Neo-Classicist architectural prototypes evoking the Reform Age of
Hungarian history rather than forms preferred by contemporary Social-Realism characteristic of the
period. Featuring simple forms, the concept of this residential building may be considered as up-todate, and it actually bears the stylistic features of contemporary architecture such as the accentuated
symmetry, ornate central spatial organisation, simple and proportional mass expression, as well as
carefully designed details. However, the exterior design, the layout of openings along the façade and
the interior floor layout appear somewhat disharmonious. Entrances to the apartments are accessible
via a central gallery with a skylight. The rooms of the single- and two-room dwellings open from a
central living space.
© ismeretlen, source: http://bellearc.blogspot.hu/2012/11/nemausus-jean-nouvel.html
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© ismeretlen, source: http://bellearc.blogspot.hu/2012/11/nemausus-jean-nouvel.html
© faasdant, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/faasdant/5641577857/sizes/o/in/photostream/
© luis186104, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/luis186104/5359136899/sizes/o/in/photostream/
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© ismeretlen, source: http://littlearchitectinparis.wordpress.com/2012/07/01/nemausus-jean-nouvel/
l1070160/
© Jean Nouvel, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence King
Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
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© Jean Nouvel, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence King
Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
© Jean Nouvel, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence King
Publishing, London, 2008, 122. o
Károly Weichinger–Csaba Virág, OTP Apartments,
Liszt Ferenc Square, District VII/VI, Budapest, 1961
Built in the neighbourhood of the Music Academy in the 1960s, this building is an interesting
and reserved apartment house with Modernist tones that respond to its urban context. Although it
is different from other residential developments in the same street, its otherness is far from being
disagreeable. It is only at first sight that the simple façade structure, with its fine proportions,
aluminium-clad grey parapets and coloured areas, appears slightly angular. The seven storeys contain
identical housing levels with four well-functioning apartments on each. The specialty of this building is
the ground-floor youth library, functioning ever since its opening with a separate entrance and elegant
interiors. The delivery area with a gallery and the reading room with slanted ceilings are fine examples
of the innovative solutions that designers realised in the interior spatial organisation.
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© Schall József, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1961/4, Műszaki Könyvkiadó, Budapest
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© Schall József, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1961/4, Műszaki Könyvkiadó, Budapest
308
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Century – Hungarian Projects
© Schall József, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1961/4, Műszaki Könyvkiadó, Budapest
© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: Szentirmai Boglárka
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© Weichinger Károly / Virág Csaba, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1961/4, Műszaki Könyvkiadó,
Budapest
© Weichinger Károly / Virág Csaba, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1961/4, Műszaki Könyvkiadó,
Budapest
Zoltán Gulyás, OTP Apartments, Rumbach Sebestyén
Street, District VII, Budapest, 1963
Zoltán Gulyás was one of the most acknowledged Hungarian architects of his times. This large-scale
multi-apartment building was an essential scheme in his oeuvre. The project managed by OTP (the
national Hungarian savings bank) to develop a vacant lot bore the concept of settlement. It was in
response to the original housing development on the site bordered by three streets. The three bodies
create a different context with the streetscape. They follow the site boundaries on Király Street and
recede along Rumbach Street to create a plaza. From the direction of Madách Square, they create a
terraced façade along the confines of the development. Three characteristic volumes were realised
on this enormous site. Appearing on each street, the individual masses do not make physical contact
above; they only meet along the ground floor’s unbroken frame. Economy was a priority concerning
both the apartments contained in the buildings (they are typically two-room and single-room with
a hall) and the numbers of tiers (2 and 4 respectively). The floor plan organisation and the façade
wrapped in clinker brick cladding combined with various materials – all reflect the orderliness and
thoroughness so characteristic of the architect.
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© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: Szentirmai Boglárka
© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: Szentirmai Boglárka
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© Gulyás Zoltán, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1963/3, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
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© Gulyás Zoltán, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1963/3, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
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© Gulyás Zoltán, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1963/3, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
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© Gulyás Zoltán, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1963/3, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
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© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: Szentirmai Boglárka
© Gulyás Zoltán, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1963/3, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
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© Gulyás Zoltán, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1963/3, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
György Vedres, OTP Apartments, Bem Embankment,
District I, Budapest, 1962
One of the landmarks along the Danube bank in the 1960s, this is a building with character. Freestanding on three sides, the six-storey apartment house with a roof superstructure turns towards the
square with a cantilevered mass projecting over the ground floor. The rhythm of the rooms jutting out
at oblique angles and the loggias in between them lend this owner-occupied apartment house a unique
atmosphere. Excellent architectural ideas of the design include out-of-plane dynamics and the loggia
system, since it optimized the orientation advantageously for each apartment to have a river view. The
roof superstructure, which counteracts the horizontal nature of the building, is retracted from the mass
and extended by a gorgeous roof terrace with panoramic views.
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© Vedres György, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1963/3, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
© Vedres György, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1963/3, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
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© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: Szentirmai Boglárka
© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: Szentirmai Boglárka
© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: Szentirmai Boglárka
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© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: Szentirmai Boglárka
© Vedres György, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1963/3, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
György Jánossy, Apartments, Úri Street No. 38,
District I, Budapest, 1963
Located along the so-called Bástyasétány (Bastion Promenade) in the Castle District of Buda, this
corner building harmoniously blends in with its environment. Bearing the features of contemporary
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Modernism, it is a remarkable design of Hungarian architecture. As a result of the up-to-date method
of development, the apartments are contained within one mass. As the closed and open staircase
connects with the courtyard wing of the old structure, the atmosphere of the internal courtyard and
the passage echo that of the castle. The mature floor-plan system is organised by sequencing four
duplex apartments plus a studio flat on each level. The two-storey design was a deliberate choice, as
the changing rhythm of the wall planes on the façade and that of the windows allowed for a more
organic connection between the new building and its environment. Jánossy’s habit as a designer was
one of perfectionalism combined with careful attention to details. This restrained, well-proportioned
and elegant building was well ahead of its time.
© Dobos Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1967/2, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
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© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: a szerző
© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: a szerző
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© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: a szerző
© Horler Miklós, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1967/2, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
© Horler Miklós, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1967/2, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
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© Jánossy György, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1967/2, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
© Jánossy György, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1967/2, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
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© Jánossy György, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1967/2, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
Tibor Tenke, Medium-Rise Apartment Houses of an
Experimental Housing Estate, Budapest, XXII, 1963
This experimental housing estate in Budafok is a remarkable medium-height high-rise constructed
with sliding shutter pre-cast wall technology. The 11 storeys of the apartment building with 5 dwelling
units strung along side by side on each level extrapolate a clear floor plan structure. The interior spatial
organisation of the flats may be considered innovative because of its internal partition system, which
residents could rearrange to their liking. The designs of built-in furnishing also reflect the concept
of flexibility. The 50 apartments were designed to suit various, versatile needs with floor plans to
accommodate 4, 3 and 2 people respectively. To connect the high-rise with the amenity centres seemed
like a modern idea then. This way, the floor spaces of the ancillary rooms in the apartments could be
reduced in favour of living areas.
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© dr. Illyésné (TTI), source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1966/4
326
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© dr. Illyésné (TTI), source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1966/4
© dr. Illyésné (TTI), source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1966/4
© dr. Illyésné (TTI), source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1966/4
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© dr. Illyésné (TTI), source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1966/4
© Tenke Tibor, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1966/4
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© Tenke Tibor, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1966/4
© Tenke Tibor, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1966/4
Lajos Schmidt, Apartments, Gellérthegy Street, District
I, Budapest, 1965
Bordered by three streets at different levels, this apartment building creates a characteristic completion
in the area called Tabán with its versatile façade design. The scheme responds to a sensitive site which
is a prominent part of the cityscape, as well as to the topography of the location, allowing for views of
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the neighbourhood, the Castle and the protected historic buildings surrounding it. This development
closely follows the shift in level between Naphegy and Gellérthegy Streets with its long flanking wing
seated onto the terrain from the direction of Tabán Park. The tightly and clearly organised composition
is completed by the mass that is adapted to the neighbouring development from the lower Gellérthegy
Street. The split-level apartments of the block are strung along the cubes of the two-tier staircase.
The rationally organised two-room apartments contain the service functions on the side facing the
courtyard. The living rooms’ glass surfaces overlook the adjacent park and hillside, while wrap-around
loggias – resulting from the split-level structure – lend the owner-occupied apartment house’s façade
a characteristic rhythm and dynamism.
© Schmidt Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1965/3, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
© Schmidt Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1965/3, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
330
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© Schmidt Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1965/3, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
© Schmidt Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1965/3, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
331
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© Schmidt Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1965/3, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
© Schmidt Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1965/3, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
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© Schmidt Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1965/3, Műszaki könyvkiadó, Budapest
György Tokár - Attila Emődy, Apartments, Hajnóczy
József Street, District XII, Budapest, 1965
Differing from the neighbouring buildings, this is a high-standard infill development, a daring and
characteristic architectural work of the period. The strengths of the design are first of all the exemplary
floor plan configuration and the high-standard design of the courtyard façade. The building was
actually realised by integrating the floor plans of two transitional flats and two studios on each level.
In line with the concept, the eight-storey apartment house features a characteristic and prominent
appearance, views of the Castle and out-of-plane bay windows necessitated by the disadvantageous
street-orientation to optimize exposure to sunshine. The vertical façade structure is counteracted by
the brick cladding and the horizontal nature of the R-C roofing.
© Rácz György, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1965/3
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© Rácz György, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1965/3
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© Rácz György, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1965/3
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© Rácz György, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1965/3
© Rácz György, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1965/3
© Tokár György / Emődy Attila, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1965/3
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János Sedlmayr, Apartments, Tárnok Street No. 7,
District I, Budapest, 1964
Located on a prominent site in the Castle District, this building is remarkable for its adjustment to the
historic environment, the old-and-new context and the architectural standards of its reconstruction.
The concept was essentially targeted to preserve the originally U-shaped remains of a walll and the
influences of the past and present layered on each other that evoke the atmosphere of the Castle District.
The logically configurated floor plan is a fine illustration of the innovative ideas defining interior
spatial organisation. The inner courtyard area contains the circulation lane, while the central zone
houses the wet areas, and the outer zone features the living rooms. The progressive idea of having
duplex apartments in the attic was well ahead of its time. Besides the atmospheric interiors, the refined
proportions of exterior mass expression and façade design are the most remarkable characteristics. An
important distinguishing feature of the house is the careful attention to details.
© Dobos Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1966/6
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© Dobos Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1966/6
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© Dobos Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1966/6
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© Dobos Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1966/6
© Sedlmayr János, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1966/6
© Sedlmayr János, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1966/6
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© Sedlmayr János, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1966/6
© Sedlmayr János, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1966/6
Béla Borvendeg, Apartments, Szeged, Oskola Street,
1968
This infill development is a fine example of up-to-date architectural forms organically blending in with
an historic environment. The architect created an integral, modern-style apartment house containing
businesses on the ground floor. The essence of the concept was the contemporary revival of the
structure and proportions of the old house. The ingenious designs of single-storey, single-room flats
and duplex three-room apartments offered as many housing units as needed, while also mimicking the
rhythm of the original building. The façade surfaces and the clinker brick cladding are sophisticated
references to the past and to the brick architecture of nearby Dóm Square. Pleasant, fine proportions
and careful elaboration of details make this house a significant building of its times.
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© SZTV (Buzsáki Ferenc), source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/5, Lapkiadó V., Budapest
© SZTV (Buzsáki Ferenc), source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/5, Lapkiadó V., Budapest
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© SZTV (Buzsáki Ferenc), source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/5, Lapkiadó V., Budapest
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© SZTV (Buzsáki Ferenc), source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/5, Lapkiadó V., Budapest
© SZTV (Buzsáki Ferenc), source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/5, Lapkiadó V., Budapest
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© Borvendég Béla, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/5, Lapkiadó V., Budapest
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© Borvendég Béla, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/5, Lapkiadó V., Budapest
© Borvendég Béla, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/5, Lapkiadó V., Budapest
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Levente Varga, Terrace House, Lévay Street No. 8,
District II, Budapest, 1967–1969
Taking advantage of the terrain, a narrow and steep slope in Buda, this terraced house containing
four apartments stands out against the neighbouring buildings with its structural clarity, materiality
and elegance. Through shifts in volume – i.e., the terraced design of the units – this owner-occupied
multi-apartment house is naturally connected to the vista and its hillside environment. Allowing
for the preservation of existing vegetation, the articulation of the building contains semi-open wellproportioned courtyards, so residents may create their own living spaces. The floor plan configuration
and clear structuring, as well as the logical connection between structure and materials, are particular
strengths of the house. Its living areas are designed with adjustable spatial connections, and there
are large expanses of glass on the façade as a result of the inner-core floor plan configuration. Each
apartment contained in this terraced house has 2 (+1) rooms on a floor space of 80-85 m². The designer
did not only care for the overall planning and details, but also supervised construction. Thanks to both
this and the careful work of the artisans, a high-standard apartment building was realised despite the
do-it-yourself building style.
© Varga Levente, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/2
© Varga Levente, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/2
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© Varga Levente, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/2
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© Varga Levente, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/2
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© Varga Levente, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/2
© Varga Levente, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/2
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© Varga Levente, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/2
© Varga Levente, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/2
© Varga Levente, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/2
© Varga Levente, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1971/2
Csaba Virág, White Dove House, Úri Street, District I,
Budapest, 1969
Standing on a corner site on Úri Street in the Castle District of Buda, this atmospheric infill
development is a characteristic apartment house of contemporary architecture featuring individual
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tones and sensitive tracery. Having an integral architectural character due to its modern forms,
materials and well-proportioned façade, the building organically adjusts to its historic environment.
The traditional roof form and the up-to-date curtain wall lend the façade structure an exciting duality.
The apartments with a strictly organised floor plan system open into the small courtyard via the outside
gallery leading to the flats. The restaurant downstairs features carefully detailed interior design, and,
in a generous solution, it widens into a plaza towards the street. Thus, it is completely open in this
direction with a glass wall.
© Bognár János és Müller Ferenc, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1969/6
© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: Szentirmai Boglárka
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© Bognár János és Müller Ferenc, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1969/6
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© Bognár János és Müller Ferenc, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1969/6
© Bognár János és Müller Ferenc, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1969/6
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© Bognár János és Müller Ferenc, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1969/6
© Virág Csaba, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1969/6
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© Virág Csaba, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1969/6
© Virág Csaba, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1969/6
Zoltán Farkasdy - Attila Kenessey, Apartments in the
Castle District, Dísz Square, District I, Budapest, 1970
The integration of this building into its historic context is an exemplary architectural solution.
Farkasdy, whose contribution to the Modernist reconstruction of the Castle District is unquestionable,
received this commission as the winner of a design competition. The apartment house contains
well-conceived, high-standard apartments with rational spatial organisation. Almost symmetrical, the
building concludes the square’s northern end like a modest gesture, without overwhelming it, as a
self-evident contribution to the context, as if it had always stood there. The strengths of this building
are the natural expression of mass, the façade that is free of overexaggerated forms, the atmospheric
courtyard, the stairwell and the nicely designed areas with shared functions.
© Vidovics István, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
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© Vidovics István, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
© Vidovics István, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
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© Vidovics István, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
© Vidovics István, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
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© Vidovics István, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: Szentirmai Boglárka
© Farkasdy Zoltán / Kenessey Attila, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
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© Farkasdy Zoltán / Kenessey Attila, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
© Farkasdy Zoltán / Kenessey Attila, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
© Farkasdy Zoltán / Kenessey Attila, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
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Zoltán Farkasdy, Apartments, Úri Street, District I,
Budapest, 1970
The greatest design work challenge here was the need to preserve the remains of medieval walls, while
creating a context to meet the requirements of contemporary architecture. Integrating it into the existing
streetscape had its own twist, insofar as Farkasdy, who was also the architect of the neighbouring house
a decade earlier, had to adjust to his own designer’s approach. Built on a corner site, this house is
defined by modest and simple means of architecture. The ground flloor contains a communal function
(coffee shop), while each storey houses two larger and two smaller apartments. The attic is used as a
studio. The building adapts to the existing atmosphere with a pitch roof typical of the Castle District.
© Vidovics István, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
© Vidovics István, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
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© Vidovics István, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: a szerző
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© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: a szerző
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© Vidovics István, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
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© Farkasdy Zoltán, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
© Farkasdy Zoltán, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
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© Farkasdy Zoltán, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
© Farkasdy Zoltán, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1972/2
Mrs János Sedlmayr, Apartments, Hátsókapu Street,
Sopron, 1971
Located on a prominent site in Sopron, this infill on a vacant lot is defined by the Modernist style and
the adaptation of a consistent language of forms to the historic environment. The designer responded
to the sensitive features of the location. The unique, small, triangular site had to be developed with
a new building wedged between two dwelling houses of different masses. It had to be accessible via
the restored passage of the neighbouring house, from the space of the new stairs. It is an ingeniuous
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method of development, since the new apartment block does not adhere to the historic hip-roofed
building beside it, but remains just the width of one flight of stairs away. This infill development with
a carefully designed floor plan system contains a business office on the ground floor, two apartments
on the first storey and three duplexes on the second.
© Dobos Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1973/6, Lapkiadó V., Budapest
© Dobos Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1973/6, Lapkiadó V., Budapest
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© Dobos Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1973/6, Lapkiadó V., Budapest
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© Sedlmayr Jánosné, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1973/6, Lapkiadó V., Budapest
© Sedlmayr Jánosné, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1973/6, Lapkiadó V., Budapest
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© Sedlmayr Jánosné, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1973/6, Lapkiadó V., Budapest
Olga Mináry, Apartment Buildings, Hankóczy Jenő
Street, District II, Budapest, 1974
Multi-apartment buildings rank amongst the most excellent architectural works of Olga Mináry.
Besides functioning as excellent apartment buildings, these two houses with clinker brick cladding in
Hankóczy Street have a unique tone. Actually, they are average-size owner-occupied condominiums
designed with simple means. Each storey contains two smaller flats with continuous loggias and a
larger unit that is open with a loggia on two sides. The floor plans of the units reflect order and
structuredness. The functional layout and spatial organisation is a prominent distinguishing feature of
the houses. Generous spatial connections compensate for the tightness of the apartments.
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© Mináry Olga, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1974/5
© Mináry Olga, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1974/5
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© Mináry Olga, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1974/5
© Mináry Olga, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1974/5
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© Mináry Olga, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1974/5
© Mináry Olga, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1974/5
Lajos Horváth, Infill Development in the Castle District,
Úri Street, District I, Budapest, 1972
Located in the Castle District at the plaza formed by Úri and Szentháromság Streets, this was the
last one of three vacant corner sites to be developed here. Just like the opposite houses, this building
is reserved and elegant. Despite the integration of the two sites, it blends in with developments
characteristic of the Castle District with its mass and proportions. The consistent and homogeneous
streetscape view and sophisticated references evoke the atmosphere of the former council building
that had previously occupied the site. An orthogonal geometric design principle creates a transparent
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structure. The ground floor contains businesses, while the upper floor houses living areas along the
street front. The L-shaped corner house strung along the imposing round stairs, which is the focus
of both the building and the area, wraps around an internal garden zone or courtyard. The floor plan
system has proven to be a logical, exemplary and progressive one, containing apartments with flexible
spaces.
© Szabó József, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1978/6
© Szentirmai Boglárka, source: a szerző
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© Szabó József, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1978/6
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© Szabó József, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1978/6
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© Szabó József, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1978/6
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© Szabó József, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1978/6
© Szabó József, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1978/6
© Horváth Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1978/6
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© Horváth Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1978/6
© Horváth Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1978/6
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© Horváth Lajos, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1978/6
Károly Jurcsik, Apartments, Toboz Street, District III,
Budapest, 1977
Designed by Károly Jurcsik, this prominent representative of traditional architecture was an expressive
apartment house for its time with a unique tone. Despite the tightness of the steep hillside site on
Remetehegy, it is a development based on an ingenious concept, containing a total of 56 apartments
in the four-storey building that echoes chain-condos. The overall articulation and dynamism results
from the varied depths of the rooms that change level by level. The dimensions of the rooms, tailormade to meet the individual needs of residents, and the shifts in volume are characteristic means of
façade design. The method of development, expression of mass and the surfaces created by exposed
raw brick – all contribute to the consistent architectural design.
© Zsitva Tibor, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1984/6, Lapkiadó vállalat, Budapest
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© Zsitva Tibor, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1984/6, Lapkiadó vállalat, Budapest
© Zsitva Tibor, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1984/6, Lapkiadó vállalat, Budapest
© Zsitva Tibor, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1984/6, Lapkiadó vállalat, Budapest
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© Zsitva Tibor, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1984/6, Lapkiadó vállalat, Budapest
© Jurcsik Károly, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1984/6, Lapkiadó vállalat, Budapest
© Jurcsik Károly, source: Magyar Építőművészet, 1984/6, Lapkiadó vállalat, Budapest
383
Chapter 5. Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
Gilles Perraudin - Françoise Jourda, Croix Rousse
Social Housing, Lyon, France, 1992
This apartment building follows the typology of old-time industrial-zone residential buildings that
were typically the homes of silk weavers in the Croix-Rousse district of Lyon up until the 19th century.
The cell-like units of the former mixed-use dwellings and work-places were defined by the dimensions
of the power-operated looms and the acute demand for natural light needed for this labour. About half
of these units were suited to house weaving with a double interior height, while the rest for was suited
for housing with a gallery. The duplex apartments of this social housing block and their tall streetfacing windows may be seen as contemporary re-interpretations of the former structures. The exposed
concrete used on the façade, combined with a palette of grey and ochre, evokes the limestone cladding
of buildings typical of Croix-Rousse. The strict order of window layouts on the internal façade is
counteracted by a playfulness, as it is wrapped in the fabric-like system of vertical circulation and
corridors as if a secondary façade. Designers meant the latter to serve as meeting places for tenants.
© Georges Fessy, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
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© Georges Fessy, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
385
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Buildings – International Projects
© Georges Fessy, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
© Georges Fessy, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
386
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Jonathan Letoublon, source: http://letoublonjonathanphotographie.blogspot.hu/2011/06/logementlyon-jourda-et-perraudin.html
© Gilles Perraudin, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
© Gilles Perraudin, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
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Buildings – International Projects
© Gilles Perraudin, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
Philippe Gazeau, Logements Postiers, Rue de l’Ourcq,
Paris, France, 1993
Designed as housing for postmen, the building contains 26 apartments for rent, with business offices
on the ground floor and a car park in the basement. The opening dividing the building sharply into
two is a response to the unique geometry of the site, which is meant to be actively connected to its
urban context. The disconnected street-facing mass contains seven storeys, while the building part
realised in the depth of the site adjusts to its environment with its lower mass. Open terraces on each
level act as transitions between public and private areas. The wide entrance, the spectacular escape
stairs and the corridors leading to the apartments facilitate direct contact with the urban plaza. The
systematic use of brick and wood lends elegance to the open terraces, which also function as meeting
places when weather permits.
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Buildings – International Projects
© Jean-Marie Monthiers, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© Jean-Marie Monthiers, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
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Buildings – International Projects
© Jean-Marie Monthiers, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© Jean-Marie Monthiers, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
390
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Philippe Gazeau, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© Philippe Gazeau, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
391
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Buildings – International Projects
© Philippe Gazeau, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
Carlo Baumschlager-Dietmar Eberle, Rohrbach 2
Residential Complex, Dombirn, Austria, 1997
The monolythic apartment block opening on a headland bordered by the railways near the city centre
is a result of ever-tightening building potentials. The apartment house fails to create contact with its
environment. The outer “village green” functions as a kind of protective zone. The balconies of the
apartments reflect the rhythm of the exterior design, which is counteracted by the pleasant spatial
system of undulating interior walls and generous circulation cores illuminated by natural light. The
interior is housed within the outer shell like an exposed concrete-structured box. The interior and the
exterior do not only feature different atmospheres, they are also structurally diverse. The building
houses smaller, 45 m² apartments, which are low-maintenance thanks to their compact design.
© ismeretlen, source: Liesbeth Waechter-Böhm: Über-Wohnbau, Springer, Wien, 2000
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Buildings – International Projects
© ismeretlen, source: Liesbeth Waechter-Böhm: Über-Wohnbau, Springer, Wien, 2000
393
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© ismeretlen, source: Liesbeth Waechter-Böhm: Über-Wohnbau, Springer, Wien, 2000
© ismeretlen, source: Liesbeth Waechter-Böhm: Über-Wohnbau, Springer, Wien, 2000
394
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Buildings – International Projects
© ismeretlen, source: Liesbeth Waechter-Böhm: Über-Wohnbau, Springer, Wien, 2000
© Carlo Baumschlager - Dietmar Eberle, source: Liesbeth Waechter-Böhm: Über-Wohnbau, Springer,
Wien, 2000
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Buildings – International Projects
© Carlo Baumschlager - Dietmar Eberle, source: Liesbeth Waechter-Böhm: Über-Wohnbau, Springer,
Wien, 2000
Frédéric Borel, Apartment Building, Rue Pelleport,
Paris, France, 1999
The greatest challenges of Pelleport Apartments were the shape of the acute triangular site wedged
between the diagonal intersection of two roads, Rue Pelleport and Rue des Pavillons, and the
heterogenity of the surrounding buildings. This block of social dwellings is not adapted to the 19thcentury low-rise dwellings or to the adjacent 17-storey building. Instead, it has created a new reference
point with its colourful, fragmented façade that expands outward. The façade is far from being
an obvious termination; it appears more like the entirety of components layered on one another.
Containing one apartment on each floor, the house defined by walls tilted inward or outward features
a different horizontal plan that changes level by level. The façade is almost perfectly closed towards
the busy southern side. The dwellings open eastward and westward, while on the northern side the
stairwell breaks away from the mass of the building. The apartments are divided in the middle into
daytime and intimate zones by a central framework core in which the sliding doors separating the
interior spaces and the stores remain concealed.
© Nicolas Borel, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
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© Nicolas Borel, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
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© Nicolas Borel, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
398
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© Nicolas Borel, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
© Nicolas Borel, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
399
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© Frederic Borel, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
© Frederic Borel, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
400
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© Frederic Borel, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
Carlos Ferrater, Paseo de Gracia - Diputación Building,
Barcelona, Spain, 1999
This building is located in a prominent area of Barcelona, at the intersection of Paseo de Gracia and
Diputación. The project preserved and restored the original façades along the street on the site of
the former Femme Movie Theatre. Designers successfully adjusted to the scales and level height of
the original façades by integrating various housing typologies. The wing towards Paseo de Gracia is
a single-storey structure along its full length on the street side. Towards the court, however, duplex
apartments are contained with access via the internal courtyard, which is protected with a new glass
cover. Behind the façade of the movie theatre, preserved along Diputación, there are another four
storeys, each containing eight apartments. Opening towards the depth of the mass, the new Modernist
façade is rhythmically articulated by the solid framing of the balconies, its characteristic features.
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© Wenzel-José Molinos, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
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© Wenzel-José Molinos, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
403
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© Wenzel-José Molinos, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© Carlos Ferrater, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
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© Carlos Ferrater, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© Carlos Ferrater, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© Carlos Ferrater, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
405
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Herzog & de Meuron, Rue des Suisses Apartment
Buildings, Paris, France, 2000
This development contains two apartment buildings of different typologies. Framing the block, there
are seven-storey buildings, a three-storey one erected in the internal courtyard surrounded by high
partition walls, and two small gable-roofed residential houses. In line with the scheme, there are small
1-tier and 3-4-tier apartments in the buildings framing the block, while those in the courtyard meant
for families have larger floor space. The buildings along the street borrow the vertical façade system
and central stairwell typical of 19th-century dwellings in Paris. Here, by making the facade plane
dynamic, which is intensified by the changing view of the shutters depending on their interior use,
the appearance of the building is softened. In this context, the buildings in the courtyard are novelties.
They were meant to establish closer contact with the semi-private garden instead of aiming to surpass
the heights of the partition walls. The porch, wrapping around the façade, the curved wooden shutter
system and the climbing greenery evoke the atmosphere of the friendly, small, residential streets of
Paris before Hauszmann.
© Trevor Patt, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/trevorpatt/3996653250/
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© Trevor Patt, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/trevorpatt/3996653250/
407
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© Trevor Patt, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/trevorpatt/3996653250/
© Trevor Patt, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/trevorpatt/3996653250/
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© Trevor Patt, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/trevorpatt/3996653250/
© Trevor Patt, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/trevorpatt/3996653250/
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© Trevor Patt, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/trevorpatt/3996653250/
© Herzog / de Meuron, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 218. o.
410
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© Herzog / de Meuron, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 218. o.
411
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Buildings – International Projects
© Herzog / de Meuron, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 218. o.
de Architekten Cie, The Whale, Amsterdam,
Netherlands, 2000
The Whale is one of three large sculptural buildings planted into low-rise, high-density developments
that evoke traditional residential buildings typical of Amsterdam. Acting as an enormous landmark,
the 50 x 100 m building rises at both ends, thus transforming the courtyard it surrounds into a public
plaza and redefining the traditional closed housing block. As a result of the design, each apartment
receives enough sunlight and has proper ventllation. Accessible via outer corridors from the direction
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of the courtyard, the dwelling units are highly versatile. Thus, the floor plan of the building changes
level by level.
© Jeroen Musch/de Architekten Cie., source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth
Century, Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 218. o.
© de Architekten Cie., source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 218. o.
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© Jeroen Musch, source: http://www.mascontext.com/issues/4-living-winter-09/case-study-4-thewhale/
© Jeroen Musch, source: http://www.mascontext.com/issues/4-living-winter-09/case-study-4-thewhale/
© Jeroen Musch, source: http://www.mascontext.com/issues/4-living-winter-09/case-study-4-thewhale/
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© René de Wit, source: http://www.mascontext.com/issues/4-living-winter-09/case-study-4-the-whale/
© de Architekten Cie., source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 218. o.
© de Architekten Cie., source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 218. o.
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Buildings – International Projects
© de Architekten Cie., source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 218. o.
© de Architekten Cie., source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008, 218. o.
Kazuyo Sejima–Ryue Nishiziwa (SANAA), Kitagata
Housing, Kitagata, Japan, 2000
Located at the intersection of the industrial and residential zones of Kitagata, the area is defined by four
10-storey apartment buildings along its four sides. Built after masterplans by Arata Isozaki, they were
designed by four women architects. The public plaza framed by the development contains parking
spaces and thematic communal areas designed by Martha Schwartz. The essential proposal of the
housing concept by Kazuyo Sejima is that the basic module of an owner-occupied, multi-apartment
house is not the apartment, but the room. Thus, Kitagata Housing contains co-ordinated sequences
of 2.6 x 4.8 m rooms based on four typologies – namely, the bedroom, the living room, the tatami
room and an open area (terrace). The bedroom, en-suite shower and toilet are the most intimate parts
in each unit. The living rooms feature a dining area and a kitchen, and some of them have double
interior height. The terrace takes up the entire width of the building and is in direct contact with
the shared circulation that wraps around the building along its perimeter. The apartments feature a
variety of designs, containing 4-7 rooms. The glazed, portico-like outer circulation makes the building
transparent, whereby tenants living in anonymity have the chance to socialise. The door to each
room-unit opens onto the shared circulation system, which is a solution overwriting the structuring
of traditional apartment houses.
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© Raphael Azevedo Franca, source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kitagatagifusejima.jpg
© naoyafujii, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/naoyafujii/2396438988/in/pool-sanaa|naoyafujii
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© naoyafujii, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/naoyafujii/2396438988/in/pool-sanaa|naoyafujii
© naoyafujii, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/naoyafujii/2396438988/in/pool-sanaa|naoyafujii
418
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© naoyafujii, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/naoyafujii/2396438988/in/pool-sanaa|naoyafujii
419
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© Kazuyo Sejima és Ryue Nishizawa / SANAA, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the
Twentieth Century, Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 218. o.
420
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© Kazuyo Sejima és Ryue Nishizawa / SANAA, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the
Twentieth Century, Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 218. o.
© Kazuyo Sejima és Ryue Nishizawa / SANAA, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the
Twentieth Century, Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 218. o.
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© Kazuyo Sejima és Ryue Nishizawa / SANAA, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the
Twentieth Century, Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 218. o.
© Kazuyo Sejima és Ryue Nishizawa / SANAA, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the
Twentieth Century, Lawrence King Publishing, London, 2008, 218. o.
Carlo Baumschlager - Dietmar Eberle, Hötting-West
Development, Innsbruck, Austria, 2000
Containing six apartment buildings, this development was built in the first construction phase of
the Hötting-West development project with communal participation. Free-standing buildings have
proven to offer the best responses, to have continuous green spaces and varied orientation despite the
intensive, high-density development. Just like several other buildings by the same duo of architects,
this apartment house features an unrelieved mass combined with an accentuated exterior wall, building
shell and circulation core. This building of 5 to 7 storeys contains 298 apartments, partly for rent,
partly used by their owners. The consistent structure and expression of mass, as well as the lightweight
structural components in the interiors and on the façade allowed them to optimise building costs; yet,
the goal of economising did not exclude the use of the finest building materials. Maintenance costs are
reduced by solar collectors, thermal regain systems and the utilization of rainwater. The different types
of housing blocks in various sizes are created by developing a courtyard on four sides. The staircase has
a pleasant atmosphere combined with high-standard design: a balanced harmony of light, forms and
details. The wet areas and services are found near the vertical circulation, the inner core. Living areas
along the exterior allow for flexible rearrangement, creating variations with one, two or three rooms.
© ismeretlen, source: Liesbeth Waechter-Böhm: Über-Wohnbau, Springer, Wien, 2000
422
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© ismeretlen, source: Liesbeth Waechter-Böhm: Über-Wohnbau, Springer, Wien, 2000
© ismeretlen, source: Liesbeth Waechter-Böhm: Über-Wohnbau, Springer, Wien, 2000
423
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© ismeretlen, source: Liesbeth Waechter-Böhm: Über-Wohnbau, Springer, Wien, 2000
© ismeretlen, source: Liesbeth Waechter-Böhm: Über-Wohnbau, Springer, Wien, 2000
© ismeretlen, source: Liesbeth Waechter-Böhm: Über-Wohnbau, Springer, Wien, 2000
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© Carlo Baumschlager - Dietmar Eberle, source: Liesbeth Waechter-Böhm: Über-Wohnbau, Springer,
Wien, 2000
Eduardo Souto de Moura, Maia Apartments, Maia,
Portugal, 2001
The rectangular block of this apartment building contains flats strung along a three- and four-tier
staircase. The scheme reflects the deliberate choice of the residential building’s repetitive typological
features freed from redundancy. The strictness of the module system in the external aluminium shades
is only softened by the movement of the shutters, creating playful dynamics on the facade. The floor
plan configuration reflects clear, logical order, just like the façade design. The stairwells are contained
in the central core of the building strung with the service rooms arranged along it. The wet areas
inside and the coordinated sequence of living areas wrapping around them allowed for a consistent
architectural treatment of the façade, whereas -– more often than not – it also created windowless
internal circulations and bathrooms.
© Duccio Malagamba, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
425
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© Duccio Malagamba, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
© Duccio Malagamba, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
426
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© Duccio Malagamba, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
© Duccio Malagamba, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
427
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© Eduardo Soto de Moura, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing,
2006.
428
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© Eduardo Soto de Moura, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing,
2006.
429
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Cino Zucchi, D/Residential Building on La Giudecca,
Venice, Italy, 2002
Building D is an integral part of the redevelopment project of a district of Venice on the premises of the
former Junghans watch factory. Replacing an old industrial structure, it is located at the intersection of
two canals. The primary concern of design work was to facilitate the relationship between tradition and
contemporary architecture. The colour of the rendering on the façade and the varied window formats
(including sizes and frames) are all contemporary reinterpretations of Venetian dwelling houses. The
building is accessible from the direction of an intimate internal courtyard, from which a well-lit fourtier staircase connects the flats throughout the four levels. The living spaces of the one- and two-room
dwellings are designed with an open plan to economize space, and the living-rooms open directly from
the staircase.
© Niczki Tamás, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
430
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© Piero Savorelli, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
© Piero Savorelli, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
431
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Niczki Tamás, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
© Niczki Tamás, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
© Niczki Tamás, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
432
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© Cino Zucchi, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
© Cino Zucchi, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
Ercilla - Campo Arquitectura, 168 FLATS Public
Housing, Lakua, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, 2002
As the site of was newly subdivided, the primary concern of the scheme was to maximise natural light
and ventillation. Each building is made up of four volumes along a north-south axis, grouped in twos
and orchestrated with a landscaped garden between them. To enhance the impression of openness,
the rectangular blocks were pierced at various points, having two- or three-storey gaps. Designers
especially accentuated the innovative circulation system and the ideal design of the dwelling units.
Circulation within the whole building is focussed in an atrium-like, five-level space with single-flight
stairs connecting them, opening upon four flats on each floor. The dwellings feature identical designs,
except for their width. Ancillary rooms overlook the atrium, while the other rooms face outward. The
units are flexibly adjustable, consisting of one, two, three or four rooms.
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© César San Millán, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008
© César San Millán, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008
434
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Buildings – International Projects
© César San Millán, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008
© César San Millán, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008
435
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© César San Millán, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence
King Publishing, London, 2008
© Ercilla - Campo Arquitectura, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King
Publishing, 2006.
© Ercilla - Campo Arquitectura, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King
Publishing, 2006.
436
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© Ercilla - Campo Arquitectura, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King
Publishing, 2006.
Alfonso Reyes - Dellekamp Arquitectos, 58
Apartments, Mexico City, Mexico, 2003
The scheme responds to the different characters of the sides bordering the lot. Because of the noisy
southern part, the northern inner one was designed to contain an atrium, along which the staircase
and the service areas are located. In most cases, the interiors are protected from the noise of the highspeed avenue by closed walls which are only pierced by ribbon windows beneath the ceilings. The
dwelling units are clustered to one another as independent modules embracing terraces and internal
gardens. The building is composed like a three-dimensional puzzle made up of units, some of which
are multi-storey, projected onto the façade by the aluminium cladding that features a variety of finishes
and colours. The open-plan apartments and the variations in floor plan configurations express the
designers’ ambition to create individual homes here, each being different.
© Oscar Necoechea, Lara Becerra, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz,
Sp. 2007
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© Oscar Necoechea, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
© Oscar Necoechea, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
438
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© Oscar Necoechea, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
© Oscar Necoechea, Lara Becerra, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz,
Sp. 2007
© ismeretlen, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
439
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© Dellekamp Arquitectos, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing,
2006.
440
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© Dellekamp Arquitectos, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing,
2006.
441
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© Dellekamp Arquitectos, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing,
2006.
442
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© Dellekamp Arquitectos, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing,
2006.
443
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© Dellekamp Arquitectos, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing,
2006.
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© Dellekamp Arquitectos, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing,
2006.
© Dellekamp Arquitectos, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing,
2006.
MVRDV, Silodam, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2003
Located at the end of a pile dam in Amsterdam, this enormous apartment building evokes the design
of a container cargo ship. Designers meant to avoid the traditional horizontal nature of residential
buildings; thus, they created a three-dimensional, mixed-use urban envelope instead. The dwellings
were divided into 15 groups according to typology with units in closer contact obviously displayed
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along the outer façade to reflect the variety of their materials and colours. The public spaces of the
building are scattered all throughout. The port is housed at the bottom, while the restaurant and the
terrace are higher up, and the roof features a look-out terrace. The designs of the apartments differ
vastly in size, organization and price, which responds to the desire for individuality and the demands
of the housing market at the time of construction. Dwelling units vary from throughout – including
single-faced, single-level apartments, as well as duplexes and triplexes in terms of height.
© Rob t'Hart, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence King
Publishing, London, 2008, 202. o.
© ismeretlen, source: http://tallerarquitectura3b.blogspot.hu/2010/06/silodam-por-mvrdv.html
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© pongpong, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/chih/3523928513/in/photostream/
© pongpong, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/chih/3523928513/in/photostream/
447
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© pongpong, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/chih/3523928513/in/photostream/
© pongpong, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/chih/3523928513/in/photostream/
448
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© MVRDV, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence King
Publishing, London, 2008, 202. o.
449
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© MVRDV, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence King
Publishing, London, 2008, 202. o.
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© MVRDV, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence King
Publishing, London, 2008, 202. o.
451
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© MVRDV, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence King
Publishing, London, 2008, 202. o.
© MVRDV, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence King
Publishing, London, 2008, 202. o.
452
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© MVRDV, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence King
Publishing, London, 2008, 202. o.
© MVRDV, source: Hilary French: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Lawrence King
Publishing, London, 2008, 202. o.
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Alvaro Siza Vieira, Terraços de Bragança, Lisbon,
Portugal, 2004
This is collective housing that responds to the location, featuring sensitive historic layers and
topography. The longish site is flanked by streets on two sides with large shifts in level, as much as
several storeys, to which the development responds by featuring parallel buildings of two or three
blocks. The 14th-century city walls found all over the site were mitigated by designers using stretchedout blocks, and by raising the residential buildings on plinths. Plans for the future include a public
museum area open to visitors here. The lower levels, above the shared cellar that contains car parks,
house businesses and offices, while apartments are housed higher up. The cladding of the façade
reflects the functions contained within. The lower levels are stone-faced, while residences are covered
in tiles.
© Jose Rodrigues, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
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© Jose Rodrigues, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
© Jose Rodrigues, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
© Jose Rodrigues, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
455
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© Jose Rodrigues, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
© Jose Rodrigues, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
456
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© Jose Rodrigues, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
© Jose Rodrigues, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
© Alvaro Siza, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
© Alvaro Siza, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
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© Alvaro Siza, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
© Alvaro Siza, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
© Alvaro Siza, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
Claus en Kaan Architecten, Ter Huivra, Joure,
Netherlands, 2004
This low-rise terrace and apartment building features a soft, irregular, amoeba-like shape which makes
optimal use of views of the adjacent Ter Huivra Park, as well as the exposure of dwellings to natural
light. The project has contributed to the traditional development of this streetscape along the edge of
the park with its more organic and free form. The curved façades reduce the visual impact, since the
building cannot be seen as a whole from any visual angle. The prominent projecting terraces wrapping
around the outer façade enhance the visual lightness of the structure. Transitional apartments are open
from both their own terraces and the shared one; thus, they have intense communication with their
outer context.
458
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© Christian Richters. Luuk Kramer, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia
2008
© Luuk Kramer, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
© Luuk Kramer, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
459
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Buildings – International Projects
© Christian Richters. Luuk Kramer, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia
2008
© Christian Richters. Luuk Kramer, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia
2008
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Buildings – International Projects
© Christian Richters. Luuk Kramer, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia
2008
© Christian Richters. Luuk Kramer, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia
2008
461
Contemporary Apartment
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© Claus en Kaan Architecten, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz,
Sp. 2007
462
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Claus en Kaan Architecten, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz,
Sp. 2007
© Claus en Kaan Architecten, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz,
Sp. 2007
© Claus en Kaan Architecten, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz,
Sp. 2007
Edouard François, Flower Tower, Paris, France, 2004
Cantilevered terraces wrapping around this free-standing residential tower, referred to locals as Maison
Vegetale, are vertical continuations of the adjacent park, since they feature plants (bamboo) grown in
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giant concrete pots on the perimeter balconies. The foliage moves one step forward with the transitional
space behind it, compared to green façades treated simply as surfaces. The spectacle, the rustle and
shading effects of the vegetation all contribute to a pleasant environment meant to satisfy citydwellers’
desire for nature. Beyond the ingenious transitional spaces, the exterior and interior is blurred by
omitting the ground-floor foyer and the lift opening directly outdoors. All apartments are exposed to
face the park and open from the direction of the inner circulation core, illuminated by the glass-walled
elevator shaft. As the interiors are freed from all load-bearing walls, apartments are arrangeable on
demand.
© Paul Raftery/VIEW, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
© linkef, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/linkef/3491637892/
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© ismeretlen, source: http://www.archdaily.com/245014/tower-flower-edouard-francois/fran-ft-0010/
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© Paul Raftery/VIEW, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
© ismeretlen, source: http://www.urbanarchnow.com/2012/03/flower-tower-paris.html
© Paul Raftery/VIEW, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
466
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Edouard Francois, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
Miller & Maranta, Schwarzpark Residences, Basel,
Switzerland, 2004
Located at the southern end of Schwarzpark, this building, according to its scheme, strives to be a
tree-like object. The slender, raw grid of concrete beams on the façade, the large windows and the
greyish-brownish palette mimic tree branches, while the louvers on windows mimic foliage in motion.
Sitting at the meeting point of nature and the city, the generously-sized windows offer tenants the
unique experience of framed views of the neighbouring park. The overall lightness of the building is
somewhat compromised by functional drawbacks resulting from the large span. The apartments strung
along the two-tier stairwell are windowless and feature relatively small rooms and living rooms in
terms of their floor space.
© Ruedi Walti Fotografie, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2008
467
Contemporary Apartment
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© Ruedi Walti Fotografie, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2008
© Ruedi Walti Fotografie, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2008
468
Contemporary Apartment
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© Ruedi Walti Fotografie, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2008
469
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Buildings – International Projects
© Ruedi Walti Fotografie, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2008
© Ruedi Walti Fotografie, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2008
© Ruedi Walti Fotografie, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2008
470
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© Ruedi Walti Fotografie, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2009
© Miller & Maranta, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2009
471
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© Miller & Maranta, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2009
472
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Miller & Maranta, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2009
© Miller & Maranta, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2009
473
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
Alexis López Acosta - Xavier Iván Díaz Martín, Edificio
Inakasa, Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, 2005
The building occupies a site along two streets with different height levels, where development in
unbroken rows is ripped up by a small plaza wedged between them. The block featuring façades on
three sides is open at one of its corners, allowing its patio direct contact with the public domain,
transforming it into a semi-public plaza. The building resembles a huge, roughly-carved rock, the
outer layer of which is only compromised by the random pattern of slits in the balconies. Its vertical
circulation is accessible from the direction of the courtyard, on the side lacking a facade. Apartments
open from the inner-side gallery overlooked by the service areas. Daytime and intimate zones are
separated by inner semi-atriums facing the façade. Covered and open spaces cut into the block,
integrating harmoniously with the interiors of the dwellings.
© Aitor Ortiz, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
© Aitor Ortiz, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
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© Aitor Ortiz, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
© Aitor Ortiz, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
475
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© Aitor Ortiz, source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2006
© Alexis Lopet Acosta - Xavier ivan Diaz Martin , source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l.,
Valencia 2006
476
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Alexis Lopet Acosta - Xavier ivan Diaz Martin , source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l.,
Valencia 2006
© Alexis Lopet Acosta - Xavier ivan Diaz Martin , source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l.,
Valencia 2006
477
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Alexis Lopet Acosta - Xavier ivan Diaz Martin , source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l.,
Valencia 2006
© Alexis Lopet Acosta - Xavier ivan Diaz Martin , source: 4/Collective Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l.,
Valencia 2006
David Chipperfield - EMV Social Housing, Villaverde,
Madrid, Spain, 2005
Located on the outskirts of Madrid in an abandoned industrial zone, this “U" shaped development had
to meet strict regulations with regard to its silhouette, 15-metre width, eight-storey height and halfsaddle roof design. This is also the reason why designers opted for a pent-roof and a façade tilted
inward, which at the same time gave them more scope for architectural formation. To guarantee highstandard housing, several vertical circulations were contained. The stairwells are four-tiered on the
corners. Elsewhere, as a rule, only two apartments open from them. The majority of the dwellings
are trasitional apartments with their daytime and nighttime zones facing opposite sides. The highly
sculptural and vibrant qualities of the façade are the result of deep-seated windows conferring depth,
combined with a GRC surface treated in three different tones.
© javier1949, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/javier1949/2575437424/in/photostream/
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© Roland Halbe, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
© Roland Halbe, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
479
Contemporary Apartment
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© Roland Halbe, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
© Roland Halbe, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
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© javier1949, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/javier1949/2575437424/in/photostream/
© javier1949, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/javier1949/2575437424/in/photostream/
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© David Chipperfield, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
© David Chipperfield, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
MVRDV - Blanca Lleó Asciados, Mirador Apartment
Building, Madrid, Spain, 2005
The essence of the designers’ concept was to create an imposing reference point for the 5-8-storey
social tenement houses with internal courtyards in this zone to boost the identity of the population.
With the 22-level El Mirador de Sanchinarro, they broke the monotony of the neighbouring structures.
They raised the traditional communal plaza to the height of the 12th storey to house a lookout (or
mirador). The designers’ aim was to create a “vertical city” here. The 165 apartments contained in
the building were grouped in 9 blocks based on their compact housing types, and they are connected
by a surrounding “street-system” that winds in the manner of a snake, in an unbroken line. The nine
blocks and the circulation system are manifest in the façade, projected upon it in various colours and
materials. When designing the single-story and duplex apartments (of 2.5, 3 or 4 rooms), the designers
intended to maximise the living areas, while providing optimal light, comfort and views. Dwellings of
various designs and dimensions within the same building were meant for tenants with different social
status and lifestyles. The variety of apartment types seem endless, as their flexible floor plans offer
even more variations, which is a response to the heterogenity and search for identity so characteristic
of contemporary society.
© Rob't Hart, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
482
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Rob't Hart, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
© Rob't Hart, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
483
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Rob't Hart, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
© Rob't Hart, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
484
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Rob't Hart, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
© Rob't Hart, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
485
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© MVRDV, Blanca Lleo Asociados, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
© MVRDV, Blanca Lleo Asociados, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
© MVRDV, Blanca Lleo Asociados, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
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PLOT (BIG+JDS), VM House, Copenhagen, Denmark,
2005
Shaped like a “V" and an “M" when viewed from above, these volumes were pimarily intended to
provide both optimal daylight and views to all apartments, thereby visually communicating with the
landscape. As building “V" is seated on plinths, the park located south of it could creep underneath and
blend in with the courtyard wedged between the two volumes. The apartments in building “V" open
from the galleries on the northern side, while units in the “M" building open from the central corridors.
The latter structure has a zigzagging ground plan which makes its façade pierced throughout and allows
it to enjoy natural light. The designs of the apartments offer endless variations, the designers’ response
to the contemporary desire for individuality. This building is based on associations among three various
types of housing units, much like the blocks in the game of Tetris, with alternating duplexes (two
versions) and triplexes. Because of the glass façades, next-door neighbours can see each other all the
time, which is a contemporary experiment meant to create a new type of residential community.
© PLOT, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
© PLOT, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
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© seier+seier, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/seier/2373712197/
© seier+seier, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/seier/2373712197/
488
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© seier+seier, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/seier/2373712197/
© Doctor Casino, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/doctorcasino/3494970684/in/photostream/
© Doctor Casino, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/doctorcasino/3494970684/in/photostream/
489
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© PLOT (BIG+JDS), source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
© PLOT (BIG+JDS), source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
Rafael Moneo - Martinez Lapena, Apartment House,
Barcelona, Spain, 2005
The hall, referred to as Samper, stood on the irregular site as a memento of industrial activities in the
area back in the early 1900s. On the northern side of the apartment house, there is a masonry wall
precisely following the site boundaries, while on the side overlooking the courtyard it features a façade
with soft organic tracery. The two sides also feature different design paradigms. The former is based
on a geometrical order counterbalanced by the playfulness of chiaroscuro effects created by the the
windows piercing the façade and variations of the masonry patterns, whereas the curved inner side
shows dynamic versatility with its wooden shading system. The design of the apartments opening from
the two-tier stairwells shows the same kind of duality. The intimate blocks with a central floor plan
are housed on the more regular northern side, while the daylight zones containing groups of rooms
with more free spatial formation are found on the inner southern side.
© Duccio Malagamba, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
490
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Duccio Malagamba, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
© Duccio Malagamba, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
491
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Duccio Malagamba, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
© Duccio Malagamba, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
© Duccio Malagamba, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
492
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Duccio Malagamba, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
© Rafael Moneo és Martinez Lapena, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
© Rafael Moneo és Martinez Lapena, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
493
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Rafael Moneo és Martinez Lapena, source: Materia vol. 47, Federico Motta Editore, Milano 2005
Riano Arquitectos, 22-Flat Housing, Madrid, Spain,
2005
When developing this corner vacant lot, designers strove to redefine “corrola”, the vernacular
residential design with a patio typical of Madrid and adjust it to the elevations of the neighbouring
buildings. The two wings connected by a stairwell core embrace an internal courtyard significantly
larger than traditional patios. Simultaneously, it also responds to the sensitive one-storey difference in
level with the neighbouring buildings. One of the wings is lower and features a 7-metre-wide span.
The taller and deeper wing contains a smaller internal air shaft overlooked by the service areas. Pierced
by French balconies, the expanses of the closed façades are only disrupted by the stairwell atrium. The
façades are clad in durable low-maintenance granite slabs, each as tall as a storey, which are integrated
into the grid of windows, equipped with a mobile shading system.
© Miguel de Guzmán, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2008
494
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© Miguel de Guzmán, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2008
495
Contemporary Apartment
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© Miguel de Guzmán, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2008
496
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Miguel de Guzmán, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2008
497
Contemporary Apartment
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© Miguel de Guzmán, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2008
498
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Miguel de Guzmán, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2008
© Riano Arquitectos, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2008
499
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Riano Arquitectos, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2008
© Riano Arquitectos, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2008
500
Contemporary Apartment
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© Riano Arquitectos, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l., Valencia 2008
Ryue Nishizawa (SANAA), Moriyama House, Tokyo,
Japan, 2005
Scattered across the site as more than ten tiny volumes, this apartment house attempts to respond
sensitively to the two- and three-storey buildings in a traditional part of Tokyo. Designers argued that
a house broken up into a cluster of room units would more organically adjust to the environment than
a large consistent mass. The only connection among the units is via the series of connected semiprivate gardens, where the borders of communal and private areas are blurred. Besides the client’s
own apartment, five other units were realised here. The tenants have built up their small residential
community by now. The owner is free to choose any of these dwellings as his residence or as rental
rooms, and he can switch move among them to his liking, instead of remaining in fixed place of
residence on a particular spot.
© Ryue Nishizawa, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
501
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Ryue Nishizawa, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
© Ryue Nishizawa, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
© ismeretlen, source: http://progettazioneurbanistica.wordpress.com/2011/05/02/moriyama-house-2/
502
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© ismeretlen, source: http://purple.fr/magazine/f-w-2008-issue-10/gallery/156
© Ryue Nishizawa, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
503
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Ryue Nishizawa (SANAA), source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp.
2007
© Ryue Nishizawa (SANAA), source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp.
2007
© Ryue Nishizawa (SANAA), source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp.
2007
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S-M.A.O., Social Housing, Carabanchel, Madrid, Spain,
2005
This apartment building was realised as part of the large-scale social housing project in Madrid’s
Carabanchel district. The triangular site is wedged between the boundaries of the old city quarter
and the newly subdivided area bordering an extensive park to the south. The development contains
an east-west wing, functioning as the spatial wall of the park, and building masses perpendicular to
it, featuring apartments of a rational design. The two wings of different design contain two types of
dwellings. The block bordering the park features single-storey transitional units with daytime areas
on the southern side and bedrooms on the northern one. Closed to the north, the duplex apartments
within the perpendicular masses are open on their east-facing side.
© Hisao Suzuki, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
© Hisao Suzuki, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
505
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Hisao Suzuki, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
© S-M.A.O., source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
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Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© S-M.A.O., source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
© S-M.A.O., source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
Amann - Canovas - Maruri, 61-Apartment Social
Tenement House, Coslada Puerto, Madrid, Spain, 2006
Containing 61 apartments altogether, this building features a structure largely defined by its social
function. The designer’s goal was to use a floor plan system and spatial configuration that lend the
circulation spaces a collective character beyond their functional role. The system of the building is
defined by three circulation cores providing direct access to either three or four apartments. As the
wide open-plan corridors joining the vertical cores are centrally positioned within the wings, there
are no areas inside the house that are excluded from the circulation system. The delicate facets of the
building not only lend the structure a variety of forms, but also effect the illumination of the whole
internal courtyard and the exciting apertures between the wings.
© Ángel Baltanás, Estudio Amann-Cánovas-Maruri, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial
Pencil s.l. 2008
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Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Ángel Baltanás, Estudio Amann-Cánovas-Maruri, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial
Pencil s.l. 2008
© Ángel Baltanás, Estudio Amann-Cánovas-Maruri, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial
Pencil s.l. 2008
508
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Ángel Baltanás, Estudio Amann-Cánovas-Maruri, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial
Pencil s.l. 2008
509
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Ángel Baltanás, Estudio Amann-Cánovas-Maruri, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial
Pencil s.l. 2008
© Ángel Baltanás, Estudio Amann-Cánovas-Maruri, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial
Pencil s.l. 2008
© Ángel Baltanás, Estudio Amann-Cánovas-Maruri, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial
Pencil s.l. 2008
© Ángel Baltanás, Estudio Amann-Cánovas-Maruri, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial
Pencil s.l. 2008
510
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Amann-Canovas-Maruri, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l. 2008
© Amann-Canovas-Maruri, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l. 2008
© Amann-Canovas-Maruri, source: 8/Multi-Family Housing, Editorial Pencil s.l. 2008
C.F. Møller Architects, Østerbrogade 105, Copenhagen,
Denmark, 2006
Located in an historic district, this apartment building communicates with the surrounding building
as their equals. With its reddish-brownish masonry, it redefines the past by creating a characteristic
street-front. The modern, sculptural façade design illustrates a change. As if they were eyes bulging
out of the wall plane, the copper and glass boxes offer exciting spaces – that is, apartments bathed
in natural light. With economical means and sophisticated details, the functionalist building creates
exciting effects. More exposed to sunshine, the southern courtyard features balconies, while the lightfilled glass boxes of the darker northern façade offer views of the busy street.
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Contemporary Apartment
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© Torben Eskerod, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© Torben Eskerod, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
512
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Torben Eskerod, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© Torben Eskerod, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
513
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© C. F. Moller Architects, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© C. F. Moller Architects, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© C. F. Moller Architects, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
Edouard François, La Closeraie, Louviers, France,
2006
This scheme was targeted to realise the development of a site in an orchard adjacent to the historic
centre of town, without having to cut down any trees. The apartments and the two staircases of the
building were organised into pavilion-like groups by the designers. Resulting from the design, the
units enjoy intimacy and independence, not unlike detached houses. The dwellings are accessible
via three bridges per level from the open, porch-like staircases. Featuring façades on three sides,
the apartments are closely connected with their natural environment. Designed with an ambition for
structural simplicity, the façade features traditional local materials used in a contemporary manner.
Hanging in front of the bare walls, a screen of rough-hewn chestnut palings protects against the rain,
wind and sun.
514
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Buildings – International Projects
© Paul Raferty, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
© Paul Raferty, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
© Paul Raferty, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
515
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Edouard Francois, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
© Edouard Francois, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
© Edouard Francois, source: a+t Density series, D Book, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sp. 2007
Emiliano López - Monica Rivera, 27-Apartment Social
Tenement House for Young People, Barcelona, Spain,
2007
The building contains 5 apartments with a floor area of 44 m², meant for 1-2 occupants, and 1 apartment
of 51 m² for 2-3 tenants per level. The small-sized units are connectable or separable on demand.
Designers accentuated the transitional spaces that can be used as extra rooms thanks to the climate
of the city. Properliy ventilated, the apartments feature glazed balconies on the southern street-facing
side, similar to traditional Barcelona houses, but they can be adapted to harness solar power. From the
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direction of the internal courtyard, the dwellings are exposed to open corridors, which are wider than
usual. Divided by steel grills, the drying and laundry rooms are housed here, just like the widening
entrance areas outside the apartments. The latter can be used either as a reception area or as an extension
of the kitchen, being also suited to function as a socialising venue. As a durable and cheap material,
concrete combined with metal-claddings was selected, reflecting both the project’s low budget and
the tenement house function.
© Hisao Suzuki, source: El croquis 148, Madrid, 2009/V., 176-177. old.
© Hisao Suzuki, source: El croquis 148, Madrid, 2009/V., 180. old.
517
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© Hisao Suzuki, source: El croquis 148, Madrid, 2009/V., 181. old.
518
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© Hisao Suzuki, source: El croquis 148, Madrid, 2009/V., 176. old.
519
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© Hisao Suzuki, source: El croquis 148, Madrid, 2009/V., 176. old.
© Hisao Suzuki, source: El croquis 148, Madrid, 2009/V., 176. old.
© Hisao Suzuki, source: El croquis 148,Madrid, 2009/V., 185. old.
© Emiliano López / Monica Rivera, source: El croquis 148,Madrid, 2009/V., 185. old.
520
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© Emiliano López / Monica Rivera, source: El croquis 148,Madrid, 2009/V., 185. old.
521
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Emiliano López / Monica Rivera, source: El croquis 148,Madrid, 2009/V., 185. old.
Xiaodu Liu & Yan Meng (Urbanus Architecture &
Design Inc.), Tolou Collective Housing, Nanhai District,
Guandong Province, China, 2008
Built in Guangzhou (Canton), the third largest city in China, this collective house is a contemporary
reinterpretation of the traditional tulou house and also the first attempt to introduce this vernacular
typology in an urban environment. In line with the traditional design, its mass is made up of two
buildings: an outer circular ring and an inner rectangular box connected by a courtyard and bridges.
The complex contains 245 apartments altogether, as well as a library, a gym hall and other communal
spaces. The tenants at present are typically migrant, lower-income workers. Each dwelling unit has a
floor-area of approx. 33 m², extended by a balcony as a secondary living space. The position of the
structure optimises ventillation and light conditions for the apartments, while the internal courtyard
functions as a social venue.
522
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Buildings – International Projects
© Aga Khan Award for Architecture / SHEN Xiaoming, source: http://www.akdn.org/architecture/
project.asp?id=3860
© Aga Khan Award for Architecture / SHEN Xiaoming, source: http://www.akdn.org/architecture/
project.asp?id=3860
© Aga Khan Award for Architecture / SHEN Xiaoming, source: http://www.akdn.org/architecture/
project.asp?id=3860
523
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Buildings – International Projects
© Aga Khan Award for Architecture / SHEN Xiaoming, source: http://www.akdn.org/architecture/
project.asp?id=3860
© Aga Khan Award for Architecture / SHEN Xiaoming, source: http://www.akdn.org/architecture/
project.asp?id=3860
© Aga Khan Award for Architecture / SHEN Xiaoming, source: http://www.akdn.org/architecture/
project.asp?id=3860
524
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© Aga Khan Award for Architecture / SHEN Xiaoming, source: http://www.akdn.org/architecture/
project.asp?id=3860
© Aga Khan Award for Architecture / SHEN Xiaoming, source: http://www.akdn.org/architecture/
project.asp?id=3860
525
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Buildings – International Projects
© Urbanus / Xiaodu Liu - Yan Meng, source: http://www.akdn.org/architecture/project.asp?id=3860
526
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Urbanus / Xiaodu Liu - Yan Meng, source: http://www.akdn.org/architecture/project.asp?id=3860
ZIGZAG Arquitectura, VIVAZZ Social Housing, Mieres,
Spain, 2011
Heavy industry is a legacy still affecting life in Mieres, an alpine town in the river valley of a fascinating
landscape. The green field investment was realised in a major downtown redevelopment zone. The
starting point of the scheme was the traditional generic courtyard development, which was given
more dynamism with clefts and shifts in volume, creating ever-changing, unexpectedly-framed views
opening onto the surrounding alpine landscape. The courtyard block (an urban enclave) contains a
total of 131 apartments of varying sizes, featuring one and four rooms. The living areas have views
of the adjacent streets, while the living rooms overlook the quiet inner courtyard. Designers strove
to preserve the dual character of the site, which is marked by the natural environment conjured into
the urban-style development and by the contrast between the metal-cladding of the outer skin and the
timber lattice in the interior.
527
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Buildings – International Projects
© Roland Halbe, source: http://europaconcorsi.com/projects/164880-VIVAZZ-131-ViviendasProtegidas
© Roland Halbe, source: http://europaconcorsi.com/projects/164880-VIVAZZ-131-ViviendasProtegidas
© Roland Halbe, source: http://europaconcorsi.com/projects/164880-VIVAZZ-131-ViviendasProtegidas
528
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© Roland Halbe, source: http://europaconcorsi.com/projects/164880-VIVAZZ-131-ViviendasProtegidas
© Alejandro García González, source: http://rcarpet.wordpress.com/2011/07/
529
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
©
ismeretlen,
source:
http://www.worldarchitecturenews.com/index.php?
fuseaction=wanappln.showprojectbigimages&img=3&pro_id=19044
© ZIGZAG Arquitectura,
Viviendas-Protegidas
source:
http://europaconcorsi.com/projects/164880-VIVAZZ-131-
530
Contemporary Apartment
Buildings – International Projects
© ZIGZAG Arquitectura,
Viviendas-Protegidas
source:
http://europaconcorsi.com/projects/164880-VIVAZZ-131-
© ZIGZAG Arquitectura,
Viviendas-Protegidas
source:
http://europaconcorsi.com/projects/164880-VIVAZZ-131-
531
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Buildings – International Projects
© ZIGZAG Arquitectura,
Viviendas-Protegidas
source:
http://europaconcorsi.com/projects/164880-VIVAZZ-131-
532
Chapter 6. Contemporary MultiApartment Buildings – Hungarian
Projects
Tamás Tomay, Three-Flat Apartment House, Kavics
Street No. 8/D, Budapest, District II, 1996
The architect’s task was to both continue and revise the original free-standing Modernist mansion by
Lajos Kozma. Formerly a house containing two apartments, one on each level, it featured a corner
cantilever in the living room with a characteristic sliding corner window. After a series of irreparable
remodellings made to the house, Tomay was commissioned to add a storey and to reconstruct. The
owner-occupied block was face-lifted with a flat roof and widely-projecting cornice. The accentuated
cornice combined with the horizontal rows of windows and the relatively closed cube of the building
created a prominent façade design. The spatial contact between the exterior and interior is facilitated by
the imposing corner terrace. Upgraded windows wrapping around the façade and the terrace intensify
communication between the rooms and the outer world. Divided into intimate and daytime zones, the
rooms of the apartments are clearly separated. The architect created a follow-up of the house designed
by Lajos Kozma by establishing the contact and co-existence of the original and the new.
© Szathmáry Zoltán, source: Új Magyar Építőművészet, 1998/3, 28. o.
© Szathmáry Zoltán, source: Új Magyar Építőművészet, 1998/3, 28. o.
533
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Szathmáry Zoltán, source: Új Magyar Építőművészet, 1998/3, 28. o.
© Budai Enikő, source: Új Magyar Építőművészet, 1998/3, 28. o.
© Budai Enikő, source: Új Magyar Építőművészet, 1998/3, 28. o.
534
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Budai Enikő, source: Új Magyar Építőművészet, 1998/3, 28. o.
© Tomay Tamás, source: Új Magyar Építőművészet, 1998/3, 28. o.
© Tomay Tamás, source: Új Magyar Építőművészet, 1998/3, 28. o.
535
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Tomay Tamás, source: Új Magyar Építőművészet, 1998/3, 28. o.
György Vadász - László Váncza, Residential
Community, Beregszászi Road, Budapest, District XI,
1999
Built in 1999 as a multi-apartment “New Bauhaus residential quarter”, both popular and a novelty then,
its architectural design and mass formation defined the atmosphere of its environment. Floating in
green like a high-rise block, the development features a residents’ garden, and the external appearance
of the buildings are characteristic of residential communities designed at the same time. Block-like
apartment houses are defined by snow-white masonry, openings, expanses of glass and balconies
evoking the atmosphere of the Bauhaus. Containing 100 apartments in 6 buildings, this green-belt
ensemble houses communal areas on the ground floor and contemporary modern apartments on three
storeys. The central internal stairwell is only exposed on the top floor. Its curved recessed cube is
connected to communal areas and a panoramic roof terrace. Each general level contains 4 three-room
apartments with a floor space of 107 m2 and individual balcony that is floatingly elongated, thus
fostering an intense relationship with the environment and nature. The compact service areas of the
dwelling units are found in the central core, while the adjoining living areas are placed along the two
façade sides.
© Vadász és Társai Építőművész Kft.,
pageid=menu1-1&mainid=42&subid=93
536
source:
http://www.vadaszstudio.hu//index.php?
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Vadász és Társai Építőművész Kft.,
pageid=menu1-1&mainid=42&subid=93
source:
http://www.vadaszstudio.hu//index.php?
© Vadász és Társai Építőművész Kft.,
pageid=menu1-1&mainid=42&subid=93
source:
http://www.vadaszstudio.hu//index.php?
537
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Vadász és Társai Építőművész Kft.,
pageid=menu1-1&mainid=42&subid=93
source:
http://www.vadaszstudio.hu//index.php?
© Vadász György - Váncza László,
pageid=menu1-1&mainid=42&subid=93
source:
http://www.vadaszstudio.hu//index.php?
538
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Vadász György - Váncza László,
pageid=menu1-1&mainid=42&subid=93
source:
http://www.vadaszstudio.hu//index.php?
© Vadász György - Váncza László,
pageid=menu1-1&mainid=42&subid=93
source:
http://www.vadaszstudio.hu//index.php?
Sándor Pálfy - Ferenc Keller, Residential Community,
Csejtei Street Nos. 15–19, Budapest, District II, 1998
The attractive, breezy landscaped scenery had the potential to host a total of eight mansion-like owneroccupied blocks, each containing seven apartments. The high-standard buildings of this residential
community echo the stylistic features of Bauhaus, typical of their surroundings. Following a carefully
conceived floor plan configuration, the houses slightly differ from one another. The almost 20° slope of
the terrain allowed for the construction of apartments with shifted levels. Each house contains garages
on the basement level, three apartments on the ground level, then two and finally one apartment on
the following two storeys. There is also a large roof terrace attached to the topmost units. With its
exterior forms, homogeneous white walls, prominent façades, and sophisticated dynamic of volumes,
cantilevers, and balconies, this ensemble ranks amongst the more significant residential communities
of its time.
© Haider Andrea, source: Alaprajz 1999/3 április
539
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Haider Andrea, source: Alaprajz 1999/3 április
© Haider Andrea, source: Alaprajz 1999/3 április
© Haider Andrea, source: Alaprajz 1999/3 április
540
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Haider Andrea, source: Alaprajz 1999/3 április
541
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Haider Andrea, source: Alaprajz 1999/3 április
© Haider Andrea, source: Alaprajz 1999/3 április
542
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Keller Ferenc - Pálfy Sándor, source: Alaprajz 1999/3 április
543
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Keller Ferenc - Pálfy Sándor, source: Alaprajz 1999/3 április
Péter Reimholz, Hapimag Apartments, Fortuna Street,
Budapest, District I, 2000
An expert of the Castle District, Reimholz is renowned for numerous realised buildings. Milestones in
architectural history, the residential houses in the Castle District by Jánossy and Farkasdy reflect the
same approach as those by Péter Reimholz and Zsófia Csomay in the same district. One of their most
significant works, Hapimag House, is a prominent building, adjusting to both the historical past of the
Castle District and the contemporary situation. It was deservedly awarded the Budapest standard prize
in the year 2000. Its integration into an environment of historic buildings is an exemplary architectural
response. When developing the centrally positioned corner site, aspects of geology, archaeology and
historical heritage had to be considered simultaneously. Key issues of design work were the cave
cellars, ruins, archaeologic findings from the time of the Turkish occupation, as well as Baroque
stylistic features. Characteristic of the building is a masterly fabric integrating the historic vault, brick
masonry, stone and new materials (limestone, wood and glass) that accentuate old-time values. Highstandard and quality materials combined with refined details enrich both the external appearance and
the interior. As for functions, the new cellar wing of the house contains communal areas, while the
upper floors feature a total of 30 apartments and vacation units surrounding the internal courtyard.
544
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Reimholz Péter, source: Alaprajz, 2000/7
© Reimholz Péter, source: Alaprajz, 2000/7
545
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Reimholz Péter, source: Alaprajz, 2000/7
© Reimholz Péter, source: Alaprajz, 2000/7
© Reimholz Péter, source: Alaprajz, 2000/7
546
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Reimholz Péter, source: Alaprajz, 2000/7
© Reimholz Péter, source: Alaprajz, 2000/7
Zsófia Csomay - Péter Reimholz, Raul Wallenberg
Guesthouse, Toldy Ferenc Street Nos. 8-10 and Szabó
Ilonka Street No. 7, Budapest, District I, 2000
A house of reserved elegance, it goes far beyond its time with its simplicity, fine proportions and
carefully designed details. Despite challenges involved in the task – such as the nearby castle walls,
the 10 m difference in level between the streets, and the adjacent building masses – a guesthouse
with an individual tone was born here. Creating a corner mass, the new building responds sensitively
to the existing houses of both the lower and upper street. The ashlar plinth, the exposed brick-clad
façade and the details integrate contemporary architectural forms into an historical fabric. Internal
spatial organisation and floor plan configuration, featuring outside corridors, reflect the designer’s
ambition to redefine the typology. The house contains a clear circulation system with an open and
closed vertical core placed at a pivot point. The guesthouse contains 27 apartments in various sizes,
as well as ancillary functions, communal areas and a caretaker’s apartment. The top floor is occupied
by a type of duplex apartment.
547
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Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Häider Anita, source: Alaprajz, 2001/8, 28. old.
© Häider Anita, source: Alaprajz, 2001/8, 29. old.
548
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Häider Anita, source: Alaprajz, 2001/8, 29. old.
549
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Häider Anita, source: Alaprajz, 2001/8, 30. old.
550
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Häider Anita, source: Alaprajz, 2001/8, 30. old.
551
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Häider Anita, source: Alaprajz, 2001/8, 31. old.
552
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Häider Anita, source: Alaprajz, 2001/8, 31. old.
© Häider Anita, source: Alaprajz, 2001/8, 31. old.
© Häider Anita, source: Alaprajz, 2001/8, 31. old.
553
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Csomay Zsófia - Reimholz Péter, source: Alaprajz, 2001/8, 31. old.
© Csomay Zsófia - Reimholz Péter, source: Alaprajz, 2001/8, 31. old.
© Csomay Zsófia - Reimholz Péter, source: Alaprajz, 2001/8, 31. old.
554
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
János Dobai, Passage House, Mária and Horánszky
Streets, Budapest, District VIII, 2001
The Magház2 (Core-House2) project preceded the one for “Passage House” built on two integrated
transitional sites. In line with the deployment scheme, street-facing masses of a traditional in-fill
development, a courtyard wing screening the partition wall and the central volume surround two
internal courtyards in the depth of the development. János Dobai set simplicity and transparent
organisation as the priorities of his design work. Another important concern for him was to optimise
light and breeziness throughout the house. The generous design of the passage created a plaza with a
friendly atmosphere. The entrance to the house with three pivot points is accessible from the direction
of the passage which is connected to a vertical circulation core unit by unit. The complex contains 98
apartments altogether with typologies offering a variety of floor area, ranging from 30 and 45 to 101
m². The large top-floor apartments enjoy supreme views, as well as a roof terrace.
© Hajdú József, source: MÉ 2006/4
© Hajdú József, source: MÉ 2006/4
555
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Hajdú József, source: MÉ 2006/4
556
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Hajdú József, source: MÉ 2006/4
557
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Hajdú József, source: MÉ 2006/4
558
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Hajdú József, source: MÉ 2006/4
© Hajdú József, source: MÉ 2006/4
559
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Dobai János, source: MÉ 2006/4
© Dobai János, source: MÉ 2006/4
© Dobai János, source: MÉ 2006/4
© Dobai János, source: MÉ 2006/4
560
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
Dévényi Tamás, Magház (“Core-House”), Rottenbiller
Street, Budapest, VII, 2002
This house reflects the ambition to revise the usual models of in-fill development and to reinterpret the
urban fabric context. It is a contemporary redefinition of the tenement house typical of Budapest and
an experiment to open up the typical residential block. Occupying a corner site, this house contains
two masses enclosing the courtyard, strung along a system of outside galleries separated with glass
partition. The façade structure, transparency and openings are not only architectural concerns in this
case, but also the symbols of a new lifestyle. The housing program facilitates small, high-standard
dwelling units for young urban intellectuals. The majority of the 72 apartments have a floor space of
approx. 35 m², while the larger units are 35-56 m². Shared amenities include a roof-top sun deck and
a car garage at the bottom level. Communal facilities – such as reception service, laundromat, café,
food store, gym and office – connect with the atmospheric ground-floor courtyard used as an open
urban plaza.
© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 2002/05, 16. old.
© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 2002/05, 17. old.
561
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 2002/05, 18. old.
© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 2002/05, 19. old.
562
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 2002/05, 20. old.
563
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 2002/05, 20. old.
564
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 2002/05, 21. old.
565
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Dévényi Tamás, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató
Kft., Budapest, 2012
566
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Dévényi Tamás, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató
Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Dévényi Tamás, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató
Kft., Budapest, 2012
Tamás Tomay, Apartment House, Gül Baba Street,
Budapest, District II, 2002
This building, located on the atmospheric and picturesque Gül Baba Street, stands right at the border
of the urban fabric and the green-belt of Buda (the west half of Budapest). The designer responded to
567
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
the faculties of the site by retracting the mass at the third storey with regard to the characteristically
different heights of the neighbouring buildings, the corner structure (library) and the residential house.
The special position and unusually small size of this 98 m² site did not allow for a stereotypical house.
The bottom three floors contain offices, while the upper levels house five apartments. As the partition
wall was designed as a façade, that of the apartment house screening the aisle wall actually seems
like a rotated streetscape. The building also features original and unique visual components such as
the curved wall in the stairwell, the two-level galleried space of the windbreak and the glass wall in
the masonry of the airshaft. The 36 m² flats with their more than 40 m² terraces on each level, the
transparent surfaces and the sliding-mobile wooden louvers are essential components of this residential
building.
© Becker Márton, source: Alaprajz, 2002/05, 22. old.
568
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Becker Márton, source: Alaprajz, 2002/05, 23. old.
569
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Becker Márton, source: Alaprajz, 2002/05, 23. old.
© Becker Márton, source: Alaprajz, 2002/05, 24. old.
570
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Becker Márton, source: Alaprajz, 2002/05, 24. old.
© Becker Márton, source: Alaprajz, 2002/05, 25. old.
571
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Tomay Tamás, source: Alaprajz, 2002/05, 25. old.
572
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Tomay Tamás, source: Alaprajz, 2002/05, 25. old.
573
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Tomay Tamás, source: Alaprajz, 2002/05, 25. old.
574
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
Ferenc Cságoly - Ferenc Keller, Barbican House, Pécs,
2001
The site is located beside the castle wall of Pécs, on the ourskirts of the city. Without upsetting the
existing overall harmony, the design responds to a heterogeneous atmospheric environment with a
multitude of impressions. The method of development reflects a duality. On the one hand, it evokes
the atmosphere of a small town; on the other hand, it creates an urban character with its spatial forms
of mass, proportions and roof design. Due to the situation of the houses, the complex encloses a
courtyard and an alley. The primary concern of design work was to create order in this context. The
development blends the location by uniting two sites with a complex program (offices, residential
house and hotel) into a consistent composition. The harmonious unity of three characters and materials
(stone, recycled brick and plaster-work) define the exterior appearance. The maturity of concept is
manifest in the articulation of the apertures on the façade, as well as in the alternation of symmetry and
asymmetry. Brick-clad components used as minimal tools create a favourable effect with the casual
order of apertures on the façade suiting the forms of the complex. This residential block contains a
total of 13 apartments in various sizes.
© Polgár Attila, Batár Zsolt, source: Somogyi Krisztina: Cságoly, Kijárat kiadó, Budapest, 2004
© Polgár Attila, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
575
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Polgár Attila, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
© Polgár Attila, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
576
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Polgár Attila, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
© Polgár Attila, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
577
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Polgár Attila, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
© Polgár Attila, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
578
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Polgár Attila, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
© Cságoly Ferenc - Keller Ferenc, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi
és Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Cságoly Ferenc - Keller Ferenc, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi
és Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
579
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Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Cságoly Ferenc - Keller Ferenc, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi
és Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Cságoly Ferenc - Keller Ferenc, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi
és Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Cságoly Ferenc - Keller Ferenc, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi
és Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
Margit Pelényi, Social Tenement House, Pécs, 2002
Winning an open architectural design contest in 2001, Margit Pelényi was commissioned to design
this social tenement block. The site is in a southern region of Pécs, on the peripehry of a prefab
housing estate. The four-storey resdiential building stands out in this heterogeneous environment as
a characteristic composition of simple cubes. Regarding contact with the environment, a sense of
openness seemed important, achieved through corridors and passages, as well as the occasional setting
on plinths. The bright red cylinder containing the stairwell strings along three sensitively-removed,
open-volume units with outside galleries and flat roofs. The regular configuration of apertures is
softened by the rhythm of wooden screens. Containing 120 social apartments, this tenement house
realised dwelling types with floor areas of 30 and 40 m2.
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© Pesti András, source: a tervező
© Pesti András, source: a tervező
© Pesti András, source: a tervező
581
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© Pesti András, source: a tervező
© Pesti András, source: a tervező
582
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© Pesti András, source: a tervező
© Pesti András, source: a tervező
583
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© Pelényi Margit, source: a tervező
Gábor Turányi, Owner-Occupied Apartment House in
Mecset Street, Budapest, District II, 2003
The environment of Mecset House contains modern buildings by famous Hungarian architects such
as Tamás Tomay, Mihály Balázs and Katalin Somogy S. Meanwhile, its immediate neighbourhood
features Gül Baba’s octagonal tomb from the time of the Turkish occupation. The owner-occupied
apartment house designed by Turányi matches its neighbours in external appearance, and it sensitively
responds to its environment with characteristic volume cut-outs, finely configured apertures and simple
brick architecture. Design concept here reflects compact development, comprehensive structuring and
maximal utilization of space with its floor plan layout. Two smaller courtyards were integrated towards
the park, as well as a larger one opening in the direction of the neighbouring development. The designer
treated apertures and issues related to the adjacent terraces generously. Opening from the two vertical
cores as hubs is a four-tier stairwell. The majority of apartments here are transitional types.
© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 2004/5, 34. old.
584
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© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 2004/5, 35. old.
© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 2004/5, 35. old.
585
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 2004/5, 36. old.
586
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 2004/5, 36. old.
© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 2004/5, 37. old.
587
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Turányi Gábor , source: Alaprajz, 2004/5, 37. old.
© Turányi Gábor , source: Alaprajz, 2004/5, 37. old.
© Turányi Gábor , source: Alaprajz, 2004/5, 37. old.
Gábor Csernyánszky, Municipal Tenements, Rákóczy
F. Street Nos. 97–105, Budapest, District XXI, 2004
This tenement complex in Csepel is an exemplary project of estate-like development. The basic
concept of the scheme was to embed two longish gabled masses parallel with the thoroughfare and
facing each other, while surrounding a sunken car-parking zone. Complemented by transversal wings
of various lengths, the block encloses semi-open courtyards and atmospheric parks, which in turn
higlight the softened enclosure-type development and the estate-like organisation. Because of low
investment costs, the simplest technical solutions were chosen, but the tenement complex realised
here is of high-standard, featuring functional arrangement, finely composed apertures on the façade,
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Contemporary Multi-Apartment
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characteristic mass formation and a unique shade of red. The ensemble contains 7 shops and 116
apartments in total. About 50% of the apartments have 2-2.5 rooms, one-third of them 1-1.5, while the
rest are more spacious, boasting 3-3.5 rooms. Each home was designed with a kitchen and a pantry,
with floor areas ranging from 38 to 87 m².
© Bujdosó Győző, Csernyánszky Gábor, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc
Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Bujdosó Győző, Csernyánszky Gábor, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc
Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Bujdosó Győző, Csernyánszky Gábor, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc
Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
589
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Bujdosó Győző, Csernyánszky Gábor, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc
Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Bujdosó Győző, Csernyánszky Gábor, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc
Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
590
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Bujdosó Győző, Csernyánszky Gábor, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc
Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Csernyánszky Gábor, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és
Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
591
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Csernyánszky Gábor, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és
Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Csernyánszky Gábor, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és
Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
László Kalmár - Zsolt Zsuffa, 4-Flat Apartment Block,
Vágás Street No. 22, Budapest, District XIV, 2004
The design and positioning of this development containing 4 apartments was predominantly influenced
by the narrow site and its orientation. The simple mass of the house features a saddle roof reflecting
to the inclination of the terrain, which transforms into a gable on the street front. The ingenuouslydesigned shared foyer and the driveway are placed along the northwest longitudinal wall, while the
living areas of the apartments open towards the more advantageously oriented garden. Exemplary
is the adjustment of the building to the terrain, allowing the majority of apartments to have direct
garden access. The articulated, lively architectural spectacle is integrated by well-designed openings
on the façade. At the bottom, the exposed plinth-like masonry is laid edgewise, with the homogeneous,
reddish palette of rendered surfaces above. From the transitional arrival area, three apartments are
directly accessible. The variety of dwelling units includes single- and two-level ones, all characterized
by generous spatial organisation, versatility and strict floor plan configuration.
© Kalmár László, Zsuffa Zsolt, source: a tervező
592
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
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© Kalmár László, Zsuffa Zsolt, source: a tervező
© Kalmár László, Zsuffa Zsolt, source: a tervező
593
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
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© Kalmár László, Zsuffa Zsolt, source: a tervező
594
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Kalmár László, Zsuffa Zsolt, source: a tervező
595
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Kalmár László, Zsuffa Zsolt, source: a tervező
© Kalmár László - Zsuffa Zsolt, source: a tervező
© Kalmár László - Zsuffa Zsolt, source: a tervező
596
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
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© Kalmár László - Zsuffa Zsolt, source: a tervező
Boros Pál, Owner-Occupied 9-Flat Apartment Block,
Kecskemét, 2005
This residential building containing 9 apartments altogether is an exemplary development because of
its adjustment to the existing urban fabric. Clad in brick, the reserved, formula-like owner-occupied
apartment block creates an enclosed development in unbroken rows joined by the neighbouring office
block and eclectic residential building. Exposed brickwork and an abundancy of details lend the
building a high-standard, yet restrained streetscape appearance. Well-proportioned and adequately
scaled, this house is not a verbose one. It needed only a few architectural means to create the desired
effects. A prominent feature of both the façade and the streetscape is the accentuated cornice, capable
of rendering order, combined with a row of windows above it. Made up of two wings and two masses,
this three-storey residential building features a simple floor plan layout, containing businesses on the
ground floor and 48 m2 apartments above.
© Boros Pál, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
597
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Boros Pál, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
© Boros Pál, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
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599
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Boros Pál, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
© Boros Pál, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
© Boros Pál, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
600
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Boros Pál, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
601
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
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© Boros Pál, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
602
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Boros Pál, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
603
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Boros Pál, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
Gunther Zsolt - Csillag Katalin, Owner-Occupied
Apartment Block in Futó Street, Budapest, District VIII,
2005
This owner-occupied apartment block by 3H Architects was built near Corvin Promenade Program
as a result of a rehabilitation trend in District VIII of the capital. In line with the clients’ concept
for investment, three teams of architects made development plans for the area integrating three
neighbouring sites. A longitudinal development was to be realised here to surround a free space
interrupted by an open passage. The view of the internal courtyard and the adjacent buildings is
provided via a roofed, open passage connecting the courtyard and the street wings. A colourful screenstyle passage pergola joins the 7-storey main volume and the smaller 5-storey one in the garden as
an exciting component of spatial separation. The internal spatial system of the building is extended
by wide airshafts and accesses towards the garden. Retracted from the streetline, the façade creates
a pleasant plaza outside the entrance to the building. The apartments’ service and wet areas are
placed along the internal side, while living spaces are sequenced towards the street and the courtyard.
Bedsitters are strung along the two-tier stairwell of the garden wing.
© Máté Gábor, source: MÉ 2006/4
604
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
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© Máté Gábor, source: MÉ 2006/4
© Máté Gábor, source: MÉ 2006/4
605
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
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© Máté Gábor, source: MÉ 2006/4
© Máté Gábor, source: MÉ 2006/4
606
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
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© Gunther Zsolt - Csillag Katalin, source: MÉ 2006/4
© Gunther Zsolt - Csillag Katalin, source: MÉ 2006/4
Zsolt Hajnal, Residential Complex, Kapás Street No.
26–44, Budapest, District II, 2005
Multi-apartment buildings are prominent works in the oeuvre of Zsolt Hajnal. With this development in
Kapás Street, he had to face the challenges of the longish, narrow site, compromised orientation and the
proper exposure to sunshine on account of the neighbouring houses. As a response, designs contained
masses perpendicular to the streetline, enclosed internal courtyards, and a single-storey wing stringing
on all of them in the direction of the public plaza, much like a chain-house. An important architectural
idea was the metamorphosis of the existing partition walls, which are prominent features of cityscape.
The coherent integrity of the old and new residential buildings united them as an ensemble. The four
taller blocks divides the area into three courtyards wedged between them. On the street side, in the
unbroken low-rise row set back from the two-storey columns, entrances and garages were placed along
with service businesses. All the 81 apartments with a floor area of 30-170 m² are suitably exposed
to sunshine.
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Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 12. évfolyam, 2005., március-április, 36. old.
608
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© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 12. évfolyam, 2005., március-április, 37. old.
© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 12. évfolyam, 2005., március-április, 38. old.
609
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 12. évfolyam, 2005., március-április, 39. old.
© Häider Andrea, source: Alaprajz, 12. évfolyam, 2005., március-április, 39. old.
610
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Hajnal Zsolt, source: Alaprajz, 12. évfolyam, 2005., március-április, 39. old.
© Hajnal Zsolt, source: Alaprajz, 12. évfolyam, 2005., március-április, 39. old.
© Hajnal Zsolt, source: Alaprajz, 12. évfolyam, 2005., március-április, 39. old.
László Vincze, Azúr Apartmant House, Siófok, 2005
The proximity of Lake Balaton and Azúr Hotel must have strongly influenced the architectural
character of this apartment house. Axially organised, this owner-occupied block corresponds to a
simple formula: small apartments are strung along a central corridor removed at a sensitive angle
from the line of the two glazed stairwells. The four-storey volume contains a variety of apartments
in various sizes totalling 66. Neighbouring units were designed as adjoining ones and thus feature a
variable floor plan configuration. With regard to its mass formation and façade design as well, it is a
restrained, yet generous building reflecting openness as a friendly and cheerful house with materials
used ingenuously on the façade. Each apartment features a balcony along the two longitudinal sides,
in front of which there are colourful sunshades stretched with ropes between mobile steel frames,
evoking the image of a sail. The top floor contains larger and more valuable units with their own roof
terraces shaded by generous cantilevered R-C plates.
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© Vincze László, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató
Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Vincze László, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató
Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Vincze László, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató
Kft., Budapest, 2012
612
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Vincze László, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató
Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Vincze László, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató
Kft., Budapest, 2012
613
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Vincze László, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató
Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Vincze László, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató
Kft., Budapest, 2012
Hajnal Zsolt, Apartments in Futó Street, Budapest,
District VIII, 2006
A residential building on the rehabilitated area in Futó Street, this is a novelty piece of contemporary
work with exciting forms. Its characteristic street appearance is defined by the five white vertical bands
cutting into the ground-floor unit, the slightly recessed colourful balconies between them, and the
huge frame uniting it all. The generous treatment of forms permeates the building. Transparent formal
order, basic geometrical solids, white walls and sporadically placed colour accents prevail. The floor
plan configuration is carefully conceived and consistent. Surrounded by the street and the courtyard
wings, the internal courtyard features outside galleries on each level. Accessible via the roofed and
open stairwell, the general residential level contains light, sunlit apartments with bedsitters between
them. On each level there are apartments with one room, two half rooms, and two rooms.
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© Polgár Attila, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
© Polgár Attila, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
615
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Polgár Attila, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
© Polgár Attila, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
© Polgár Attila, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
616
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Polgár Attila, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
© Hajnal Zsolt, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
© Hajnal Zsolt, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
617
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Hajnal Zsolt, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
György Hild, Owner-Occupied 12-Flat Apartment
Block, Virág árok Street No. 17, Budapest, District XII,
2006
Situated on one of the best-located sloping corner sites in Budapest, this owner-occupied block
containing 12 apartments was conceived as an extension of the mansion designed by Béla Málnai
in 1936, which ranks as a unique example of Hungarian Bauhaus. Design work aimed to create a
new composition, while highlighting the masses and proportions of the original house, as well as
transforming it in a characteristic way. Extended with a single-level superstucture, the consistent,
white-rendered period building is surrounded by a corner edifice of brick architecture. Plasterwork
and brickwork both separate and intertwine the volumes of the original and the new building. Tuned
to each other in a refined way, the original original house and the extension are apparently integrated.
With its enlarged dimensions, the house blends in with the mansion buildings of its environment as
a contemporary building. The floor plan configuration of the building is simple and consistent. The
original entrance was preserved, and the general levels are accessible via the generous foyer and
stairwell. On alternating levels, it contains 4 and 2 apartments (on the ground floor and the second
storey, and the first and the third storey, respectively).
© Hild György, source: tervező
618
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
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© Hild György, source: tervező
© Hild György, source: tervező
© Hild György, source: tervező
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© Hild György, source: tervező
© Hild György, source: tervező
620
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© Hild György, source: tervező
© Hild György, source: tervező
621
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© Hild György, source: tervező
Kis Péter - Valkai Csaba, Municipal Apartments, Práter
Street Nos. 30-32, Budapest, District VIII, 2007
Developing the rehabilitated zone in Práter Street, this municipal tenement house is a unique work
of contemporary architecture with individual tones. It deservedly earned international recognition and
was shortlisted for the Mies van der Rohe Prize. The essence of the development concept was to
finish the partition walls, reinterpret the existing volumes by forms of contemporary architecture,
and to design a well-proportioned building responding to the existing faculties of the neighbouring
residential houses. The façade structure successfully incorporates unique tones that are in harmony
with the existing environment, as are the scale and the order of openings. The prominent, dark façade
surface, the rhythm of balconies and windows that seem incidental, and the corridor-bridge connecting
volumes are the most characteristic external features. Internal spatial organisation is defiend by a clear
rational floor plan system. The block contains 48 economical and well-functioning apartments with
one or two rooms on a floor area of 40-62 m2.
© Németh Dániel, source: Alaprajz, 15. évfolyam, 2008., július-augusztus, 32. old.
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© Németh Dániel, source: Alaprajz, 15. évfolyam, 2008., július-augusztus, 32. old.
© Németh Dániel, source: Alaprajz, 15. évfolyam, 2008., július-augusztus, 33. old.
623
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© Németh Dániel, source: Alaprajz, 15. évfolyam, 2008., július-augusztus, 34. old.
© Németh Dániel, source: Alaprajz, 15. évfolyam, 2008., július-augusztus, 34. old.
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625
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Németh Dániel, source: Alaprajz, 15. évfolyam, 2008., július-augusztus, 35. old.
© Kis Péter - Valkai Csaba, source: Alaprajz, 15. évfolyam, 2008., július-augusztus, 35. old.
626
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
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© Kis Péter - Valkai Csaba, source: Alaprajz, 15. évfolyam, 2008., július-augusztus, 35. old.
Brigitta Mayer - László Szentgyögyi, Owner-Occupied
Apartments in Nevegy Street, Budapest, District XI,
2007
The environment of this development in Nevegy Street comprises owner-occupied apartment houses
built in the 1980s as developments in unbroken rows. This building stands out among its neighbours
with its characteristic white cube, which is finely articulated by cut-outs of various sizes. Only one
independent apartment is contained on each level of three storeys. Floor plans are generous designs,
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including recesses embracing terraces and balconies, making the mass playful. Brightly white towards
the street and the drive-way, the apperance of the enclosed façade is defined by the rhythm of the
stone facing and the openings articulating its surface, which sensitively responds its busier and more
tranquil environment.
© Oravecz István, source: Alaprajz, 14. évfolyam, 2007., július-augusztus, 36. old.
© Oravecz István, source: Alaprajz, 14. évfolyam, 2007., július-augusztus, 37, old.
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Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Oravecz István, source: Alaprajz, 14. évfolyam, 2007., július-augusztus, 38. old.
© Oravecz István, source: Alaprajz, 14. évfolyam, 2007., július-augusztus, 38. old.
© Oravecz István, source: Alaprajz, 14. évfolyam, 2007., július-augusztus, 39. old.
629
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© Oravecz István, source: Alaprajz, 14. évfolyam, 2007., július-augusztus, 39. old.
© Mayer Brigitta - Szentgyögyi László, source: Alaprajz, 14. évfolyam, 2007., július-augusztus, 39.
old.
© Mayer Brigitta - Szentgyögyi László, source: Alaprajz, 14. évfolyam, 2007., július-augusztus, 39.
old.
630
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
Péter Reimholz, Corvinus Palace, Szalag Street,
Budapest, District I, 2008
Corvinus Palace is one of the most significant works in Péter Reimholz’s oeuvre realised in the Castle
District. The site allocated for this refined and reserved residential complex is defined by the Castle
District and Viziváros (“Water Town”). It is a significant example of integrating new contemporary
architectural forms within the protected historic environment of the Castle District in Buda. An
exemplary design solution of this development is the connection of Szalag and Donáti Streets. The
scheme enriched the urban structure with the street plaza designed here. Featuring new modern mass
formation and organised as an entity of four units, this residential complex sensitively accommodates
to its environment by leaving the existing urban fabric unaffected. The external form, the brickwork on
the façade, the plasterwork and surfaces clad in stone lend a harmonious appearance to these houses.
© Hajdú József, source: Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet, 2009/6, 3. old.
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© Hajdú József, source: Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet, 2009/6, 3. old.
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© Hajdú József, source: Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet, 2009/6, 3. old.
© Hajdú József, source: Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet, 2009/6, 3. old.
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Contemporary Multi-Apartment
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© Hajdú József, source: Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet, 2009/6, 3. old.
© Hajdú József, source: Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet, 2009/6, 3. old.
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Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Reimholz Péter, source: Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet, 2009/6, 3. old.
© Reimholz Péter, source: Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet, 2009/6, 3. old.
© Reimholz Péter, source: Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet, 2009/6, 3. old.
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Contemporary Multi-Apartment
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© Reimholz Péter, source: Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet, 2009/6, 3. old.
Gábor Zoboki - Nóra Demeter, Dorottya Palace,
Dorottya Street, Budapest, District V, 2008
With its high-quality materials and elaborate details, this elegant building represents lasting values,
while its revived parts reflect contemporary features. The reconstruction plans made by the duo
of architects observed and protected the valuable architectural strengths of the original Classiciststyle bank hall by Pollack and its Neo-Baroque features by Hauszmann. The character of Dorottya
Palace is served by a variety of functions (business, office and residential). The ground floor contains
commercial functions (restaurant, businesses), while the first storey features spacious office units. The
new courtyard wings were conceived in today’s contemporary spirit. By restoring the former system
of four stairwells, partly two- and partly single-level apartments were integrated. The atmosphere of
the apartments featuring versatile configuration along the internal courtyard reflect Le Corbusier’s
influence.
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Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Bujnovszky Tamás, source: Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet, 2009/5, 37. old.
© Bujnovszky Tamás, source: Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet, 2009/5, 37. old.
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Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Bujnovszky Tamás, source: Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet, 2009/5, 37. old.
© Bujnovszky Tamás, source: Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet, 2009/5, 37. old.
© Zoboki - Demeter, source: Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet, 2009/5, 37. old.
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Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Zoboki - Demeter, source: Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet, 2009/5, 37. old.
© Zoboki - Demeter, source: Régi-Új Magyar Építőművészet, 2009/5, 37. old.
Lukács István - Vikár András, Simplon Court
Apartments B, Váli Street, Budapest, District XI, 2009
Facing Váli Street, the building named Simplon Court Apartments was designed by Lukács and Vikár
Architects to contain 28 apartments. Having to respond to challenges (the long and narrow part of
the site with a partition wall touching upon the Allé Building, the northern street front), designers
managed to make the best of the site’s adverse circumstances. Actually, architects conjured more light
and sunshine into the apartments from both the east and west, as well as exciting views facilitated
by the chessboard-like glass boxes projecting from the elevation plane of the compact building. The
forms of this owner-occupied block were largely influenced by the appearance of the surrounding
Modernist tenement houses of the 1930s. (See the the balcony designs and the stone-cladding in a light
palette.) The ground-floor-plus-four-storey residential building contains predominantly small, 47 m2
apartments
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Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Bujnovszky Tamás, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató
Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Bujnovszky Tamás, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató
Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Bujnovszky Tamás, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató
Kft., Budapest, 2012
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Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Bujnovszky Tamás, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató
Kft., Budapest, 2012
641
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Bujnovszky Tamás, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató
Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Bujnovszky Tamás, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató
Kft., Budapest, 2012
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Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
643
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Lukács István, Vikár András, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és
Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
644
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Buildings – Hungarian Projects
645
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Lukács István, Vikár András, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és
Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Lukács István, Vikár András, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és
Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
János Bitó - Gyula Fülöp - Tamás Perényi,
Reconstruction and Extension of an Historic
Residential Building, Nándor Street No. 9, Budapest,
District I, 2009
This building is a fine example of blending a contemporary vocabulary of forms with the Castle District
in Buda. The greatest challenges of design work were the preservation of the historic building, the
screening effects caused by the large partition wall in the neighbourhood, and the potentials of the site’s
vacant segment with a width of approx. 7 metres. This house does not strive to impress us as though
it were an independent vacant development. The new mass adjusts itself to the existing conditions
with the proportions, scales and order of the façade and windows. The external form, the sandy palette
of the brickwork in the façade, communicates with the rendered surfaces of the protected historic
building. The floor plan system of the new residential wing is clear and logical. The ground floor
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Contemporary Multi-Apartment
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contains offices, and the upper storeys feature high-quality residential spaces. Meanwhile, in the old
wing, the original, more than 150-year-old internal spatial correlations were preserved, complemented
with a loft-apartment in the attic.
© cerbenkoc, source: http://epiteszforum.hu/felujitas-bovites-erzekenyen-tapintatosan-a-budaivarban
© cerbenkoc, source: http://epiteszforum.hu/felujitas-bovites-erzekenyen-tapintatosan-a-budaivarban
647
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© cerbenkoc, source: http://epiteszforum.hu/felujitas-bovites-erzekenyen-tapintatosan-a-budaivarban
© cerbenkoc, source: http://epiteszforum.hu/felujitas-bovites-erzekenyen-tapintatosan-a-budaivarban
648
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© cerbenkoc, source: http://epiteszforum.hu/felujitas-bovites-erzekenyen-tapintatosan-a-budaivarban
© cerbenkoc, source: http://epiteszforum.hu/felujitas-bovites-erzekenyen-tapintatosan-a-budaivarban
649
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© cerbenkoc, source: http://epiteszforum.hu/felujitas-bovites-erzekenyen-tapintatosan-a-budaivarban
© Perényi Tamás - Bitó János - Fülöp Gyula, source: http://epiteszforum.hu/felujitas-boviteserzekenyen-tapintatosan-a-budai-varban
650
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Perényi Tamás - Bitó János - Fülöp Gyula, source: http://epiteszforum.hu/felujitas-boviteserzekenyen-tapintatosan-a-budai-varban
© Perényi Tamás - Bitó János - Fülöp Gyula, source: http://epiteszforum.hu/felujitas-boviteserzekenyen-tapintatosan-a-budai-varban
Gábor Turányi - Bence Turányi, Simplon Court,
Bercsényi Steet, Budapest, District XI, 2010
Its language of forms was probably inspired by Modernist tenement houses in the neighbouring area,
built in the 1930s and 1960s. Standing on the corner of Váli and Bercsényi Streets, this residential
building came into the focus of attention, owing to its colourful façade, rounded-off corner designs,
internal courtyard and lateral passages. By setting the southern block on plinths, the internal courtyard
was opened to integrate the mass into the circulation of the city. The high-standard glass façade and a
characertistic palette contributed to the salient external design. Each apartment in the building features
colourful loggias, aluminium finishes, lamellas, terraces and transitional areas, which results in an
ever-changing, dynamic image of the residential building. In line with the floor plan arrangement, the
U-shaped residential building echoes traditional tenement houses with a circular gallery, its façade
front oriented in three directions and volumes surrounding an open central courtyard. The bottom
floor contains businesses. The majority of the dwelling units, with floor areas of 36–170 m2, can
be naturally ventilated throughout thanks to the design including outside galleries. Of the apartment
types contained here, the majority are two-room units with a terrace, bedsitter and elegant penthouse
apartments on the top floor.
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Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Batár Zsolt, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
© Batár Zsolt, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
652
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Batár Zsolt, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
© Batár Zsolt, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
653
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Batár Zsolt, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
© Batár Zsolt, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató Kft.,
Budapest, 2012
© Turányi Gábor - Turányi Bence, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi
és Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
654
Contemporary Multi-Apartment
Buildings – Hungarian Projects
© Turányi Gábor - Turányi Bence, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi
és Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Turányi Gábor - Turányi Bence, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi
és Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
© Turányi Gábor - Turányi Bence, source: Lévai-Kanyó Judit:Többlakásos házak, Terc Kereskedelmi
és Szolgáltató Kft., Budapest, 2012
655
Chapter 7. Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
BKK-2, Sargfabrik, Vienna, Austria, 1996
Completed in 1996, the Sargfabrik residential complex was built on the site of a former coffin factory
by retaining its development structure. It was originally commissioned by a circle of friends, the
would-be residential community, as a form of collective housing including not only apartments, but
communal functions as well. As a result, a semi-closed and semi-open building was constructed with
characteristic architectural forms symbolising communal co-existence and lifestyle, which deservedly
attracted attention with the exciting spatial configuration of the apartments, the slanting planes and the
interior’s shifts in level. Besides the dwellings, the building also contains a restaurant, lecture halls,
a Turkish bath, a swimming pool and a kindergarten, the majority of which are open public spaces.
Based on a co-housing structure, the residential complex offers a variety of amenities such as a car
sharing system and laundromat. Constructed on a limited budget, Sargfabrik includes 3 spare flats and
74 apartments of different types. Contact between the large glass walls of the living rooms and the
internal courtyard is a key issue here, as it boosts the sense of community.
© Paolo Mazzo, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/paolomazzoleni/6085212784/
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Paolo Mazzo, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/paolomazzoleni/6085212784/
© Paolo Mazzo, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/paolomazzoleni/6085212784/
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Paolo Mazzo, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/paolomazzoleni/6085212784/
658
Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Paolo Mazzo, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/paolomazzoleni/6085212784/
659
Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Paolo Mazzo, source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/paolomazzoleni/6085212784/
© Miriam Kittel, source: http://tarsas2010.blog.hu/2010/03/31/sargfabrik_ket_ujabb_cikk
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© BKK-2, source: Housing in Vienna: Innovative, Social and Ecological
© BKK-2, source: Housing in Vienna: Innovative, Social and Ecological
Hentrich - Petschnigg & Partner (HPP), Dwellings for
Young People, Leipzig, Germany, 2000
HPP architects won the competition to design a building containing starter homes for young people
because of the rational, energy-conscious and flexible designs of interiors, proposed in their brief.
The novelty of this development lies in the fact that instead of a continuous façade, it contains six
identical blocks arranged in pairs along the boundaries of the site, while maintaing access between
them directly into the courtyard. As it mimics a row of detached houses, the development appears
more loosened up towards the internal garden, which is a venue of communal life. As a result, the
apartments of the individual units can be open in three directions. There are no trusses inside the 7metre-wide apartments, which permits the free positioning of interior partitions, with the exception
of the wet areas.
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Punctum Hans-Christian Schink, Leipzig, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence
King Publishing, 2006.
© Punctum Hans-Christian Schink, Leipzig, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence
King Publishing, 2006.
662
Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Punctum Hans-Christian Schink, Leipzig, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence
King Publishing, 2006.
© Punctum Hans-Christian Schink, Leipzig, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence
King Publishing, 2006.
663
Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© HPP Hentrich-Petschnigg and Partner, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King
Publishing, 2006.
© HPP Hentrich-Petschnigg and Partner, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King
Publishing, 2006.
© HPP Hentrich-Petschnigg and Partner, source: Hilary French: New Urban Housing, Laurence King
Publishing, 2006.
BKK-3, Miss Sargfabrik, Vienna, Austria, 2000
Inspired by the intense attention that the first Sargfabrik received and the success that the project
generated, Miss Sargfabrik was built on the neighbouring corner site in 2000. Out of rational
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
considerations, the residential community increased the number of existing flats so that the auxiliary
amenities would not overburden the tenants financially. As a result, they added new communal spaces
– a library, a computer room and other shared spaces – next to the dwellings. Both the floor plan and
the structural solutions of Miss Sargfabrik were typically adjusted to meet occupants’ needs. This way,
a large number of high-standard, small-size apartments with rational space utilisation could be built
for tenants, the majority of whom were single individuals or belonged to one-parent families. This
form of collective housing contains primarily 50 m2 studio apartments and 5 larger units with 70 m2
floor space.
© Herta Hurnhaus, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© Herta Hurnhaus, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
665
Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Herta Hurnhaus, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© Herta Hurnhaus, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
666
Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Herta Hurnhaus, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© BKK-3, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts 1990-2010,
Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© BKK-3, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts 1990-2010,
Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
667
Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© BKK-3, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts 1990-2010,
Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
Roos Architekten, Apartment Block, Jona-Kempraten,
Switzerland, 2004
Set at right angles to each other, these two residential buildings of identical cubic structures blend
harmoniously with the hillside vineyard. Each contains two ground-floor garden flats with covered
pergolas and three maisonettes at the top with large roof terraces facing either north-south or eastwest. All ten dwellings have a 180 m2 floor area and a flexible layout that residents can rearrange to
meet their individual requirements. The simple, well-defined horizontal lines of the elevation conceal
a heterogeneous internal structure. The entire face of the building is wrapped in homogeneous redcedar strips as its outer skin. The residential complex is among the pioneering ones that met Swiss
MINERGIE standards (similar to the German passive houses) to reduce energy use and encourage a
reliance upon renewable energy sources.
© roos architekten, source: Detail, 2005.6 Solares Bauen
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© roos architekten, source: Detail, 2005.6 Solares Bauen
© roos architekten, source: Detail, 2005.6 Solares Bauen
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© roos architekten, source: Detail, 2005.6 Solares Bauen
© Roos Architekten, source: Detail, 2005.6 Solares Bauen
© Roos Architekten, source: Detail, 2005.6 Solares Bauen
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Roos Architekten, source: Detail, 2005.6 Solares Bauen
© Roos Architekten, source: Detail, 2005.6 Solares Bauen
Johannes and Hermann Kaufmann, AM Mühlweg
Housing Complex, Unit A, Vienna, Austria, 2006
One of the co-designers of this apartment block, Hermann Kaufmann, has for a long time been engaged
in prefab timber structures, while also studying the traditional and innovative architectural potentials
of wood as a natural building material. Since the modification of its construction code dated 2001,
Vienna has permitted urban multi-storey wooden homes. As a result, the aforementioned apartment
buildings have frames and panellings made of timber and/or wood products, since they create a friendly
environment and a high-standard living space. A venue of private and communal space, the interior
courtyard is surrounded by three volumes of different designs to make up the whole ensemble, totalling
254 apartments. Logically schemed, the four-storey building includes south- and west-facing homes
of various types and dimensions to suit a variety of life situations. The insulated components of the
façade shell made of larchwood are combined with colourful sliding shutters to guarantee a homely
atmosphere. In addition, the ensemble meets the ever-growing demands of both architecture and
efficient energy utilisation (low energy-consumption and reliance upon renewable energy sources).
© ismeretlen, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts 1990-2010,
Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© ismeretlen, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts 1990-2010,
Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© ismeretlen, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts 1990-2010,
Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© ismeretlen, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts 1990-2010,
Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
673
Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Johannes Kaufmann és Hermann Kaufmann, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni:
European Housing Concepts 1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Johannes Kaufmann és Hermann Kaufmann, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni:
European Housing Concepts 1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© Johannes Kaufmann és Hermann Kaufmann, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni:
European Housing Concepts 1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
sps-architekten, Passive Energy Housing Complex
“Samer Mösl", Salzburg, Austria, 2006
This social housing complex contains apartments of various sizes and types. Beneath the central
volume, an underground garage connects with the continuous greenery on the surface, which is
completed with a playground and bicycle stores. All three buildings are accessible separately from
both sides without traffic nuisance. The energy-saving concept worked out for the whole ensemble
enables this development to meet the passive house standards and thus permits economical cohousing maintenance. Oriented in two directions, the dwellings provide solar gain all day long. The
necessary heat is generated by the solar-energy plant on top of the intermediate volume and the central
pellet-heating system. Each apartment in this passive-house estate features a controlled living room
ventillation system with an air-to-air heat exchanger that can be controlled individually.
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Paul Ott, Graz, source: Detail, 2007.6 Energieeffiziente
© Paul Ott, Graz, source: Detail, 2007.6 Energieeffiziente
© Paul Ott, Graz, source: Detail, 2007.6 Energieeffiziente
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© Paul Ott, Graz, source: Detail, 2007.6 Energieeffiziente
© Paul Ott, Graz, source: Detail, 2007.6 Energieeffiziente
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© Paul Ott, Graz, source: Detail, 2007.6 Energieeffiziente
© sps-architekten, source: Detail, 2007.6 Energieeffiziente
© sps-architekten, source: Detail, 2007.6 Energieeffiziente
© sps-architekten, source: Detail, 2007.6 Energieeffiziente
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© sps-architekten, source: Detail, 2007.6 Energieeffiziente
Aldric Beckmann - Françoise N’Thépé, Lot M3B3,
Paris, France, 2007
This residentail block was realised in line with the development plans of Masséna, the 13th district
of Paris. According to the program, this project covered 48 social housing units, business offices,
communal spaces and a 52-unit car-park. The structure of the building is defined and shaped by
projecting building parts, large cutouts and terraces. The outside balconies with hanging corridors
connecting the units that tower in space offer fascinating views of the nearby educational and cultural
area. Made of exposed concrete, the exterior shell of the building is unadorned. Its massive, dark
volume contrasts with the random patchwork of greenery. The building relies on a solar power system,
and the utilization of rainwater has obtained the HQE qualifications, as it meets the French standards
of sustainability.
© Stephan Lucas, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
679
Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Stephan Lucas, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© Stephan Lucas, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
680
Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Stephan Lucas, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© Stephan Lucas, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European Housing Concepts
1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
681
Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Aldric Beckmann, Francoise N'Thépé, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European
Housing Concepts 1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
© Aldric Beckmann, Francoise N'Thépé, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European
Housing Concepts 1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
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© Aldric Beckmann, Francoise N'Thépé, source: Luisella Gelsomino, Ottorio Marinoni: European
Housing Concepts 1990-2010, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 2009
Elenberg Fraser, Huski Apartments, Falls Creek,
Australia, 2008
Interpretable as a blend of residential building and apartment hotel, Huski is in operation all year
long. Throughout the designing process, architects studied the variations in snow flake formations and
combined their complex natural patterns with the architectural appearance of characteristic Australian
high-rise buildings. Built on a corner site, the five-level apartment house contains a café and a spa on
the ground floor, while the general levels comprise 14 dwellings. With the exception of the studios, the
apartments have a kitchen, a terrace and a jacuzzi. Due to their out-of-plane designs, not to mention
the loggias, each dwelling along the faceted façade is advantageously oriented with views of the hill
and the trees. The most challenging issue to face during the design work for this alpine building was
the large expanse of roof, since it had to withstand the substantial snowload. Snow is thus retained on
the horizontal surfaces along the building’s façade, which is blended organically with the landscape.
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© Tony Miller,
architecture/
source:
http://www.archdaily.com/1930/huski-apartments-elenberg-fraser-
© Tony Miller,
architecture/
source:
http://www.archdaily.com/1930/huski-apartments-elenberg-fraser-
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© Tony Miller,
architecture/
source:
http://www.archdaily.com/1930/huski-apartments-elenberg-fraser-
© Tony Miller,
architecture/
source:
http://www.archdaily.com/1930/huski-apartments-elenberg-fraser-
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Tony Miller,
architecture/
source:
http://www.archdaily.com/1930/huski-apartments-elenberg-fraser-
© Tony Miller,
architecture/
source:
http://www.archdaily.com/1930/huski-apartments-elenberg-fraser-
© Tony Miller,
architecture/
source:
http://www.archdaily.com/1930/huski-apartments-elenberg-fraser-
© Elenberg Fraser, source: http://europaconcorsi.com/projects/79668-Huski-Apartments
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Elenberg Fraser, source: http://europaconcorsi.com/projects/79668-Huski-Apartments
Feilden Clegg Bradley Studios, One Brighton
Apartment Complex, Brighton, Great Britain, 2009
Built in a frequented area of Brighton, this is the flagship of One Planet Living. In line with its
initiative and concept, the complex is targeted to meet the criteria of sustainable (actually, zero-carbon)
development concerning aspects of construction and operation, as well as related environmental
and social issues. Accordingly, the house’s ecological footprint and its heating system’s energy
consumption were reduced to near zero, while its infrastructure was designed to encourage residents
to choose public transport, biking and the on-site car-sharing system. The roof-garden and the
duplex terraces opening towards the highway facilitate communication with the environment and
greenery. In addition, the smaller garden plots give tenants the opportunity to grow their own
vegetables. Containing 172 apartments, the ensemble features predominantly single-room dwellings
built especially for young starters and people commuting between London and Brighton.
© Pamela Buxton, source: Detail 2010/2
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Pamela Buxton, source: Detail 2010/2
© Pamela Buxton, source: Detail 2010/2
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Pamela Buxton, source: Detail 2010/2
© Pamela Buxton, source: Detail 2010/2
© Feilden Clegg Bradley Studios, source: Detail 2010/2
© Feilden Clegg Bradley Studios, source: Detail 2010/2
Grab Architekten, Kraftwerk B, Bennau, Switzerland,
2009
This 7-apartment building stands next-door to a church, right in the heart of Bennau, a small alpine
village. When designing the compact, four-storey residential house, architects prioritized aspects of
construction to meet passive house standards, economical realisation and environment awareness
as essential concerns. Rooms are concentrated on the south-western façade, while the wet areas on
situated on the north-east front. Managing to make the most of regulations concerning the design of
the gable roof, designers installed a solar energy plant on this advantageously oriented (south-west
facing) expanse. Energy-wise, the building is not only self-suffieicnt, but produces more energy than
it can actually utilise. In appreciation of its intelligent solutions, the house was awarded the European
Solar Prize in 2009. Then, in 2010, it won the very first Norman Foster Solar Award, too.
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© Grab Architekten, source: Detail 2010/1 Green
© Grab Architekten, source: Detail 2010/1 Green
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Grab Architekten, source: Detail 2010/1 Green
© Grab Architekten, source: Detail 2010/1 Green
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Sustainable and EnergyEfficient Apartment Buildings
© Grab Architekten, source: Detail 2010/1 Green
© Grab Architekten, source: Detail 2010/1 Green
© Grab Architekten, source: Detail 2010/1 Green
© Grab Architekten, source: Detail 2010/1 Green
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Chapter 8. Bibliography
• BITÓ, János: Lakóházak tervezése, B+V Lap- és Könyvkiadó, Budapest, 2004
• BLESA, Juan (szerk.: GIMÉNEZ, Antonio - MONZONÍS Conchi): Collective housing, Editorial
Pencil, Alboraya (Valencia, Spanyolország), 2006
• BLESA, Juan (szerk.: GIMÉNEZ, Antonio - MONZONÍS Conchi): Multi-family housing, Editorial
Pencil, Alboraya (Valencia, Spanyolország), 2008
• DÉRY, Attila – MERÉNYI, Ferenc: A magyar építészet 1867-1967, Urbino Kiadó, Budapest 2000
• FERKAI, András: Buda építészete a két világháború között – művészeti emlékek, MTA
Művészettörténeti Kutató Intézetének Kiadványa, Budapest, 1995
• FERKAI, András (szerk.): Pest építészete a két világháború között, Modern Építészetért
Építészettörténeti és Műemlékvédelmi Kht., Budapest, 2001
• FRENCH, Hilary: New Urban Housing, Laurence King Publishing, 2006
• FRENCH, Hilary: Key Urban Housing of the Twentieth Century, Plans, sections and elevations,
W.W. Norton & Company, London, New York, 2008
• GELSOMINO, Luisella – MARINONI, Ottorino: European Housing Concepts 1990-2010, Editrice
Compositori, Bologna, 2009
• HAJNÓCZI, J. Gyula: Az építészet története Ókor II. – Klasszikus kultúrák, Nemzeti
Tankönyvkiadó, Budapest, 1991
• LÉVAI-KANYÓ, Judit: Többlakásos házak, Terc Kiadó, Budapest, 2012
• PameR, Nóra: Magyar építészet a két világháború között, TERC Kiadó, Budapest, 2001
• PER FERNANDEZ, Aurora – MOZAS, Javier - ARPA, Javier: DBook. Density, Data, Diagrams,
Dwellings, a+t ediciones, Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spanyolország), 2007
• SZENTKIRÁLYI, Zoltán – DÉTSHY, Mihály: Az építészet rövid története, Műszaki Könyvkiadó,
Budapest, 1986, 1994
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